ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics. BJT Biasing Cont.


 Albert Atkinson
 3 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 BJT Biasing Cont. Biasing for DC Operating Point Stability BJT Bias Using Emitter Negative Feedback Single Supply BJT Bias Scheme Constant Current BJT Bias Scheme Rule of Thumb BJT Bias Design 1
2 Simple Base Biasing Schemes What's wrong with these schemes 2
3 Another Simple Biasing Scheme R C R B I E Is this scheme any better If it is, why 3
4 Biasing for Operating Point Stability A practical biasing scheme must be insensitive to changes in transistor β and operating temperature! Negative feedback is one solution. I B R C I E 4
5 Given the (DC bias) equations: I S e E V T I E = I E = R C E Assume: E =0.7 V Basic relationships: I E =I B = 1 I B I E = 1 = 1 Let: α,, and be specified; Compute: in terms and : = E = 0.7 5
6 Negative Feedback via Negative feedback makes the collector current insensitive to E, I S, and β. If increases due to an increase in I S then E will decrease; thus, limiting the magnitude of the change in. The equations that must be satisfied simultaneously are: =I S e E V T I S insensitivity and E = = 1 if I S => when => E I S insensitivity <= E If = 0 then = E => feedback is absent 6
7 Negative Feedback via =I S e E V T and E = = 1 β insensitivity = E = E 1 β insensitivity E insensitivity = E if >> E => E insensitivity 7
8 Scilab Analysis of Insensitivity to I S Simultaneous equations: =I S e E V T = E Let =4k or: E =I S e E and =4.7V (want >> E ) V T If we plot the exponential function and the straight line function, the solution values of and E for the circuit occur at their intersection. 8
9 Scilab Program //Calculate and plot npn BJT bias characteristic beta=100; alpha=beta/(beta+1); VsubT=0.025; VTinv=1/VsubT; VBB=4.7; Re=4; vbe=0.0:0.01:1; icline=alpha*(vbbvbe)/re;//ma. plot(vbe,icline); ic=0.01:0.01:2; //ma.! IsubS =1E16; //ma. for k= 1:1:8 IsubS=10*IsubS; vbe2=vsubt*log(ic/isubs); plot(vbe2,ic); end //Current in ma. = E E =V T ln I S 9
10 vs I S Results Plot I S =10 11 I S =10 18 = E 0.1mA Insensitive to I S! =I S e E V T 10
11 = 0.7 Example: =100 =4.7V =1 ma = = ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Insensitivity to Beta Writing as a function of β: = 0.7 = A Assume: =0.990 ma =0.995 ma CONCLUSION: is insensitive to changes in β! 11
12 Nonzero Base Resistance I B R C R B I E I E = 1 I B = I B =I B R B E 1 I B I B = E R B 1 = I B = V R B 1 R B E E If R B 1 1 E I E = E If R B 1 E = 1 R B = I B R B E Effect of Feedback is minimized! 12
13 Biasing for Operating Point Stability Quick Review What is the purpose What does R B represent What is the condition on the value of What is the condition on the value of What is our rule of thumb for achieving x >> y 13
14 Observations Emitter feedback stabilizes base voltage source bias. To reduce the sensitivity of to E, choose E. R B 0, emitter feedback stabilization works well if R B is not too large, i.e. R B 1 Ideal rule of thumb (if possible): Let R B 1 or 10 1 R B = =100 R B = =10 14
15 EmitterFeedback Bias Design R 1 R C I B R I E Voltage bias circuit Single power supply version 15
16 Thevenin Equivalent I 1 <=> R Th V Th I B I 1 R Th =R B =R 1 R 2 V Th = = R 2 R 1 R 2 16
17 EmitterFeedback Bias Design What is the purpose of What is the purpose of R 1 & R 2 What happened to R B How are & related What is the condition on the values of R 1, R 2 & What is the condition on the values of I 1, I B & I 1 17
18 Using Thevenin Equivalent Lets assume that I 1 >> I B & I 1 <<. Furthermore assume, & R B are independently specified. Solve for resistors R 1 & R 2. R B =R 1 R 2 = R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 = R 2 R 1 R 2 (2) (1) R B = R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 1 =R B = R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 =R 1 Can, & R B be independently specified; e.g. R B = =10E 18
19 Can, & R B be independently specified; e.g. =10E R B = I 1 = R T = 10 VC More intuitive! Independently specify, & s.t. R B << (β + 1) & >> E 19
