Chapter 10 Worlds of Gas and Liquid- The Giant Planets. 21st CENTURY ASTRONOMY Fifth EDITION Kay Palen Blumenthal

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 10 Worlds of Gas and Liquid- The Giant Planets. 21st CENTURY ASTRONOMY Fifth EDITION Kay Palen Blumenthal"

Transcription

1 Chapter 10 Worlds of Gas and Liquid- The Giant Planets 21st CENTURY ASTRONOMY Fifth EDITION Kay Palen Blumenthal

2 What is a storm on Saturn like?

3 The Giant Planets, Part 1 Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are the giant planets. Jupiter and Saturn: mainly hydrogen and helium. 5.2 AU from Sun, and 9.6 AU from Sun. Called gas giants.

4 The Giant Planets, Part 2 Uranus and Neptune: smaller, have much more water, water ice, and other ices AU from Sun, and 30.0 AU from Sun. Called ice giants. Orbital Jupiter 5.20 Saturn 9.6 Uranus 19.2 Neptune 30 semimajor axis (AU) Orbital period (Earth years) Orbital velocity (km/s) Mass (M Earth = 1) Equatorial radius (km) Equatorial radius (R Earth = 1) ,490 60,270 25,560 24, Oblateness Density (water = 1) period (hours) Tilt (degrees) 3.13 Surface gravity to Earth's) Escape speed (km/s)

5 Discovery of the Giant Planets, Part 1 Jupiter and Saturn were known to the ancients. Uranus was too faint to be discerned from the other stars. Discovered in 1781 by Herschel by accident (at first thought it was a comet).

6 Discovery of the Giant Planets, Part 2 Neptune was found because Uranus was straying from its predicted orbit. Gravity of Neptune was tugging on Uranus. Found in 1846 by Galle after being mathematically predicted by Le Verrier and Adams.

7 of the Giant Planets Called giant planets because of their mass from 14.5 Earth masses (Uranus) to 318 (Jupiter) and also, their physical size. No solid surfaces: We just see the cloud layers in the atmospheres.

8 Measuring the Giants Planetary diameters are found by observing how long it takes for a planet to pass over a star: stellar occultation. Planetary masses are found by observing the motions of a planet s moons and effects of gravity.

9 More Giant Part 1 We see atmospheres (some very cloudy, some not), not surfaces. They are less dense than the terrestrial planets; in fact, Saturn would float in a large enough tub of water. Jupiter s chemistry is like the Sun: mostly hydrogen and helium. Saturn has some more heavy elements, but is like Jupiter; Uranus and Neptune have much more heavy elements.

10 More Giant Part 2 All giants have rapid rotation and therefore different amounts of oblateness. They also have different obliquities. Jupiter: 3. Uranus: 98, which results in extreme seasons.

11 Cloud Pa_erns Jupiter Strong dark and light bands. A long-lasting giant storm (Great Red Spot). Many smaller storms. Colors indicate complex chemistry.

12 Cloud Pa_erns Saturn Saturn has a similar band structure to Jupiter, but less pronounced. It has violent storms and a feature similar to Earth s jet stream.

13 Cloud Pa_erns Uranus & Neptune Infrared observations let us see details of structure on Uranus. Weak banding on both Uranus and Neptune. Small, scattered bright or dark clouds. Transient large storms (Great Dark Spot on Neptune).

14 Under the Cloud Tops Jupiter & Saturn The gas giants have similar cloud layers. Temperature, pressure increase downward. Different heights of cloud layers. Clouds on Jupiter: Ammonia (NH 3 ) at T = 133 K; Ammonium hydrosulfide (NH 4 SH) at T = 193 K.

15 Under the Cloud Tops Uranus & Neptune Unlike Jupiter and Saturn, the highest clouds on Uranus and Neptune are methane ice. Bluish because of scattering by methane. Clouds on Jupiter and Saturn are colored by impurities.

16 Winds & Storms, Part 1 Rapid planetary rotation results in strong Coriolis forces. This causes storm rotation. Most extreme equatorial winds are in Saturn s and Neptune s atmospheres, with maximum speeds up to 2,000 km/hr.

17 Winds & Storms, Part 2 Alternating east-west winds make banded clouds on Jupiter. Circulation pattern differs from planet to planet in ways not understood.

18 Internal Heat All but Uranus have significant internal heat. Heat flows from the hot interior outward. Heat has a big effect on global circulation patterns.

19 Models of the Interior, Part 1 Jupiter/Saturn: At depths of a few 1,000 km, gases are compressed so much they liquefy. At higher pressure and temperature, this liquid hydrogen can act like a metal. Cores are a liquid mixture of water, rock, and metals.

20 Models of the Interior, Part 2 Uranus and Neptune are smaller and have less pressure than the gas giants. They have more water and ices (ammonia, methane). Deep oceans containing dissolved gases and salts are present.

21 Fields Magnetic fields are generated by the motion of the electrically conducting liquids. Like a bar magnet. Their orientation is at an angle to the rotation axis.

22 Magnetospheres Magnetospheres are huge (Jupiter s is 6 AU). They interact with the solar wind. Auroras ( northern lights on Earth). Produce strong radio waves/synchrotron radiation.

