1 Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Chapter Wrap-Up Observing the Universe Early History of Space Exploration Recent and Future Space Missions NASA/Ames Wendy Stenzel
2 How do humans observe and explore space?
3 What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each of these statements. As you view this presentation, see if you change your mind about any of the statements.
4 Do you agree or disagree? 1. Astronomers put telescopes in space to be closer to the stars. 2. Telescopes can work only using visible light. 3. Humans have walked on the Moon.
5 Do you agree or disagree? 4. Some orthodontic braces were developed using space technology. 5. Humans have landed on Mars. 6. Scientists have detected water on other bodies in the solar system.
6 Observing the Universe How do scientists use the electromagnetic spectrum to study the universe? What types of telescopes and technology are used to explore space?
7 Observing the Universe electromagnetic spectrum refracting telescope reflecting telescope radio telescope
8 Observing the Sky Telescopes enable astronomers to observe many more stars than they could with their eyes alone. telescope from Greek tele, means far ; and Greek skopos, means seeing
9 Observing the Sky (cont.) Astronomers use many kinds of telescopes to study the light energy emitted by stars and other objects in space. Michael Matisse/Getty Images
10 Electromagnetic Waves Stars radiate energy into space. This energy travels as electromagnetic waves. The entire range of radiant energy carried by electromagnetic waves is the electromagnetic spectrum.
11 Most wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum are not visible to the human eye.
12 Electromagnetic Waves (cont.) The type of radiant energy a star emits depends on the star s temperature. Some stars are so far away that it takes billions of years for their radiant energy to reach Earth.
13 Earth-Based Telescopes Optical telescopes gather visible light. Refracting telescopes and reflecting telescopes are the two types of optical telescopes.
14 A telescope that uses a convex lens to concentrate light from a distant object is a refracting telescope.
15 Earth-Based Telescopes (cont.) Which electromagnetic waves do refracting telescopes collect?
16 A telescope that uses a curved mirror to concentrate light from a distant object is a reflecting telescope.
17 Earth-Based Telescopes (cont.) Radio telescopes collect invisible radio waves and some microwaves. They look like TV satellite dishes. Steve Allen/Brand X Pictures
18 Telescopes in space collect energy of all wavelengths, including those absorbed by Earth s atmosphere.
19 Space Telescopes Why do astronomers put some telescopes in space?
20 Space Telescopes (cont.) The first optical space telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope, is a reflecting telescope that orbits Earth. CORBIS
21 Scheduled for launch in 2014, the Webb telescope will help astronomers study the origin of the universe.
22 Reflecting telescopes use mirrors to concentrate light.
23 Earth-based telescopes can collect energy in the visible, radio, and microwave parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Space-based telescopes can collect wavelengths of energy that cannot penetrate Earth s atmosphere.
24 What determines the types of electromagnetic waves that a star emits? A. age of the star B. distance of the star from Earth C. size of the star D. temperature of the star
25 Which of these is NOT an optical telescope? A. radio telescope B. reflecting telescope C. refracting telescope D. the Hubble Space Telescope
26 Which phrase refers to any telescope that uses a curved mirror to concentrate light from a distant object? A. radio telescope B. reflecting telescope C. refracting telescope D. space telescope
27 Do you agree or disagree? 1. Astronomers put telescopes in space to be closer to the stars. 2. Telescopes can work only using visible light.
28 Early History of Space Exploration How are rockets and artificial satellites used? Why do scientists send both crewed and uncrewed missions into space? What are some ways that people use space technology to improve life on Earth?
29 Early History of Space Exploration rocket satellite space probe lunar Project Apollo space shuttle
30 Rockets A rocket is a vehicle designed to propel itself by ejecting exhaust gas from one end. Rocket engines carry oxygen with them and can operate in space where there is very little oxygen.
31 Rockets (cont.) How are rockets used in space exploration?
32 Artificial Satellites Any small object that orbits a larger object is a satellite. satellite from Latin satellitem, means attendant or bodyguard
33 Artificial Satellites (cont.) Rockets place satellites into orbit around Earth or other objects in space. Satellites send information back to Earth. CORBIS
34 Artificial Satellites (cont.) Today, Earth-orbiting satellites are used to transmit television and telephone signals and to monitor weather and climate. An array of satellites called the Global Positioning System (GPS) is used for navigation in cars, boats, airplanes, and even for hiking.