20 1st Rule of Thumb for Single Supply Biasing I 1 R 2 R 1 I B +  R C R 2 R T Iff I 1 >> I 1 V I B CC R 1 R 2 = R T 1. Choose R T = R 1 + R 2 so that I 1 >> I B & I 1 <<, i.e. I 1 is about 1/10 of the desired & I B is ignored when compared to I 1 ): R T =R 1 R 2 =10 I 1 = = R T Use a voltage divider to give the desired base voltage and solve for R 1 and R 2 : R 2 =R T R 1 =R T R 2 =R T 1 3. Calculate R B : R B =R 1 R 2 20
21 I 1 R 1 R 2 + V R C V CE  I E + ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics An Unavoidable Design Tradeoff V RC V RE = E With, & specified, 3 design constraints, i.e. where: TRADEOFF R B 1 E I 1 also I 1 I B =V RC V CE V RE Increase V RC and/or V RE => Reduce V CE V RC too large => possible saturation & reduced operating range (i.e. V CE > 0.2 V or smaller). V RC too small => possible cutoff & reduced operating range (i.e. > small or zero). NEED A COMPROMISE! ( fixed) 21
22 I 1 R T = R 1 + R 2 R 1 ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics 2nd Useful Rule of Thumb 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 Rule V RE = 3 V RC = R C = 3 V CE = where =V RC V RE V V CE = R 2 & V V CE  CC R CC T + I E If >> E => V RC V CE R 2 V  R C + V RC =E V RE I 1 R 2 E =0.7V Design Equations R C = V R C = 3 = V I E = 3 I E = 3 I 1 = 10 R 2 =R T R T 1 3 R T If >> E V RE =I E R 2 V RE = V R BE = T 3 R 1 =R T R T 22
23 Constant Emitter Current Bias R C R B Q amp I REF I E I E Specified: & I E E1 E2 23
24 ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Constant Emitter Current Bias The current mirror is used to create a current source: 1 R ref I REF I I O 2. A diodeconnected transistor sets the current. I REF = E1 R ref V CE1 =E1 I B1 1. A BJT collector is the current source: =I S e E V T I B2 E2 =E1 I REF =1 I B1 I B2 1 I O =2 3. Choose R ref for the desired current: Rref = I REF 1 4. If Q1 = Q2 matched and V CE2 = V CE1 then 2 = 1 => I O I ref 24
25 Constant Emitter Current Now: E1 = E2 If Q 1 and Q 2 have the same saturation current: I S1=I S2 And the transistors are at the same temperature: T 1 =T 2 The two collector currents set primarily by R ref are equal, as long as Q2 is not saturated. I O =2 =I ref 0.7 R ref Since V CE1 V CE2, the Early Effect needs to be included in simulations. 25
26 Constant Emitter Current Early Voltage R ref 1 I REF I B2 Assume Q1 = Q2 2 =I O I REF =I S e E /V T 1 V CE1 V A 2 I S e E V T For Q2: I B1 E2 =E1 =V CE1 =E Early Effect = I S e E /V T 1 E V A 2 I S e Solving for I S e E /V T I O =2 =I S e E /V T 1 V CE2 I V S e E /V T (1) = A Since I B is not effected by V A, i.e. 1 E 2 (2) V A I B2 = I S ee /V T = 2 F = 1 V CE2 Sub (2) into (1) where F V V CE2 A 1 For Q1: I B1 = I V A B2 I O =2 =I REF I REF =1 I B1 I B2 =1 2 I B 1 E 2 V A I REF E V T Ideally = 1 26
27 Constant Emitter Current Early Voltage Cont. I O =2 =I REF 1 V CE2 V A 1 E V A 2 => I O I REF = 1 V CE2 V A 1 E V A 2 I REF Let V A = => Early effect is negligible I O I REF = If also = => I O =I REF Let V A = finite and V A = 50 V, E = 0.7 V, =100 I O = f V E2 = V CE2 = V REF CE2 27
28 Emitter Current Bias Quick Review What is the circuit in the green box What is the relation between R ref and I REF I REF What is the approximate relation between I REF and I E Does E1 = E2 E1 E2 Does the Early Voltage effect the relation between I REF and I E How What is the output resistance of Q2 28
29 Emitter Current Bias Quick Review What is the circuit in the green box Current mirror to realize a fixed, stable current source. I REF What is the relation between R ref and I REF E1 E2 What is the approximate relation between I REF and I E Does E1 = E2 Does the Early Voltage effect the relation between I REF and I E How What is the output resistance of Q2 29
30 Emitter Current Bias Quick Review What is the circuit in the green box Current mirror to realize a fixed current source. I REF What is the relation between R ref and I REF I REF = E1 R ref E1 E2 What is the approximate relation between I REF and I E Does E1 = E2 Does the Early Voltage effect the relation between I REF and I E How What is the output resistance of Q2 30