23 Effects of Fields Strong magnetospheres concentrate charged particles in radiation belts, including the plasma torus created by particles from Jupiter s moon Io. Powerful flux tubes create bright auroras.

24 Origins Jupiter and Saturn formed from the protoplanetary accretion disk while hydrogen and helium were still present. Solar wind later blew out these gases. Uranus and Neptune formed later, by the merger of icy smaller bodies. All four possess a dense liquid core containing rocky materials. Many details are still not understood.

25 Planetary Hot Jupiters are seen orbiting close to their stars in extrasolar planetary systems. Computer simulations show that the giant planets may not have formed where they exist now, but rather could have migrated to their positions due to gravitational influences.

26 PROCESS OF SCIENCE Theories make predictions that serve as opportunities to falsify them or strengthen confidence in the theory. These predictions are essential to scientific progress.

27 Check Your Understanding 10.1 Uranus and Neptune are different from Jupiter and Saturn in that: a) Uranus and Neptune have a higher percentage of ices in their interiors; b) Uranus and Neptune have more hydrogen; c) Uranus and Neptune have no magnetic field; d) Uranus and Neptune are closer to the Sun.

28 Check Your Understanding 10.2 Why is Jupiter reddish in color? a) because it is very hot; b) because of the composition of its atmosphere; c) because it is moving very quickly; d) because it is rusty, like Mars.

29 Check Your Understanding 10.3 The interiors of the giant planets are heated by gravitational contraction. We know this because: a) the cores are very hot; b) the giant planets radiate more energy than they receive from the Sun; c) the giant planets have strong magnetic fields; d) the giant planets are mostly atmosphere.

30 Check Your Understanding 10.4 The radiation belts around Jupiter are much stronger than those found around Earth because: a) Jupiter has larger storms than Earth; b) Jupiter is colder than Earth; c) Jupiter rotates faster than Earth; d) Jupiter has a stronger magnetic field than Earth.

31 Check Your Understanding 10.5 How does our Solar System differ from the other detected solar systems?

32 Working it Out 10.1 Measuring Wind Speeds Wind speeds on gas giants can be measured by observing the movement of clouds above an assumed surface. Using the circumference of the planet, you can find how much a spot travels in a given time.

33 Working it Out 10.2 Internal Thermal Energy Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune radiate away more energy than they get from the Sun. A small increase in internal temperature leads to a large increase in emitted energy. Something has to be increasing the temperature. It is believed that the planets are still shrinking, with gravitational energy being converted into heat during that process. For Jupiter:

34 This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint presentation for Chapter 10 For more digital resources, please visit the student Site for 21 st Century Astronomy at digital. 21 st CENTURY ASTRONOMY Fifth EDITION Kay Palen Blumenthal

12. Jovian Planet Systems Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison Wesley

12. Jovian Planet Systems Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison Wesley 12. Jovian Planet Systems Jovian Planet Properties Compared to the terrestrial planets, the Jovians: are much larger & more massive 2. are composed mostly of Hydrogen, Helium, & Hydrogen compounds 3. have

More information

Uranus & Neptune: The Ice Giants. Discovery of Uranus. Bode s Law. Discovery of Neptune

Uranus & Neptune: The Ice Giants. Discovery of Uranus. Bode s Law. Discovery of Neptune Uranus & Neptune: The Ice Giants Discovery of Uranus Discovery of Uranus & Neptune Properties Density & Composition Internal Heat Source Magnetic fields Rings Uranus Rotational Axis by William Herschel

More information

Today. Jovian planets

Today. Jovian planets Today Jovian planets Global Wind Patterns Heat transport Global winds blow in distinctive patterns: Equatorial: E to W Mid-latitudes: W to E High latitudes: E to W 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Circulation

More information

Astro 101 Lecture 12 The Jovian Planets

Astro 101 Lecture 12 The Jovian Planets Astro 101 Lecture 12 The Jovian Planets 2-28-2018 Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune ASTR-101 Section 004 Bulk Properties of Terrestrial and Jovian Planets All Jovian planets have strong magnetic fields

More information

Lecture 11 The Structure and Atmospheres of the Outer Planets October 9, 2017

Lecture 11 The Structure and Atmospheres of the Outer Planets October 9, 2017 Lecture 11 The Structure and Atmospheres of the Outer Planets October 9, 2017 1 2 Jovian Planets 3 Jovian Planets -- Basic Information Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Distance 5.2 AU 9.5 AU 19 AU 30 AU Spin

More information

Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems

Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems 11.1 A Different Kind of Planet Our goals for learning: Are jovian planets all alike? What are jovian planets like on the inside? What is the weather like on jovian planets?

