# HD Transits HST/STIS First Transiting Exo-Planet. Exoplanet Discovery Methods. Paper Due Tue, Feb 23. (4) Transits. Transits.

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1 Paper Due Tue, Feb 23 Exoplanet Discovery Methods (1) Direct imaging (2) Astrometry position (3) Radial velocity velocity Seager & Mallen-Ornelas 2003 ApJ 585, "A Unique Solution of Planet and Star Parameters from an Extrasolar Planet Transit Light Curve" Today: (4) Transits Later: (5) Gravitational microlensing (6) Pulsar timing Transits Simplest method: look for drop in stellar flux due to a planet transiting across the stellar disc Venus Transit in 2004 International Space Station and Space Shuttle crossing the disk of the Sun Needs luck - transits only occur if the orbit is almost edge-on 1999 First Transiting Exo-Planet Charbonneau & Brown (2000) STARE 10 cm telescope A Very Big Discovery by a grad student using a Very Small Telescope! HD V=7.6 mag 1.6% winks last 3 hours repeat every 3.5 days HD Transits HST/STIS Brown et al. (2001) P = 3.52 d a = AU m V = 7.8 Δf / f = mag (1.6%) i = 86.6 ± 0.2 r p = 1.35 ± 0.06 r J From radial velocities m sin i = 0.69 m J bloated gas giant HST Data 1%

2 Transit Depth What fraction of the star s disk does the planet cover? "f f # r 2 % ( p ' * = 0.01 r 2 % ( % p & R ' \$ ) & r * ' Jup ) & R \$ R sun ( * ) Find star radius from its spectral type. Observed depth tells us planet s radius. +2 Transit Duration ( i = 90 o ) Consider circular edge-on orbit: circumference = 2" a 2 R " "t P # 2(R \$ + r p ) # R \$ 2% a % a \$ P ' Kepler' s law : a 3 = G M " & ) % 2# ( "t # P R \$ % a = P R & \$ 4% 2 ) ( + % ' GMP 2 * & P ) = 3h ( + ' 4d* 1/ 3 & ( ' R \$ R Sun ) & + ( * ' M \$ 1/ 3 M Sun ) + * 2,1/ 3 Transit Duration ( i < 90 o ) Transit duration reduces to 0 as orbit tips away from edge-on. Transit Duration Shape of lightcurve determines impact parameter, b = a cos i / R * hence inclination. For cos i << 1 this becomes: Transit Probability Random Orbit Orientation d(prob) = d" 2# sin(i)d(i) = = d(cos(i)) 4# 4# 2 Transits occur only in nearly edge-on orbits: a cosi R + R Transit probability is then:! * Random orbit orientation -> probability uniform in cos(i). " Prob cos i < R * + R p % \$ ' = R * + R p # a & a ( R * a Transit surveys find planets in small orbits around large parent stars. p i "i d(prob) d(cos(i)) "1 +1 cos(i)

3 Transit Probability Prob " R * a " \$ R ' \$ # & ) 1AU ' & ) % (% a ( R sun Hot planets more likely to be detected. Prob = 0.5 % at 1 AU, Prob = 0.1 % at 5 AU (Jupiter s orbit) Prob = 10% at 0.05 AU (Hot Jupiters) Thousands of stars must be monitored to discover planets by spotting their transits. (1) Spectral Type gives star mass and radius. (2) Period (+ Kepler s law) gives orbit size. (3) Depth of transit gives planet radius. Models of planets with masses between ~ 0.1 M J and 10 M J, have almost the same radii (i.e. a flat mass-radius relation). -> Giant planets transiting solar-type stars expected to have transits depths of around 1% (4) Impact parameter b = a cos(i)/r *, determined from the shape of the transit, gives a measure of inclination angle. (5) Bottom of light curve is not flat in all wave bands, providing a measure of stellar limb-darkening (6) Since inclination is measured, can measure mass, not just lower limit m p sin(i), from the radial velocity data. Photometry at better than 1% precision is possible (not easy!) from the ground. By 2000, over 20 independent ground-based searches for transiting planets were started. Transit Surveys Wide vs Deep SuperWASP, Tres, XO, HAT, OGLE have detected nearly all transiting planets. Mostly gas giant planets. Transit depth for an Earth-like planet is: " \$ # R Earth R Sun 2 % ' ( 8 )10 *5 & Photometric precision of ~ 10-5 can be achieved from space. May provide first detection of habitable Earth-like planets French satellite Corot - launched NASA s Kepler mission - launched ESA mission PLATO - under review. D ~ 10 cm " ~ 10 o d ~ 300 pc #" ~ 30 arcsec All-sky surveys Small wideangle cameras survey bright nearby stars D ~ 1" 4 m # <1 o d ~ 1" 4 kpc \$# ~ 1 arcsec Galactic plane fields Larger telescopes (narrow fields) survey faint distant stars OGLE III Deep Transit Survey Wide-Angle Transit Surveys Discovery Potential: 1.3m microlens survey telescope Las Campanas, Chile. Mosaic 8-chip CCD camera Galactic Bulge candidates 2002 Carina candidates Spectroscopic follow-up of OGLE-TR-56b confirms it is a planet with m p = 0.9 m J and P = 1.2 days first exoplanet discovered using transits. Assume HD (V=7.6 mag) is brightest. mag all sky Hot Jupiters! 100 x fainter -> 10 x farther -> 1000 x more targets. How long to find them? All sky = o x8 o fields x 2 months / field ~ 100/N years N = number of 8 o x8 o cameras Need ~6 years for N=16