31 Emitter Current Bias Quick Review What is the circuit in the green box Current mirror to realize a fixed current source. What is the relation between R ref and I REF I REF I REF = E1 R ref E1 E2 What is the approximate relation between I REF and I E I E I REF Does E1 = E2 Does the Early Voltage effect the relation between I REF and I E How What is the output resistance of Q2 31
32 Emitter Current Bias Quick Review What is the circuit in the green box Current mirror to realize a fixed current source. What is the relation between R ref and I REF I REF I REF = E1 R ref What is the approximate relation between I REF and I E I E I REF Does E1 = E2 Yes E1 E2 Does the Early Voltage effect the relation between I REF and I E How Yes, V CE2 V CE1 What is the output resistance of Q2 32
33 Emitter Current Bias Quick Review What is the circuit in the green box Current mirror to realize a fixed current source. What is the relation between R ref and I REF I REF I REF = E1 R ref What is the approximate relation between I REF and I E I E I REF Does E1 = E2 Yes E1 E2 Does the Early Voltage effect the relation between I REF and I E How Yes, V V CE2 CE1 What is the output resistance of Q2 r o = V A ' ' = I S e v BE /V T 33
34 BJT Emitter Current Source Bias R C R B We thus can use a current mirror to provide stable control of transistor collector current. R ref sets the emitter and collector currents and the collectorground voltage for Q amp. I ref v in R ref C Q amp i E v in is the ac input voltage source. R ref v in R B i E R B can be any reasonable value this is not voltage biasing! Q 1 Q 2 34
35 Summary Two practical methods for achieving stable bias for a BJT are: Use a dc voltage source in the base with a feedback resistance in the emitter circuit. Place a dc current source directly in the emitter circuit. 35
36 EmitterFeedback Bias Design 1. Use single supply for base bias and collector sources. 2. Use the /10 rule for the current I 1 through the base bias network (R 1 and R 2 ) Try less negative feedback using a smaller emitter resistor saving more of the supply voltage for V CE & the R C voltage drop V R C. or 32. Use the 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 Rule. 36
37 I 1 = 10 ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Let's Try EmitterFeedback 31 Bias Design R 2 R 1 R C V C Complete the bias design given the following design values: =12V =100 =0.99 It follows: =1 ma V C =6 V & E = 0.7 V R C = V Rc = V C =6k V I Rc =6V C I 1 = 10 =0.1 ma R R = 1 2 = 12 I =120 k 37
38 EmitterFeedback 31 Bias Design  Continued I 1 = 0.1 ma Previous slide R 1 R C Let's choose a small feedback voltage, say V Re = 1 V (i.e. V CE = 5 V). Ignoring the base current: = V Re I E = 1V / =990 R 2 Then the voltage across R 2 is V R 2 = 1.7V 10 4 A =17 k =1mA R C = 6 kω R 1 R 2 =120 k R 1 =120k 17k=103 k Recall: R B R B =R 1 R k R 9.9 k E B = 1.7 V =1.7V 38
39 EmitterFeedback 31 β Sensitivity R B I B R C = 12V = 1.7 V E = 0.7 V = 1 ma β = 100 R C = 6kΩ = 1 kω R B = 14.5 kω = I B = R B 1 E β = 100; β = 200; β = ; β = 100 & R B = 0 Ω; = ma = ma = 1 ma = 0.99 ma 39
40 Scilab Plot (Zoomed) I S =10 11 I S = ma 40
41 32 ( 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 Rule ) Bias Design Recall: 4 R B Let's choose V Rc = = 3 =4V R C = V Rc = 4V 10 3 A =4 k = 4V / =3.96 k The voltage across R 2 is = V + V = 4.7 V BE R 2 = 4.7 V 10 4 A =47 k R 1 =120k 47k=73 k R B =R 1 R k k 41
42 RECALL: Bias Stability Condition Argument =I B R B E 1 I B I B R B I E R C I B = = I B = E R B 1 R B 1 E I E = 1 I B if = I B R B 1 1 E = E 42
43 EmitterFeedback 32 β Sensitivity R B I B R C = 12V = 1.7 V E = 0.7 V = 1 ma β = 100 R C = 4 kω = 3.96 kω R B = 28.6 kω = I B = R B 1 E EmitterFeedback 31 β = 100; β = 200; β = ; β = 100 & R B = 0 Ω; = ma = ma = 1 ma = 1 ma 43
44 Compare to vs I S Results Plot with 32 Emitter Feedback I S =10 11 I S = ma Recall for 31 Emitter Fdbk 0.4 ma 44
45 Conclusion 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 Rule Provides a Good Compromise Base Voltage Bias Scheme for circuits implemented with discrete BJTs. Emitter current bias scheme using a current mirror is an effective bias scheme for BJT circuits implemented as ICs. 45