More information

Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems. Jovian Planet Composition. Are jovian planets all alike? Density Differences. Density Differences

Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems. Jovian Planet Composition. Are jovian planets all alike? Density Differences. Density Differences Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems 11.1 A Different Kind of Planet Our goals for learning:! Are jovian planets all alike?! What are jovian planets like on the inside?! What is the weather like on jovian

More information

Chapter 11 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Jovian Planet Systems Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 11 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Jovian Planet Systems Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Jovian Planet Systems Jovian Planet Systems 11.1 A Different Kind of Planet Our goals for learning: Are jovian planets all alike? What are jovian

More information

Jupiter and Saturn: Lords of the Planets

Jupiter and Saturn: Lords of the Planets 11/5/14 Jupiter and Saturn: Lords of the Planets Guiding Questions 1. Why is the best month to see Jupiter different from one year to the next? 2. Why are there important differences between the atmospheres

More information

The Jovian Planets (Gas Giants)

The Jovian Planets (Gas Giants) The Jovian Planets (Gas Giants) Discoveries and known to ancient astronomers. discovered in 1781 by Sir William Herschel (England). discovered in 1845 by Johann Galle (Germany). Predicted to exist by John

More information

Earth, Uranus, Neptune & Pluto. 14a. Uranus & Neptune. The Discovery of Uranus. Uranus Data: Numbers. Uranus Data (Table 14-1)

Earth, Uranus, Neptune & Pluto. 14a. Uranus & Neptune. The Discovery of Uranus. Uranus Data: Numbers. Uranus Data (Table 14-1) 14a. Uranus & Neptune The discovery of Uranus & Neptune Uranus is oddly tilted & nearly featureless Neptune is cold & blue Uranus & Neptune are like yet dislike Jupiter The magnetic fields of Uranus &

More information

Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems. Comparing the Jovian Planets. Jovian Planet Composition 4/10/16. Spacecraft Missions

Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems. Comparing the Jovian Planets. Jovian Planet Composition 4/10/16. Spacecraft Missions Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems Jovian Planet Interiors and Atmospheres How are jovian planets alike? What are jovian planets like on the inside? What is the weather like on jovian planets? Do jovian

More information

Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems. Jovian Planet Composition. Are jovian planets all alike? Density Differences. Density Differences

Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems. Jovian Planet Composition. Are jovian planets all alike? Density Differences. Density Differences Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems 11.1 A Different Kind of Planet Our goals for learning Are jovian planets all alike? What are jovian planets like on the inside? What is the weather like on jovian planets?

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 11. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 11. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 11 Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 11 Jupiter Units of Chapter 11 11.1 Orbital and Physical Properties 11.2 Jupiter s Atmosphere Discovery 11.1 A Cometary

More information

Solar System Physics I

Solar System Physics I Department of Physics and Astronomy Astronomy 1X Session 2006-07 Solar System Physics I Dr Martin Hendry 6 lectures, beginning Autumn 2006 Lectures 4-6: Key Features of the Jovian and Terrestrial Planets

More information

Starting from closest to the Sun, name the orbiting planets in order.

Starting from closest to the Sun, name the orbiting planets in order. Chapter 9 Section 1: Our Solar System Solar System: The solar system includes the sun, planets and many smaller structures. A planet and its moon(s) make up smaller systems in the solar system. Scientist

More information

Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems

Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems 11.1 A Different Kind of Planet Our goals for learning: Are jovian planets all alike? What are jovian planets like on the inside? What is the weather like on jovian planets?

More information

Earth Science 11 Learning Guide Unit Complete the following table with information about the sun:

Earth Science 11 Learning Guide Unit Complete the following table with information about the sun: Earth Science 11 Learning Guide Unit 2 Name: 2-1 The sun 1. Complete the following table with information about the sun: a. Mass compare to the Earth: b. Temperature of the gases: c. The light and heat

More information

A Look at Our Solar System: The Sun, the planets and more. by Firdevs Duru

A Look at Our Solar System: The Sun, the planets and more. by Firdevs Duru A Look at Our Solar System: The Sun, the planets and more by Firdevs Duru Week 1 An overview of our place in the universe An overview of our solar system History of the astronomy Physics of motion of the

More information

Which of the following statements best describes the general pattern of composition among the four jovian

Which of the following statements best describes the general pattern of composition among the four jovian Part A Which of the following statements best describes the general pattern of composition among the four jovian planets? Hint A.1 Major categories of ingredients in planetary composition The following

More information

Lecture 23: Jupiter. Solar System. Jupiter s Orbit. The semi-major axis of Jupiter s orbit is a = 5.2 AU

Lecture 23: Jupiter. Solar System. Jupiter s Orbit. The semi-major axis of Jupiter s orbit is a = 5.2 AU Lecture 23: Jupiter Solar System Jupiter s Orbit The semi-major axis of Jupiter s orbit is a = 5.2 AU Jupiter Sun a Kepler s third law relates the semi-major axis to the orbital period 1 Jupiter s Orbit

More information

Earth s Formation Unit [Astronomy] Student Success Sheets (SSS)

Earth s Formation Unit [Astronomy] Student Success Sheets (SSS) Page1 Earth s Formation Unit [Astronomy] Student Success Sheets (SSS) HS-ESSI-1; HS-ESS1-2; HS-ESS1-3; HS-ESSI-4 NGSS Civic Memorial High School - Earth Science A Concept # What we will be learning Mandatory

More information

10/6/16. Observing the Universe with Gravitational Waves

10/6/16. Observing the Universe with Gravitational Waves Lecture Outline Observing the Universe with Gravitational Waves Thursday, October 13 7:00 PM Bell Museum Auditorium This event is free and open to the public, and will be followed by telescope observing.

