# Copernican revolution Review

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1 opernican revolution Review Score: 1. How long does it take a planet to orbit the sun exactly once? Sidereal period Synodic period One rotation One day 2. Which of Kepler's laws is illustrated in the diagram? 1st 2nd 3rd 3. Which of the following is not part of Kepler's contribution to planetary orbits? shapes of the orbit speeds of planets in their orbit orbital period gravity 4. planet has an eccentricity of 0.2 and a semi-major axis of 8 U. What is its distance at perihelion? 9.6 U 6.4 U 8.2 U 7.8 U 5. What happens to the force of gravity if the distance between the planets is unchanged and the mass of one planet is increased 4 times? It is increased by a factor of 4 It remains unchanged It is decreased by a factor of 2 It is decreased by a factor of 4 Page 1 of 5

2 6. The planet Mars is seen directly over the south point of the horizon at exactly midnight. The time interval until the next instance of this occurrence is the synodic period of the arth the synodic period of Mars the rotational period of the arth the sidereal period of Mars the sidereal period of the arth 7. In an orbit, the the acceleration vector is always pointed directly away from the sun. pointed directly towards the sun. pointed neither towards or from the sun. pointed in random directions 8. The speed of a planet in an elliptical orbit is constant. always speeding up, but barely noticeable. always slowing down, but barely noticeable. sometimes speeding up and sometimes slowing down. 9. In this demonstration the blue fabric represents: space time gravity well the background stars the celestial sphere 10. The speed of a planet in an circular orbit is constant. always speeding up, but barely noticeable. always slowing down, but barely noticeable. sometimes speeding up and sometimes slowing down. Page 2 of 5

3 11. Which of Kepler's laws is shown in the diagram? 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 12. Which vectors represent acceleration?,, ll of them 13. The green planet is a planet as viewed from earth. Superior Inferior 14. Where is a planet at inferior conjunction? G Inferior conjunction is not shown in the diagram Page 3 of 5

4 15. Where is a planet at western quadrature? G western quadrature is not shown in the diagram 16. Which scientist made these drawings? opernicus Galileo rahe Kepler instein 17. Which diagram shows absolute proof the the solar system is heliocentric? Ptolemy laid out his most famous idea about a geocentric solar system, with the at the center of everything. arth moon sun stars 19. Why didn't Ptolemy include the orbits of Neptune and Uranus? They weren't considered planets. ach one has a different orbit. He didn't know they existed. stronomers told him not to. Page 4 of 5

5 20. Whose view was challenged by Nicolaus opernicus? Percival Lowell ristotle Johannes Kepler Isaac Newton 21. When Venus is directly on the far side of the Sun, it is at superior conjunction inferior conjunction opposition greatest elongation quadrature 22. Stars rise in the east and set in the west. If a planet undergoing retrograde motion is near certain star, where will the planet be the following evening? It will remain in the same spot with respect to that star. small bit east of that star. small bit west of that star. 23. The angle between a planet's velocity and acceleration vectors is 80 degrees. The planet is... Speeding up Slowing down moving with a constant velocity 24. elow are the eccentricities for some imaginary planets. Which planet has the most circular orbit? Which planet has the smallest semi-major axis. a planet with a period of 84 arth days a planet with a period of 1 arth year a planet with a period of 2 arth years a planet with a period of 0.5 arth year Page 5 of 5

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