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics. Output Stages
Output Stages Power amplifier classification Class A amplifier circuits Class A Power conversion efficiency Class B amplifier circuits Class B Power conversion efficiency Class AB amplifier circuits Class
More informationBJT Biasing Cont. & Small Signal Model
BJT Biasing Cont. & Small Signal Model Conservative Bias Design (1/3, 1/3, 1/3 Rule) Bias Design Example SmallSignal BJT Models SmallSignal Analysis 1 Emitter Feedback Bias Design R B R C V CC R 1 R
More informationQuick Review. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics. and Q1 = Q2, what is the value of V Odm. If R C1 = R C2. s.t. R C1. Let Q1 = Q2 and R C1
Quick Review If R C1 = R C2 and Q1 = Q2, what is the value of V Odm? Let Q1 = Q2 and R C1 R C2 s.t. R C1 > R C2, express R C1 & R C2 in terms R C and ΔR C. If V Odm is the differential output offset
More informationClass AB Output Stage
Class AB Output Stage Class AB amplifier Operation Multisim Simulation  VTC Class AB amplifier biasing Widlar current source Multisim Simulation  Biasing 1 Class AB Operation v I V B (set by V B ) Basic
More informationChapter 2  DC Biasing  BJTs
Objectives Chapter 2  DC Biasing  BJTs To Understand: Concept of Operating point and stability Analyzing Various biasing circuits and their comparison with respect to stability BJT A Review Invented
More informationChapter 2.  DC Biasing  BJTs
Chapter 2.  DC Biasing  BJTs Objectives To Understand : Concept of Operating point and stability Analyzing Various biasing circuits and their comparison with respect to stability BJT A Review Invented
More informationBJT Biasing Cont. & Small Signal Model
BJT Biasing Cont. & Small Signal Model Conservative Bias Design Bias Design Example Small Signal BJT Models Small Signal Analysis 1 Emitter Feedback Bias Design Voltage bias circuit Single power supply
More informationTransistor Characteristics and A simple BJT Current Mirror
Transistor Characteristics and A simple BJT Current Mirror Currentoltage (I) Characteristics Device Under Test DUT i v T T 1 R X R X T for test Independent variable on horizontal axis Could force current
More informationfigure shows a pnp transistor biased to operate in the active mode
Lecture 10b EE215 Electronic Devices and Circuits Asst Prof Muhammad Anis Chaudhary BJT: Device Structure and Physical Operation The pnp Transistor figure shows a pnp transistor biased to operate in the
More informationESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Common Emitter BJT Amplifier
Common Emitter BJT Amplifier 1 Adding a signal source to the single power supply bias amplifier R C R 1 R C V CC V CC V B R E R 2 R E Desired effect addition of bias and signal sources Starting point 
More informationTutorial #4: Bias Point Analysis in Multisim
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING ECE 2115: ENGINEERING ELECTRONICS LABORATORY Tutorial #4: Bias Point Analysis in Multisim INTRODUCTION When BJTs
More informationKOM2751 Analog Electronics :: Dr. Muharrem Mercimek :: YTU  Control and Automation Dept. 1 4 DC BIASING BJTS (CONT D)
KOM2751 Analog Electronics :: Dr. Muharrem Mercimek :: YTU Control and Automation Dept. 1 4 DC BIASING BJTS (CONT D) Most of the content is from the textbook: Electronic devices and circuit theory, Robert
More informationEE 321 Analog Electronics, Fall 2013 Homework #8 solution
EE 321 Analog Electronics, Fall 2013 Homework #8 solution 5.110. The following table summarizes some of the basic attributes of a number of BJTs of different types, operating as amplifiers under various
More informationDC Biasing. Dr. U. Sezen & Dr. D. Gökçen (Hacettepe Uni.) ELE230 Electronics I 15Mar / 59
Contents Three States of Operation BJT DC Analysis FixedBias Circuit EmitterStabilized Bias Circuit Voltage Divider Bias Circuit DC Bias with Voltage Feedback Various Dierent Bias Circuits pnp Transistors
More informationBiasing BJTs CHAPTER OBJECTIVES 4.1 INTRODUCTION