More information

ASTR 1050: Survey of Astronomy Fall 2012 PRACTICE Exam #2 Instructor: Michael Brotherton Covers Solar System and Exoplanet Topics

ASTR 1050: Survey of Astronomy Fall 2012 PRACTICE Exam #2 Instructor: Michael Brotherton Covers Solar System and Exoplanet Topics ASTR 1050: Survey of Astronomy Fall 2012 PRACTICE Exam #2 Instructor: Michael Brotherton Covers Solar System and Exoplanet Topics Instructions This exam is closed book and closed notes, although you may

More information

Lecture 24: Saturn. The Solar System. Saturn s Rings. First we focus on solar distance, average density, and mass: (where we have used Earth units)

Lecture 24: Saturn. The Solar System. Saturn s Rings. First we focus on solar distance, average density, and mass: (where we have used Earth units) Lecture 24: Saturn The Solar System First we focus on solar distance, average density, and mass: Planet Distance Density Mass Mercury 0.4 1.0 0.06 Venus 0.7 0.9 0.8 Earth 1.0 1.0 1.0 Mars 1.5 0.7 0.1 (asteroid)

More information

Similarities & Differences to Inner Planets

Similarities & Differences to Inner Planets Similarities & Differences to Inner Planets Jupiter Jupiter: Basic Characteristics Mass = 1.898 10 27 kg (318 x Earth) Radius = 71,492 km (11x Earth) Albedo (reflectivity) = 0.34 (Earth = 0.39) Average

More information

Chapter 11 Review Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Jovian Planet Systems Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 11 Review Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Jovian Planet Systems Pearson Education, Inc. Review Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Jovian Planet Systems If Jupiter was the size of a basketball, Earth would be the size of a(n) a) bacterium. b) grain of rice. c) marble. d) orange.

More information

Unit 3 Lesson 5 The Gas Giant Planets. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 3 Lesson 5 The Gas Giant Planets. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Florida Benchmarks SC.8.E.5.3 Distinguish the hierarchical relationships between planets and other astronomical bodies relative to solar system, galaxy, and universe, including distance, size, and composition.

More information

Jupiter and its Moons

Jupiter and its Moons Jupiter and its Moons Summary 1. At an average distance of over 5 AU, Jupiter takes nearly 12 years to orbit the Sun 2. Jupiter is by far the largest and most massive planet in the solar system being over

More information

Jupiter: Giant of the Solar System

Jupiter: Giant of the Solar System Jupiter: Giant of the Solar System Jupiter s Red spot : A huge storm that has raged for over 300 years that is ~2x size of the Earth. Gas Giant is really a Liquid Giant! Pictures over ~7 years from Hubble

More information

Jovian Planet Systems

Jovian Planet Systems Jovian Planet Systems Reading: Chapter 14.1-14.5 Jovian Planet Systems Voyager 1 and 2 explored the outer planets in the 1970s and 1980s. The Galileo spacecraft circled Jupiter dozens of times in the late

More information

3. Titan is a moon that orbits A) Jupiter B) Mars C) Saturn D) Neptune E) Uranus

3. Titan is a moon that orbits A) Jupiter B) Mars C) Saturn D) Neptune E) Uranus Fall 2013 Astronomy - Test 2 Test form A Name Do not forget to write your name and fill in the bubbles with your student number, and fill in test form A on the answer sheet. Write your name above as well.

More information

The Solar System. Name Test Date Hour

The Solar System. Name Test Date Hour Name Test Date Hour Astronomy#3 - Notebook The Solar System LEARNING TARGETS I can describe the objects that make up our solar system. I can identify the inner and outer planets. I can explain the difference

More information

2. Which of the following planets has exactly two moons? A) Venus B) Mercury C) Uranus D) Mars E) Neptune

2. Which of the following planets has exactly two moons? A) Venus B) Mercury C) Uranus D) Mars E) Neptune Summer 2015 Astronomy - Test 2 Test form A Name Do not forget to write your name and fill in the bubbles with your student number, and fill in test form A on the answer sheet. Write your name above as

More information

Lecture #27: Saturn. The Main Point. The Jovian Planets. Basic Properties of Saturn. Saturn:

Lecture #27: Saturn. The Main Point. The Jovian Planets. Basic Properties of Saturn. Saturn: Lecture #27: Saturn Saturn: General properties. Atmosphere. Interior. Origin and evolution. Reading: Chapters 7.1 (Saturn) and 11.1. The Main Point Saturn is a large Jovian-class planet with a composition

More information

The Jovian Planets. The Jovian planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune

The Jovian Planets. The Jovian planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune The Jovian planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune Their masses are large compared with terrestrial planets, from 15 to 320 times the Earth s mass They are gaseous Low density All of them have rings

More information

Unit 6 Lesson 4 What Are the Planets in Our Solar System? Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 6 Lesson 4 What Are the Planets in Our Solar System? Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 6 Lesson 4 What Are the Planets in Our Solar System? What other objects are near Earth in this part of space? Earth and millions of other objects make up our solar system. In Our Corner of Space A