4 Super-WASP: Hot Jupiters Wide-Angle Search for Planets SuperWASP All-Sky Survey 2004 WASP North (La Palma, Canary Is.) 2006 WASP South (South African Astronomical Obs.) Robotic Mount with 8 cameras 11cm F/1.8 lens + E2V CCD 8o x 8o field, 15 arcsec pixels 8 fields observed every 10 mins UK WASP Consortium: Belfast, St.Andrews, Keele, Open, Leicester, Cambridge, IAC, SAAO. PI: Don Pollacco Star number density Nights: x106 images, 26x106 objects 142x109 data points 22 planets WASP-1 and WASP-2 Typically ~ 5000 obs over 120N per season per field WASP-1 and WASP-2 Follow-up photometry 5x more accurate radii. Collier-Cameron et al. (2006) WASP s first 2 Hot Jupiters WASP-1 Transits discovered with SuperWASP ( 11cm cameras ) Doppler wobbles to confirm planetary mass (Geneva team) Charbonneau et al. (2006) WASP-2 Collier-Cameron et al. 2007

5 WASP-3 Transits + Velocities WASP-4 Transits + Velocities WASP-3 LT I SOPHIE velocities WASP-4 EulerCam R CORALIE velocities Mass + Radius Mass + Radius WASP-5 Transits + Velocities WASP 1-15 WASP-5 EulerCam R CORALIE velocities Mass + Radius i Mass-Radius Relations Planet formation Orbit migration Planet atmospheres Low-Mass Stars Astrophysical False Positives Rock Iron Gas Giant Planets Ice Brown dwarfs ~30 WASP planets to date. Expect few x100 by 2012 Grazing stellar binaries Transiting red/brown dwarfs Lightcurves mimic those of transiting planets. Blended stellar binaries Planets

6 Grazing binary 2 equal mass, equal size stars that just barely eclipse eachother. This causes a small dip in brightness which is approximately planet sized. However, the transit is V-shaped. M-dwarf secondary Main sequence primary star, but massive M-dwarf secondary star (rather than planet mass secondary). Light curve is indistinguishable from a planet transit since late M-dwarfs are the same size as gas giant planets (R * ~ 0.1 R sun ~ 1 R J ). Need RV to determine mass of the secondary object Observations taken with the JGT in St Andrews Observations taken with the JGT in St Andrews Star Spots Multiple starspots tend to cause sine-like variations, not dips. Starspots come and go, transiting planets are always there. Makes detection of Earth sized planets more difficult Sources of confusion A stellar binary can have an inclination such that the eclipsing secondary grazes the primary causing photometric dips very similar to those expected from planetary transits. Resolvable with multi-colour observations and spectroscopy Massive M-dwarf secondary, rather than a planet mass secondary Stellar spots initally confusing but not permanent, different shape than a transit Line-of-sight blending with an eclipsing binary blending due to large pixel of survey telescope can be rejected with photometry unresolved blends require RV measurements and show variations with the line-bisector Giants stars showing dips in brightness. Secondary object would not be planet sized. Colors and proper motion of the star can distinguish giants from main sequence stars

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