# Traveling Into Space. Use Target Reading Skills. How Do Rockets Work? Building Vocabulary

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1 Traveling Into Space This section explains how rockets work. It also describes the history of space exploration and explains how space shuttles, space stations, and space probes are used in exploring space today. Use Target Reading Skills Building Vocabulary Match each term with its description by writing the letter of the correct description in the right column on the line beside the term on the left column. 1. thrust 2. orbital velocity 3. multistage rocket 4. escape velocity 5. reaction force 6. rocket 7. velocity a. equal and opposite force b. speed in a given direction c. velocity a rocket must achieve to orbit d. consists of stages placed on top of one another that drop off as fuel is consumed e. force propelling object forward f. the velocity a rocket must reach to fly beyond a planet s gravitational pull How Do Rockets Work? 8. Rocket technology originated in a. China. b. Russia. c. the United States. d. Germany. g. a device that expels gas in one direction to move in the opposite direction 9. When were modern rockets first developed? 10. Why does a rocket move forward? 11. For every force, or action, there is an equal and opposite force, or. 12. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about velocity, orbital velocity, or escape velocity. a. A rocket must reach orbital velocity to establish an orbit. b. The force that propels a rocket forward is its velocity. c. A rocket must move at escape velocity to leave Earth s orbit. d. Escape velocity is greater than orbital velocity.

2 Traveling Into Space (continued) Multistage Rockets 13. What happens to the first stage of a multistage rocket? 14. What happens to the second stage when the first stage uses up its fuel? 15. Complete the flowchart to show the sequence of events in a multistage rocket. 1. Heavy first stage provides thrust for launch. 2. First stage separates and a.. 3. b. stage ignites and continues moving with third stage. 4. Second stage c. and falls to Earth. 5. Third stage d.. 6. Rocket reaches its destination. 16. What did the development of multistage rockets make possible?

3 The Race for Space 17. Circle the letter of the first artificial satellite launched into space. a. Skylab c. Sputnik I b. Explorer 1 d. Mir 18. What is a satellite? 19. How did the United States respond to the launch of the first artificial satellite by the Soviet Union? 20. What was the name of the first satellite launched by the United States? 21. Is the following statement true or false? The first American in space was John Glenn. 22. Complete the timeline of the following events in the space race. Year Event 1957 The Soviet Union launched a. b. The c. launched Explorer The d. human into space. launched the first e. An astronaut named f. first American in space. became the g. Use the chart above to write an explanation in your own words of how these events illustrate the meaning of space race.

4 Traveling Into Space (continued) Missions to the Moon 23.What was the Apollo program, and who started it? 24.Circle the letter of the spacecraft that transported the first astronauts to the moon in July a. Surveyor c. Skylab b. Sputnik I d. Apollo Who was the first person to walk on the moon? 26. Who said the first words spoken on the moon, and what were the words? 27. Circle the letter of each statement that is true about the Apollo missions. a. The first astronaut to walk on the moon landed on the moon in b. Astronauts used lunar rovers to explore the moon s surface. c. The Apollo missions continued from the 1960s until the 1990s. d. Apollo astronauts contributed to our knowledge of the moon s structure.

5 Earth, Moon, and Sun Guided Reading and Study Exploring Space Today Use the list below to identify each of the drawings. space shuttle space station space probe rover Why are space shuttles called shuttles? 33. List three tasks that space shuttles perform. a. b. c. 34. A large, artificial satellite in which people can live for long periods is called a(n). 35. Compare and contrast a space shuttle and a space station. 36. Which type of spacecraft is best suited to explore planets that have very different conditions from those of Earth? Why?

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