More information

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 4 Review

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 4 Review Astronomy 1140 Quiz 4 Review Anil Pradhan November 16, 2017 I Jupiter 1. How do Jupiter s mass, size, day and year compare to Earth s? Mass: 318 Earth masses (or about 1/1000th the mass of the Sun). Radius:

More information

Saturn. Slightly smaller 1/3 the mass density 700 kg/m 3. Interior - light elements, lack of rocky materials. Voyager 2, NASA

Saturn. Slightly smaller 1/3 the mass density 700 kg/m 3. Interior - light elements, lack of rocky materials. Voyager 2, NASA Saturn Slightly smaller 1/3 the mass density 700 kg/m 3 Interior - light elements, lack of rocky materials Voyager 2, NASA 1 Saturn - Atmosphere belts - driven by rapid rotation period - 10 hrs 14 min

More information

LEARNING ABOUT THE OUTER PLANETS. NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Io Above Jupiter s Clouds on New Year's Day, Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

LEARNING ABOUT THE OUTER PLANETS. NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Io Above Jupiter s Clouds on New Year's Day, Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona LEARNING ABOUT THE OUTER PLANETS Can see basic features through Earth-based telescopes. Hubble Space Telescope especially useful because of sharp imaging. Distances from Kepler s 3 rd law, diameters from

More information

The Gas Giants Astronomy Lesson 13

The Gas Giants Astronomy Lesson 13 The Gas Giants Astronomy Lesson 13 The four outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, are much larger and more massive than Earth, and they do not have solid surfaces. Because these planets

More information

The Solar System LEARNING TARGETS. Scientific Language. Name Test Date Hour

The Solar System LEARNING TARGETS. Scientific Language. Name Test Date Hour Name Test Date Hour Astronomy#3 - Notebook The Solar System LEARNING TARGETS I can describe the objects that make up our solar system. I can identify the inner and outer planets. I can explain the difference

More information

Jupiter and Saturn. Guiding Questions. Long orbital periods of Jupiter and Saturn cause favorable viewing times to shift

Jupiter and Saturn. Guiding Questions. Long orbital periods of Jupiter and Saturn cause favorable viewing times to shift Jupiter and Saturn 1 2 Guiding Questions 1. Why is the best month to see Jupiter different from one year to the next? 2. Why are there important differences between the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn?

More information

The Jovian Planets. Why do we expect planets like this in the outer reaches of the solar system?(lc)

The Jovian Planets. Why do we expect planets like this in the outer reaches of the solar system?(lc) The Jovian Planets Beyond Mars and the Asteroid belt are the Jovian or Gas Giant Planets that are totally different than the terrestrial planets: They are composed almost entirely of gas They do not have

More information

The Big Bang Theory (page 854)

The Big Bang Theory (page 854) Name Class Date Space Homework Packet Homework #1 Hubble s Law (pages 852 853) 1. How can astronomers use the Doppler effect? 2. The shift in the light of a galaxy toward the red wavelengths is called

More information

Directed Reading B. Section: The Outer Planets

Directed Reading B. Section: The Outer Planets Skills Worksheet Directed Reading B Section: The Outer Planets 1. What is one way that gas giants differ from the terrestrial planets? a. They are much smaller. b. They are rocky and icy. c. They are made

More information

Uranus and Neptune. Uranus and Neptune Properties. Discovery of Uranus

Uranus and Neptune. Uranus and Neptune Properties. Discovery of Uranus Uranus and Neptune Uranus and Neptune are much smaller than Jupiter and Saturn, but still giants compared to Earth Both are worlds we know relatively little about Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to visit

More information

Chapter 23: Touring Our Solar System

Chapter 23: Touring Our Solar System Chapter 23: Touring Our Solar System The Sun The is the center of our solar system. The Sun makes up of all the mass of our solar system. The Sun s force holds the planets in their orbits around the Sun.

More information

SOLAR SYSTEM NOTES. Surface of the Sun appears granulated: 10/2/2015 ENERGY TRANSFERS RADIATION FROM THE SUN

SOLAR SYSTEM NOTES. Surface of the Sun appears granulated: 10/2/2015 ENERGY TRANSFERS RADIATION FROM THE SUN SOLAR SYSTEM NOTES 10.7.15 ENERGY TRANSFERS Radiation - a process in which energy travels through vacuum (without a medium) Conduction a process in which energy travels through a medium Convection - The

More information

Inner and Outer Planets

Inner and Outer Planets Inner and Outer Planets SPI 0607.6.2 Explain how the relative distance of objects from the earth affects how they appear. Inner Planets Terrestrial planets are those that are closest to the Sun. Terrestrial

More information

see disks around new stars in Orion nebula where planets are probably being formed 3

see disks around new stars in Orion nebula where planets are probably being formed 3 Planet Formation contracting cloud forms stars swirling disk of material around forming star (H, He, C, O, heavier elements, molecules, dust ) form planets New born star heats up material, blows away solar

More information

12a. Jupiter. Jupiter Data (Table 12-1) Jupiter Data: Numbers

12a. Jupiter. Jupiter Data (Table 12-1) Jupiter Data: Numbers 12a. Jupiter Jupiter & Saturn data Jupiter & Saturn seen from the Earth Jupiter & Saturn rotation & structure Jupiter & Saturn clouds Jupiter & Saturn atmospheric motions Jupiter & Saturn rocky cores Jupiter