35 Artificial Satellites (cont.) How are Earth-orbiting satellites used?
36 Early Exploration of the Solar System In 1958, the U.S. Congress established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which oversees all U.S. space missions, including space telescopes. In the same year NASA was founded, Explorer 1 was launched. It orbited Earth 58,000 times before burning up in Earth s atmosphere in 1970.
37 Early Exploration of the Solar System (cont.) A space probe is an uncrewed spacecraft sent from Earth to explore objects in space. Digital Vision/Getty Images
38 Early Exploration of the Solar System (cont.) probe Science Use an uncrewed spacecraft Common Use question or examine closely
39 Early Exploration of the Solar System (cont.) Space probes are robots that work automatically or by remote control, taking pictures and gathering data. Probes are cheaper to build than crewed spacecraft, and they can make trips that would be too long or too dangerous for humans.
40 Early Exploration of the Solar System (cont.) Why do scientists send uncrewed missions to space?
41 Early Exploration of the Solar System (cont.) The first lunar probes were sent to the Moon by the United States and the former Soviet Union in The term lunar refers to anything related to the Moon.
42 Human Spaceflight In 1961, the first human an astronaut from the former Soviet Union was launched into Earth s orbit, followed shortly thereafter by the first American astronaut to orbit Earth. In 1961, U.S. President John F. Kennedy challenged the American people to place a person on the Moon by the end of the decade.
43 Human Spaceflight (cont.) Project Apollo was a series of space missions designed to send people to the Moon. In 1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, Apollo 11 astronauts, were the first people to walk on the Moon. NASA
44 Human Spaceflight (cont.) Space shuttles are reusable spacecraft that transport people and materials to and from space. Stocktrek/age fotostock
45 Human Spaceflight (cont.) The International Space Station is an Earth-orbiting research laboratory where astronauts from many countries work and live. Brand X Pictures/PunchStock
46 Space Technology The space program requires materials that can withstand the extreme temperatures and pressures of space. Many of these materials have been applied to everyday life on Earth, including in firefighting gear, athletic clothing, and medical applications, such as orthodontic braces.
47 Space Technology (cont.) What are some ways that space exploration has improved life on Earth?
48 Exhaust from burned fuel accelerates a rocket. Some space probes can land on the surface of a planet or a moon. Technologies developed for the space program have been applied to everyday life on Earth. Stocktrek/age fotostock
49 Which term refers to an uncrewed spacecraft sent from Earth to explore objects in space? A. satellite B. space probe C. space shuttle D. space station
50 Which term refers to a vehicle designed to propel itself by ejecting exhaust gas from one end? A. space probe B. satellite C. rocket D. orbiter
51 The term lunar refers to anything related to which of these? A. space B. rockets C. the Moon D. Earth
52 Do you agree or disagree? 3. Humans have walked on the Moon. 4. Some orthodontic braces were developed using space technology.
53 Recent and Future Space Missions What are goals for future space exploration? What conditions are required for the existence of life on Earth? How can exploring space help scientists learn about Earth?
54 Recent and Future Space Missions extraterrestrial life astrobiology
55 Missions to the Sun and the Moon A major goal for future space travel is to expand human space travel within the solar system.
56 Missions to the Sun and the Moon (cont.) What is a goal of future space exploration?
57 Missions to the Sun and the Moon (cont.) Scientists study data collected by solar probes, like Ulysses, to better understand the Sun s high-energy radiation and charged particles that can harm astronauts and damage spacecraft.
58 Missions to the Sun and the Moon (cont.) NASA and other space agencies also plan to send several probes to the Moon to collect data that will help scientists select the best location for a future lunar outpost.
59 Missions to the Inner Planets Scientists have sent many probes, such as Messenger, to the inner planets to learn how they formed, what geologic forces are active on them, and whether any of them could support life. NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington
60 Missions to the Outer Planets and Beyond Missions to the outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are long and difficult because the planets are so far from Earth. Craig Attebery/NASA
61 Human Space Missions The first destinations for human space travel are the Moon and Mars. The next mission to the Moon is planned for as early as 2020 and is to build a lunar outpost, where people can live and do research in the harsh lunar environment.
62 Human Space Missions (cont.) What is the purpose of the next mission to the Moon?
63 Human Space Missions (cont.) To prepare for a visit to Mars, NASA plans to send additional probes. These probes will explore sites on Mars that might have resources that can support life.
64 The Search for Life No one knows if life exists beyond Earth, but people have thought about the possibility for a long time. Life that originates outside Earth is extraterrestrial life.
