# 1 A 3 C 2 B 4 D. 5. During which month does the minimum duration of insolation occur in New York State? 1 February 3 September 2 July 4 December

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1 INSOLATION REVIEW 1. The map below shows isolines of average daily insolation received in calories per square centimeter per minute at the Earth s surface. If identical solar collectors are placed at the lettered locations, which collector would receive the least insolation? 1 A 3 C 2 B 4 D 2. At noon at any given location on the Earth s surface, the most important factor in determining the maximum amount of insolation received is the location s 1 latitude 3 distance from the Sun 2 longitude 4 distance from the nearest large body of water 3. As the latitude increases, the average yearly amount of insolation received on each square meter of the Earth s surface will generally 1 decrease 2 increase 3 remain the same 4. In New York State, it is observed that the north-facing slopes of mountains usually retain their snow later in the spring than the south-facing slopes. This is caused by the fact that the north slopes of the mountains 1 are protected from the prevailing south winds 2 receive a greater snowfall 3 usually are steeper 4 receive less insolation than the south slopes 5. During which month does the minimum duration of insolation occur in New York State? 1 February 3 September 2 July 4 December 6. Which combination of date and latitude will have the least duration of insolation? 1 June 21 at 23 ½ o N 3 June 21 at 0 o 2 June 21 at 90 o S 4 June 21 at 23 ½ o S

2 7. The graph below represents the relationship between the intensity and wavelength of the Sun s electromagnetic radiation. Which statement is best supported by the graph? 1 The infrared radiation given off by the Sun occurs at a wavelength of 2,000 angstroms. 2 The maximum intensity of radiation given off by the Sun occurs in the visible region. 3 The infrared radiation given off by the Sun has a shorter wavelength than ultraviolet radiation. 4 The electromagnetic energy given off by the Sun consists of a single wavelength. 8. Over a period of one year, which location would probably have the greatest average intensity of insolation per unit area? [Assume equal atmospheric transparency at each location.] 1 Tropic of Cancer 2 New York City 3 the Arctic Circle 4 the North Pole 9. An object that is a good absorber of electromagnetic energy is also a good 1 reflector of electromagnetic energy 2 refractor of electromagnetic energy 3 radiator of electromagnetic energy 4 convector of electromagnetic energy 10. Which type of surface would most likely be the best reflector of electromagnetic energy? 1 dark-colored and rough 2 dark-colored and smooth 3 light-colored and rough 4 light-colored and smooth 11. Water vapor and carbon dioxide affect the warming of the Earth s atmosphere because they both 1 have high specific heats 2 scatter insolation 3 absorb infrared radiation 4 reflect ultraviolet radiation

4 18. When Earth cools, most of the energy transferred from Earth s surface to space is transferred by the process of (1) conduction (3) refraction (2) reflection (4) radiation 19. Which graph best shows the general relationship between the altitude of the noontime Sun and the intensity of insolation received at a location? The diagram below represents what normally happens to insolation as it enters the Earth s atmosphere. 20. An increase in cloud cover and water vapor within the Earth s atmosphere will cause an increase in 1 A and B, only 2 A and C, only 3 C, only 4 B and C, only 21. What is the usual cause of the drop in temperature that occurs between sunset and sunrise at most New York State locations? 1 strong winds 3 cloud formation 2 ground radiation 4 heavy precipitation 22. As the amount of solid aerosols (pollutants) in the air increases, the amount of insolation that reaches the Earth s surface will 1 decrease 2 increase 3 remain the same 23. Under which conditions will the greatest amount of cooling by terrestrial reradiation occur? 1 a clear night with a small amount of moisture in the air 2 a clear night with a large amount of moisture in the air 3 a cloudy night with a small amount of moisture in the air 4 a cloudy night with a large amount of moisture in the air

5 24. In which diagram would the incoming solar radiation reaching the Earth s surface heat the ground the most? 25. Which statement describes how the insolation changes in New York State from May 21 to June 21? 1 The intensity and duration of insolation both decrease. 2 The intensity and duration of insolation both increase. 3 The intensity of insolation decreases and duration of insolation increases. 4 The intensity of insolation increases and duration of insolation decreases. 26. Compared to polar areas, why are equatorial areas of equal size heated much more intensely by the Sun? 1 The Sun s rays are more nearly perpendicular at the Equator than at the poles. 2 The equatorial areas contain more water than the polar areas do. 3 More hours of daylight occur at the Equator than at the poles. 4 The equatorial areas are nearer to the Sun than the polar areas are. 27. If dust particles are added to the atmosphere, the amount of insolation reaching the ground will probably 1 decrease 2 increase 3 remain the same 28. On a clear day, which type of electromagnetic energy will pass most easily through the Earth s atmosphere? 1 terrestrial radiation 3 ultraviolet radiation 2 infrared radiation 4 visible light 29. Compared to the date of maximum duration of insolation, the date of maximum surface temperature for this location is 1 earlier in the year 2 later in the year 3 the same day of the year

6 30. If the water vapor and carbon dioxide content of the Earth s atmosphere were to increase, the amount of Earth radiation absorbed by the atmosphere would tend to 1 increase 2 decrease 3 remain the same 31. An object that is a good radiator of electromagnetic energy waves is also a good 1 insulator from heat 3 absorber of electromagnetic energy 2 reflector of heat 4 refractor of electromagnetic energy 32. Changing the shingles on the roof of a house to a lighter color will most likely reduce the amount of solar energy that is 1 scattered 3 reflected 2 absorbed 4 refracted 33. The activity shown in the diagram below was used to test the effect of the angle of insolation on temperature. A student place four thermometers (A, B, C, and D) on a large globe. The bulb of each thermometer was placed against a black plastic square directly on a line representing latitude. The thermometers were then exposed to direct sunlight for 10 minutes at the angles shown. Which thermometer will show the greatest increase in temperature? 1 A 3 C 2 B 4 D

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