More information

Jupiter. Jupiter is the third-brightest object in the night sky (after the Moon and Venus). Exploration by Spacecrafts

Jupiter. Jupiter is the third-brightest object in the night sky (after the Moon and Venus). Exploration by Spacecrafts Jupiter Orbit, Rotation Physical Properties Atmosphere, surface Interior Magnetosphere Moons (Voyager 1) Jupiter is the third-brightest object in the night sky (after the Moon and Venus). Exploration by

More information

UNIT 3: Chapter 8: The Solar System (pages )

UNIT 3: Chapter 8: The Solar System (pages ) CORNELL NOTES Directions: You must create a minimum of 5 questions in this column per page (average). Use these to study your notes and prepare for tests and quizzes. Notes will be turned in to your teacher

More information

Solar System revised.notebook October 12, 2016 Solar Nebula Theory

Solar System revised.notebook October 12, 2016 Solar Nebula Theory Solar System revised.notebook The Solar System Solar Nebula Theory Solar Nebula was a rotating disk of dust and gas w/ a dense center dense center eventually becomes the sun start to condense b/c of gravity

More information

Chapter 3 The Solar System

Chapter 3 The Solar System Name: Date: Period: Chapter 3 The Solar System Section 1 Observing the Solar System (pp. 72-77) Key Concepts What are the geocentric and heliocentric systems? How did Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler contribute

More information

Investigating Astronomy Timothy F. Slater, Roger A. Freeman Chapter 7 Observing the Dynamic Giant Planets

Investigating Astronomy Timothy F. Slater, Roger A. Freeman Chapter 7 Observing the Dynamic Giant Planets Investigating Astronomy Timothy F. Slater, Roger A. Freeman Chapter 7 Observing the Dynamic Giant Planets Observing Jupiter and Saturn The disk of Jupiter at opposition appears about two times larger than

More information

Astronomy Unit Notes Name:

Astronomy Unit Notes Name: Astronomy Unit Notes Name: (DO NOT LOSE!) To help with the planets order 1 My = M 2 V = Venus 3 Eager = E 4 M = Mars 5 Just = J 6 Served = Saturn 7 Us = Uranus 8 N = N 1 Orbit: The path (usually elliptical)

More information

Earth, Uranus, Neptune & Pluto

Earth, Uranus, Neptune & Pluto 14a. Uranus, Neptune & Pluto The discovery of Uranus & Neptune Uranus is oddly tilted & nearly featureless Neptune is cold & blue Uranus & Neptune are like yet dislike Jupiter The magnetic fields of Uranus

More information

Radiation - a process in which energy travels through vacuum (without a medium) Conduction a process in which energy travels through a medium

Radiation - a process in which energy travels through vacuum (without a medium) Conduction a process in which energy travels through a medium SOLAR SYSTEM NOTES ENERGY TRANSFERS Radiation - a process in which energy travels through vacuum (without a medium) Conduction a process in which energy travels through a medium Convection - The transfer

More information

The Fathers of the Gods: Jupiter and Saturn

The Fathers of the Gods: Jupiter and Saturn The Fathers of the Gods: Jupiter and Saturn Learning Objectives! Order all the planets by size and distance from the Sun! How are clouds on Jupiter (and Saturn) different to the Earth? What 2 factors drive

More information

OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. James Martin. Facebook.com/groups/AstroLSSC Twitter.com/AstroLSSC

OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. James Martin. Facebook.com/groups/AstroLSSC Twitter.com/AstroLSSC OUR SOLAR SYSTEM James Martin Facebook.com/groups/AstroLSSC Twitter.com/AstroLSSC It s time for the human race to enter the solar system. -Dan Quayle Structure of the Solar System Our Solar System contains

More information

Unit 2 Lesson 1 What Objects Are Part of the Solar System? Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 2 Lesson 1 What Objects Are Part of the Solar System? Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 2 Lesson 1 What Objects Are Part of the Solar System? Florida Benchmarks SC.5.E.5.2 Recognize the major common characteristics of all planets and compare/contrast the properties of inner and outer

More information

What s in Our Solar System?

What s in Our Solar System? The Planets What s in Our Solar System? Our Solar System consists of a central star (the Sun), the main eight planets orbiting the sun, the dwarf planets, moons, asteroids, comets, meteors, interplanetary

More information

Planetarium observing is over. Nighttime observing starts next week.