65 The Search for Life (cont.) Astrobiology is the study of life in the universe, including life on Earth and the possibility of extraterrestrial life. astrobiology from Greek astron, means star ; Greek bios, means life ; and Greek logia, means study
66 The Search for Life (cont.) Scientists assume that if life exists elsewhere in space it would have the same requirements as life on Earth: liquid water, organic molecules, and some source of energy. What is required for life on Earth?
67 The dark patches in the inset photo of Jupiter s moon Europa might represent areas where water from an underground ocean has seeped to the surface. NASA/JPL/University of Arizona/University of Colorado Galileo Project/JPL/NASA
68 Understanding Earth by Exploring Space Information gathered in space helps scientists understand how the Sun and other bodies in the solar system influence Earth, how Earth formed, and how Earth supports life.
69 Understanding Earth by Exploring Space (cont.) To search for Earthlike planets, NASA launched the Kepler telescope, which focuses on a single area of sky containing about 100,000 stars. NASA/Ames Wendy Stenzel
70 Satellites that orbit Earth provide largescale images of Earth s surface that help scientists understand Earth s climate and weather. NASA
71 Understanding Earth by Exploring Space (cont.) How can exploring space help scientists learn about Earth?
72 The New Horizons spacecraft will reach Pluto in Scientists think there might be liquid water on or below the surfaces of Mars and some moons. NASA/JPL/University of Arizona/University of Colorado
73 Earth-orbiting satellites help scientists understand weather and climate patterns on Earth. NASA
74 Which of these planets is referred to by scientists as an inner planet? A. Jupiter B. Pluto C. Saturn D. Venus
75 What term refers to life that originates outside Earth? A. astrobiological B. extraterrestrial C. lunar D. solar
76 Which of these are the next planned destinations for human space travel? A. Mars and the Sun B. the Moon and Mars C. Venus and Jupiter D. each of the outer planets
77 Do you agree or disagree? 5. Humans have landed on Mars. 6. Scientists have detected water on other bodies in the solar system.
78 Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
79 Humans develop knowledge and understanding of the universe with Earthbased and spacebased telescopes. They explore the solar system with crewed and uncrewed space probes.
80 Lesson 1: Observing the Universe Scientists use different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum to study stars and other objects in space. Telescopes in space can collect radiant energy that cannot penetrate Earth s atmosphere. By studying objects in space, astronomers learn what the universe and the solar system were like many millions of years ago.
81 Lesson 2: Early History of Space Exploration Rockets are used to overcome the force of Earth s gravity when sending satellites, space probes, and other spacecraft into space. Uncrewed missions can make trips that are too long or too dangerous for humans. Materials and technologies from the space program have been applied to everyday life. NASA/Ames Wendy Stenzel
82 Lesson 3: Recent and Future Space Missions A goal of the space program is to expand human space travel within the solar system and develop lunar and Martian outposts. All known life-forms need liquid water, energy, and organic molecules. Information gathered in space helps scientists understand how the Sun influences Earth, how Earth formed, whether life exists outside of Earth, and how weather and climate affect Earth. NASA
83 Which of these refers to a telescope that uses a convex lens to concentrate light from a distant object? A. radio telescope B. reflecting telescope C. refracting telescope D. space telescope
84 Which of the following is any small object that orbits a larger object? A. planet B. satellite C. space probe D. space shuttle
85 Which is NOT a reason to use probes to explore space? A. Some trips are too dangerous for humans. B. Some trips are too long for humans. C. Space probes are sometimes cheaper. D. There are not enough trained astronauts.
86 Which orbits Earth and provides large-scale images of Earth s surface that help scientists understand Earth s climate and weather? A. the Kepler telescope B. the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter C. satellites D. Ulysses
87 Which of the following is an outer planet? A. Mars B. Mercury C. Neptune D. Venus
88 Which type of telescope collects radio waves and some microwaves using an antenna that looks like a TV satellite dish? A. radio telescope B. reflecting telescope C. refracting telescope D. X-ray telescope
89 The Hubble Space Telescope is an example of which of these? A. radio telescope B. ranging telescope C. reflecting telescope D. refracting telescope
90 Which term refers to a reusable spacecraft that transports people and materials to and from space? A. rocket B. satellite C. space probe D. space shuttle
91 Which of the following collects data that will help scientists select the best location for a future lunar outpost? A. Ulysses B. the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter C. the Kepler telescope D. the International Space Station
92 Which of the following was launched by NASA to search for Earthlike planets? A. the Apollo program B. the Kepler telescope C. the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter D. Ulysses
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