# Astronomy#2 - Notebook

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1 Name Test Date Hour Astronomy#2 - Notebook Planet Earth LEARNING TARGETS I can describe a sphere and give evidence used to prove Earth is spherical. I can explain the difference between rotation and revolution. I can identify the time required for Earth s rotation and revolution. I can identify the tilt of Earth s axis and describe how it affects the planet. I can explain the difference between Solstices and Equinoxes. I can describe Earth s magnetic field and the benefits Earth receives from it. I can describe how the Earth s magnetic field is created. I can explain the difference between Earth s rotational axis and Earth s magnetic axis. I can describe why a magnetic compass points north. Scientific Language 1. Magnetic Field An invisible force protecting the Earth from solar radiation. 2. Core Innermost layer of Earth composed of an outer liquid layer and inner solid layer of iron. 3. Compass A navigational device consisting of a magnet free to swing horizontally so that it always points north. 4. Rotation The spinning of Earth on its axis. 5. Revolution Earth s yearly orbit around the sun. 6. Season Each of the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) marked by particular weather patterns and daylight hours, resulting from the earth's changing position with regard to the sun. 7. Equinox The two days during the year when the sun s most direct rays shine on the equator, creating an even 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of night. 8. Solstice The two days during the year when the sun s direct rays reach their greatest distance north or south of the equator, creating our longest or shortest days of the year. 9. Tilt Earth s slant at an angle of 23.5 o. 10. Axis The imaginary vertical line around which Earth spins. 11. Sphere A round three dimensional object having the same distance from its center to the surface at all points. 12. Ellipse An elongated closed curve, similar to an oval. 13. Hemisphere The northern and southern halves of the earth, separated by the equator.

2 Properties of Earth Spherical Shape Planet Earth is a round three dimensional object called a. A sphere is defined as having the same distance from its to the at all points. At first people thought the Earth was. In 350 BC,, a Greek astronomer and philosopher, suspected the Earth was a based on he made during an eclipse. He noticed that the Earth cast a on the moon during the eclipse. Observation by sailors also the belief in a spherical Earth, they observed that ships came into view a at a time instead of all at.

3 In the late 20th century, artificial and space sent back finally showing a spherical Earth. However, we now know that the Earth actually bulges slightly at the and flattens at the, so it is not a sphere. Rotation Earth s is the imaginary vertical line around which Earth. The poles are located at the and ends of Earth s axis. The spinning of Earth on its axis is called. This rotation causes and to occur. On Earth, the rotation takes you in and out of the view of the the sun is. One complete rotation, or, takes hours and minutes, or 1.

4 Revolution Another important motion is. Our revolution is Earth s yearly around the. Just as the moon is Earth s satellite, Earth is a of the. Earth completes about 365 during its 1 revolution around the sun. If Earth s orbit was a perfect with the sun at the center, Earth would maintain a constant from the sun. However, this is the case. Earth s orbit is an, an elongated closed curve, similar to an. Because of this the between the sun and Earth during its year long orbit. Earth is actually closest to the sun around and farthest from the sun around. hmmmm Why is it cold when we are closest and warm when we are farthest?

5 The Tilt and the Seasons Earth s axis is tilted, meaning the Earth is not up and down. Daylight hours are for the, or half of the earth, tilted the sun. When a hemisphere is tilted towards the sun, they experience. When a hemisphere is tilted away from the sun, they experience. The hemisphere tilted towards the sun receives hours of sunlight each day compared to the hemisphere tilted away from the sun. The period of sunlight is one reason summer is than winter. The hemisphere tilted towards the sun also receives more rays, equalling more solar and temperatures. In the hemisphere tilted away from the sun, the sun appears in the sky, daylight hours are and solar radiation is.

6 The Equinoxes and the Solstices Due to the Earth s tilt the sun isn t directly in line with the except for days out of the year, once in and once in. We call these days the. On the equinoxes, the sun s most rays shine on the equator. The equinox is on March or. The autumn equinox is on 22nd or 23rd. On the equinoxes we have an 12 hours of and 12 hours of. because neither the hemisphere nor the hemisphere is tilted towards the sun. During the rest of the days of the year, the sun s direct rays are shining either or of the equator. When sun s direct rays reach their distance from equator once in and once in. We call these days the. The June Solstice (our solstice) is when the sun s direct rays have reached the farthest of the equator. This happens on June or. The December Solstice (our solstice) is when the sun s direct rays have reached the farthest of the equator. This happens on Dec or. On the Solstice day we have either our or day of the year, depending on which you are in.

7 Earth s Magnetic Field You can t see it, but there s an invisible field around the Earth the planet and all the life from space. The Earth is like a great big magnet. The magnetic field is like a bar. Earth has a and a magnetic pole, just as a bar magnet has magnetic poles at each of its ends. Imagine a giant bar magnet running along the of Earth. Magnetic field lines extend from these poles out of kilometers into space and wrapping around to the pole. This is the Earth s. Scientists hypothesize that the movement of inside Earth s core, along with Earth s, generates a field. The flow of liquid iron generates currents, which in turn produce fields.

8 The magnetic field of the Earth the planet from space radiation. The biggest culprit is the Sun s. These are highly particles blasted out from the Sun like a steady wind. The Earth s magnetosphere channels the solar wind the planet, so that it doesn t us. Without the magnetic field, the solar wind would strip away our this is what probably happened to. When you observe a compass needle pointing, you are seeing of Earth s magnetic field. In order for the north end of the compass to toward the North Pole, you have to assume that the buried bar magnet has its end at the Pole. If you think of the world this way, then you can see the normal " " rule of magnets is working. Earth s axis does not align with its axis. The magnetic axis is tilted at an angle of to the rotational axis. If you followed a compass needle, you would end up at the north pole rather than the north pole. The magnetic poles have throughout the Earth s history wandering as much as km every year.

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