Planetarium observing is over. Nighttime observing starts next week. Homework #2 was due today at 11:50am! It s too late now. Planetarium observing is over. Solar observing is over. Nighttime observing starts next week. Outline Switch Gears Solar System Introduction The

More information

Ch 23 Touring Our Solar System 23.1 The Solar System 23.2 The Terrestrial Planet 23.3 The Outer Planets 23.4 Minor Members of the Solar System

Ch 23 Touring Our Solar System 23.1 The Solar System 23.2 The Terrestrial Planet 23.3 The Outer Planets 23.4 Minor Members of the Solar System Ch 23 Touring Our Solar System 23.1 The Solar System 23.2 The Terrestrial Planet 23.3 The Outer Planets 23.4 Minor Members of the Solar System Ch 23.1 The Solar System Terrestrial planets- Small Rocky

More information

Astronomy. Uranus Neptune & Remote Worlds

Astronomy. Uranus Neptune & Remote Worlds Astronomy A. Dayle Hancock adhancock@wm.edu Small 239 Office hours: MTWR 10-11am Uranus Neptune & Remote Worlds Uranus and Neptune Orbits and Atmospheres Internal Structure Magnetic Fields Rings Uranus's

More information

1781: Uranus Discovered. The Outer Worlds. 1846: Neptune Discovered. Distance Comparison. Uranus Rotates Sideways. Exaggerated Seasons On Uranus

1781: Uranus Discovered. The Outer Worlds. 1846: Neptune Discovered. Distance Comparison. Uranus Rotates Sideways. Exaggerated Seasons On Uranus The Outer Worlds 1781: Discovered (accidentally!) by William Herschel using a 6 inch telescope [he thought it was a comet!] 2 Draft 12/03/2006 Updated May 05, 2011 1846: Discovered Le Verrier: proposed

More information

Our Planetary System. Chapter 7

Our Planetary System. Chapter 7 Our Planetary System Chapter 7 Key Concepts for Chapter 7 and 8 Inventory of the Solar System Origin of the Solar System What does the Solar System consist of? The Sun: It has 99.85% of the mass of the

More information

Physical Science 1 Chapter 16 INTRODUCTION. Astronomy is the study of the universe, which includes all matter, energy, space and time.

Physical Science 1 Chapter 16 INTRODUCTION. Astronomy is the study of the universe, which includes all matter, energy, space and time. INTRODUCTION Astronomy is the study of the universe, which includes all matter, energy, space and time. Although the universe is vast and almost beyond imagination, much is known about its make-up and

More information

Object Type Moons Rings Planet Terrestrial none none. Max Distance from Sun. Min Distance from Sun. Avg. Distance from Sun 57,910,000 km 0.

Object Type Moons Rings Planet Terrestrial none none. Max Distance from Sun. Min Distance from Sun. Avg. Distance from Sun 57,910,000 km 0. Mercury Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. It is extremely hot on the side of the planet facing the sun and very cold on the other. There is no water on the surface. There is practically no atmosphere.

More information

The History of the Earth

The History of the Earth The History of the Earth We have talked about how the universe and sun formed, but what about the planets and moons? Review: Origin of the Universe The universe began about 13.7 billion years ago The Big

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 13. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 13. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 13 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 13 Uranus and Neptune Units of Chapter 13 13.1 The Discoveries of Uranus and Neptune 13.2 Orbital and Physical Properties

More information

Inner and Outer Planets

Inner and Outer Planets Inner and Outer Planets Inner Planets Terrestrial planets are those that are closest to the Sun. Terrestrial planets are made mostly of rock and have similar characteristics to Earth. There are four terrestrial

More information

STUDENT RESOURCE 1.1 INFORMATION SHEET. Vocabulary

STUDENT RESOURCE 1.1 INFORMATION SHEET. Vocabulary Vocabulary STUDENT RESOURCE 1.1 INFORMATION SHEET asteroids thousands of rocky objects that orbit the Sun Most asteroids orbit in a belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. More than 9, asteroids have

More information

The Outer Planets (pages )

The Outer Planets (pages ) The Outer Planets (pages 720 727) Gas Giants and Pluto (page 721) Key Concept: The first four outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are much larger and more massive than Earth, and they do

More information

Chapter 23. Our Solar System

Chapter 23. Our Solar System Chapter 23 Our Solar System Our Solar System 1 Historical Astronomy Wandering Stars Greeks watched the stars move across the sky and noticed five stars that wandered around and did not follow the paths

More information

The Jovian Planets and Their Moons

The Jovian Planets and Their Moons The Jovian Planets and Their Moons Jupiter 1 Physical Properties of Earth and Jupiter Jupiter Earth Equatorial lradius 11.2 R Earth 6378 km Mass 318 M Earth 5.976 10 24 kg Average Density 1.34 g/cm 3 5.497

More information

FCAT Review Space Science

FCAT Review Space Science FCAT Review Space Science The Law of Universal Gravitation The law of universal gravitation states that ALL matter in the universe attracts each other. Gravity is greatly impacted by both mass and distance

More information

Outline. Question of Scale. Planets Dance. Homework #2 was due today at 11:50am! It s too late now.

