# The Problem. Until 1995, we only knew of one Solar System - our own

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1 Extrasolar Planets

2 Until 1995, we only knew of one Solar System - our own The Problem We had suspected for hundreds of years, and had confirmed as long ago as the 1800s that the stars were extremely distant Suns Only their extreme intrinsic brightness makes them visible over such vast distances Planets shine by reflected light and are much smaller than stars, so direct detection of planets around other stars is extremely difficult (Jupiter would be 1 billionth as bright as the Sun from outside the Solar System) As we will see, the first detections of extrasolar planets came indirectly

3 Detection of Extrasolar Planets In 1995, the first planet around a main sequence star was detected Since direct detection is currently impossible, how was it found? To answer this, consider the Sun and Jupiter Although Kepler considered the planets to be orbiting a stationary Sun, Newton showed that all pairs of bodies orbit a common center-ofmass (COM) In the case of the Sun and Jupiter, the COM is near the edge of the Sun Thus, every 12 years, as Jupiter orbits at an average distance of 5 AU, the Sun conducts a small loop of radius equal to the Sun s radius with the same period The speed of the Sun in this orbit is much smaller than v jupiter = 412 m/s, about 13 m/s Interactive Figure 13.1

4 Interactive Lecture on Exoplanet detection

5 Detection of Extrasolar Planets Although this speed is small, if one looked carefully at the absorption line spectrum of the Sun, one would see the lines redshifted and blueshifted as the Sun executed its (near-)circular orbit The size of this Doppler shift would be tiny (about 40 parts per billion) about 20 x 10 6 nm shift at 500 nm Since the Doppler shift is due to the tug of gravity by the planet on the star, the size of the shift grows as 1. the planet mass gets larger relative to the star s mass 2. the planet s orbit is closer to the star F grav! M m star planet so a 2 r star = F grav s-p M star! m planet 2 r s-p Interactive Figure I Interactive Figure II

6 Detection of Extrasolar Planets In 1995, a planet was discovered orbiting the star 51 Pegasi As the planet orbited the star, the star was tugged back and forth (like the Sun), leading to a Doppler shift in the star s absorption lines which, when converted to velocities looked like the figure Notice the scale ( 57 m/s), about 4 times the shift of the Sun, but still very small Also note the time-scale (4 day period!) The planet must be very close to the star (a ~ 0.05 AU < 0.39 AU for Mercury) Artist s conception Kepler s 3rd Law a 3! P 2 From the size of the Doppler shift, the mass of the planet is ~ 0.5 M jupiter

7 Detection of Extrasolar Planets All of this assumes we are viewing the orbit edge-on If the orbit is tilted, the velocity along the line-of-sight (which is what causes th Doppler shift) is smaller, so the mass estimate is a lower limit To date, over 200 extrasolar planets have been discovered around nearby stars - most detected by the Doppler technique Note that most of them have masses more similar to Jupiter than Earth, are at distances closer than Jupiter, and many are in highly eccentric orbits Why? Recall a star! m planet 2 r s-p The method is biased towards large, close planets

8 Lunch!

9 Summary of Doppler Technique 1. The star and planet are orbiting the COM with the same period Thus, the observed period of the star is equal to the period of the planet 2. The period of the orbit gives the size of the orbit (Kepler s 3rd Law) 3. At every moment, the star and planet are moving in opposite directions Thus, when the planet is moving away from the Earth, the star is moving towards the Earth, and vice versa 4. We observe the star s spectrum Thus, when we see a redshift (positive velocity), the star is moving away from the Earth, and the planet is moving towards the Earth, and vice versa 5. The mass of the planet relative to the star and the distance between the star and planet determine the size of the Doppler shift Higher planet mass è larger Doppler shift Closer distance è larger Doppler shift

11 Extrasolar Planets Quiz I To detect an extrasolar planet by means of the Doppler shift, you look for a periodic shift of the spectrum lines A. of the planet B. of the star the planet is orbiting C. of the star and the planet

12 Extrasolar Planets Quiz II The orbital period of an unseen planet A. will be the same as period of the star s Doppler shift B. will be much larger than the star s C. will be much smaller than the star s

13 Extrasolar Planets Quiz III The shorter the period of the Doppler curve A. the farther the unseen planet is from the star B. the closer the unseen planet is to the star C. the greater the mass of the planet D. the smaller the mass of the planet E. (b) and (c)

14 Extrasolar Planets Quiz IV The larger the mass of the unseen planet A. The larger the Doppler shift of the star B. The smaller the Doppler shift of the star C. The faster the period of the star s Doppler shift D. The slower the period of the star s shift E. (a) and (c)

15 Extrasolar Planets Quiz V Given the location marked with the dot on the star s radial velocity curve, at what position (1-4) would you expect the planet to be located at this time? Earth 1 A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 4 Orbit of star 2 Orbit of planet 3

16 Extrasolar Planets Quiz VI Given the location marked with the dot on the star s radial velocity curve, at what position (1-4) would you expect the planet to be located at this time? Earth 1 A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 4 Orbit of star 2 Orbit of planet 3

17 Comparison of our Solar System to Consider the masses and orbital distances of the known extrasolar planets How does this information affect our model for our Solar System in which gas giants form in the outer part of the solar system in nearly circular orbits? This simple model must change These new planets, like many new scientific discoveries, has challenged the simple theory and will require it to be modified One idea is that large planets can migrate from where they form towards the central star Extrasolar Planets

18 Planetary Migration This migration occurs when a large planet sets up waves in the remaining protostellar disk These waves act back on the planet, causing drag which leads the planet to spiral closer to the star However, this idea can work too well - some computer models suggest the planets would then spiral into the star so fast that we wouldn t see any planets Also, why didn t Jupiter migrate? This is an area of intense research interest, and eventually, a solution will be found, and a new model born

19 1.91 Earth mass period 3.15 days

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