Outline. Question of Scale. Planets Dance. Homework #2 was due today at 11:50am! It s too late now. Outline Homework #2 was due today at 11:50am! It s too late now. Planetarium observing is over. Switch Gears Solar System Introduction The Planets, the Asteroid belt, the Kupier objects, and the Oort cloud

More information

Chapter 8 Jovian Planet Systems

Chapter 8 Jovian Planet Systems Chapter 8 Jovian Planet Systems How do jovian planets differ from terrestrials? They are much larger than terrestrial planets They do not have solid surfaces The things they are made of are quite different

More information

GIANT PLANETS & PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES

GIANT PLANETS & PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES GIANT PLANETS & PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES Problem Set 6 due Tuesday 25 October 2018 ASTRONOMY 111 FALL 2018 1 From last lecture INTERIOR TEMPERATURE OF A ROCKY PLANET! "# 'Λ "$ =! $ "$ + -! 1 "$ 3* + $ / "$

More information

Test 4 Final Review. 5/2/2018 Lecture 25

Test 4 Final Review. 5/2/2018 Lecture 25 Test 4 Final Review 5/2/2018 Lecture 25 Apparent daily motion of celestial objects is due to earth s rotation Seasons are created due to the title of the Earth relative to the Sun Phases of the moon due

More information

Lesson 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Lesson 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM Lesson 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM THE NATURE OF THE SUN At the center of our solar system is the Sun which is a typical medium sized star. Composed mainly of Hydrogen (73% by mass), 23% helium and the rest is

More information

Earth Science. Unit 9: Our Place in the Universe

Earth Science. Unit 9: Our Place in the Universe Earth Science Unit 9: Our Place in the Universe Lesson 8: The Outer Planets Make sure to have your study guide and a pencil and be ready to go when the timer dings! *If you choose not to participate, turn

More information

The Solar System consists of

The Solar System consists of The Universe The Milky Way Galaxy, one of billions of other galaxies in the universe, contains about 400 billion stars and countless other objects. Why is it called the Milky Way? Welcome to your Solar

More information

9/22/ A Brief Tour of the Solar System. Chapter 6: Formation of the Solar System. What does the solar system look like?

9/22/ A Brief Tour of the Solar System. Chapter 6: Formation of the Solar System. What does the solar system look like? 9/22/17 Lecture Outline 6.1 A Brief Tour of the Solar System Chapter 6: Formation of the Solar System What does the solar system look like? Our goals for learning: What does the solar system look like?

More information

Inner Planets (Part II)

Inner Planets (Part II) Inner Planets (Part II) Sept. 18, 2002 1) Atmospheres 2) Greenhouse Effect 3) Mercury 4) Venus 5) Mars 6) Moon Announcements Due to technical difficulties, Monday s quiz doesn t count An extra credit problem

More information

Uranus & Neptune, The Ice Giants

Uranus & Neptune, The Ice Giants Uranus & Neptune, The Ice Giants What We Will Learn Today How & When were Uranus & Neptune discovered? How are the interiors and weather on these planets? Why is Neptune as warm as Uranus? What are their

More information

Saturn and Planetary Rings 4/5/07

Saturn and Planetary Rings 4/5/07 Saturn and Planetary Rings Announcements Reading Assignment Chapter 15 5 th homework due next Thursday, April 12 (currently posted on the website). Reminder about term paper due April 17. There will be

More information

7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits

7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits 7. Our Solar System Terrestrial & Jovian planets Seven large satellites [moons] Chemical composition of the planets Asteroids & comets The Terrestrial & Jovian Planets Four small terrestrial planets Like

More information

Coriolis Effect - the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents

Coriolis Effect - the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents Regents Earth Science Unit 5: Astronomy Models of the Universe Earliest models of the universe were based on the idea that the Sun, Moon, and planets all orbit the Earth models needed to explain how the

More information

Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. Outer Worlds 4/19/07

Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. Outer Worlds 4/19/07 The : Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto Reading Assignment Finish Chapter 17 Announcements 6 th homework due on Tuesday, April 24 Quiz on Tuesday, April 24 (will cover all lectures since the last exam and Chapters

More information

Solar System Research Teacher Notes The Sun

Solar System Research Teacher Notes The Sun The Sun G-type main sequence star (G2V), also known as a yellow dwarf Mass = 1.99 x 10 30 kg or 333,000 Earths. Volume = 1.41 x 10 18 km 3 or 1,300,000 Earths. Density (average) = 1.41 g/cm 3 or 0.255

More information

Internal structure and atmospheres of planets

Internal structure and atmospheres of planets Internal structure and atmospheres of planets SERGEI POPOV 1312.3323 Sizes and masses Radius vs. mass Results of modeling. Old (relaxed) planets. Colors correspond to different fractions of light elements.

More information

Today. Jovian planets. but first - a little more Climate change

Today. Jovian planets. but first - a little more Climate change Today Jovian planets but first - a little more Climate change Weather and Climate Weather is the ever-varying combination of wind, clouds, temperature, and pressure. Local complexity of weather makes it

More information

A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars.

A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars. A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars. They radiate energy (electromagnetic radiation) from a

More information

Astronomy 103: First Exam

Astronomy 103: First Exam Name: Astronomy 103: First Exam Stephen Lepp October 27, 2010 Each question is worth 2 points. Write your name on this exam and on the scantron. 1 Short Answer A. What is the largest of the terrestrial

More information

Chapter 8 Jovian Planet Systems

Chapter 8 Jovian Planet Systems Chapter 8 Jovian Planet Systems How do jovian planets differ from terrestrials? They are much larger than terrestrial planets They do not have solid surfaces The things they are made of are quite different

More information

Astronomy Ch. 11 Jupiter. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Astronomy Ch. 11 Jupiter. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Period: Date: Astronomy Ch. 11 Jupiter MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Jupiter is noticeably oblate because: A) it has a

More information