4 DC Biasing BJTs CHAPTER OBJECTIVES Be able to determine the dc levels for the variety of important BJT configurations. Understand how to measure the important voltage levels of a BJT transistor configuration
More informationBipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)  Introduction
Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)  Introduction It was found in 1948 at the Bell Telephone Laboratories. It is a three terminal device and has three semiconductor regions. It can be used in signal amplification
More informationUNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences EE 105: Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Spring 2008 MIDTERM EXAMINATION #1 Time
More informationChapter 5. BJT AC Analysis
Chapter 5. Outline: The r e transistor model CB, CE & CC AC analysis through r e model commonemitter fixedbias voltagedivider bias emitterbias & emitterfollower commonbase configuration Transistor
More informationHomework Assignment 08
Homework Assignment 08 Question 1 (Short Takes) Two points each unless otherwise indicated. 1. Give one phrase/sentence that describes the primary advantage of an active load. Answer: Large effective resistance
More informationThe CommonEmitter Amplifier
c Copyright 2009. W. Marshall Leach, Jr., Professor, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. The CommonEmitter Amplifier Basic Circuit Fig. shows the circuit diagram
More informationBasic Electronics Prof. Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati
Basic Electronics Prof. Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module: 2 Bipolar Junction Transistors Lecture4 Biasing
More informationKOM2751 Analog Electronics :: Dr. Muharrem Mercimek :: YTU  Control and Automation Dept. 1 4 DC BIASING BJTS (CONT D II )
KOM2751 Analog Electronics :: Dr. Muharrem Mercimek :: YTU  Control and Automation Dept. 1 4 DC BIASING BJTS (CONT D II ) Most of the content is from the textbook: Electronic devices and circuit theory,
More informationMod. Sim. Dyn. Sys. Amplifiers page 1
AMPLIFIERS A circuit containing only capacitors, amplifiers (transistors) and resistors may resonate. A circuit containing only capacitors and resistors may not. Why does amplification permit resonance
More informationAt point G V = = = = = = RB B B. IN RB f
Common Emitter At point G CE RC 0. 4 12 0. 4 116. I C RC 116. R 1k C 116. ma I IC 116. ma β 100 F 116µ A I R ( 116µ A)( 20kΩ) 2. 3 R + 2. 3 + 0. 7 30. IN R f Gain in Constant Current Region I I I C F
More informationMod. Sim. Dyn. Sys. Amplifiers page 1
AMPLIFIERS A circuit containing only capacitors, amplifiers (transistors) and resistors may resonate. A circuit containing only capacitors and resistors may not. Why does amplification permit resonance
More informationCircle the one best answer for each question. Five points per question.
ID # NAME EE255 EXAM 3 November 8, 2001 Instructor (circle one) Talavage Gray This exam consists of 16 multiple choice questions and one workout problem. Record all answers to the multiple choice questions
More informationBiasing the CE Amplifier
Biasing the CE Amplifier Graphical approach: plot I C as a function of the DC baseemitter voltage (note: normally plot vs. base current, so we must return to EbersMoll): I C I S e V BE V th I S e V th
More informationChapter 13 SmallSignal Modeling and Linear Amplification
Chapter 13 SmallSignal Modeling and Linear Amplification Microelectronic Circuit Design Richard C. Jaeger Travis N. Blalock 1/4/12 Chap 131 Chapter Goals Understanding of concepts related to: Transistors
More informationInput Stage. V IC(max) V BE1. V CE 5(sat ) V IC(min) = V CC +V BE 3 = V EE. + V CE1(sat )
BJT OPAMPs Input Stage The input stage is similar to MOS design. Take a pnp input stage (Q1 Q2) with npn current mirror load (Q3 Q4) and a pnp tail current source (Q5). Then, V IC(max) = V CC V BE1 V
More informationSection 1: Common Emitter CE Amplifier Design
ECE 3274 BJT amplifier design CE, CE with Ref, and CC. Richard Cooper Section 1: CE amp Re completely bypassed (open Loop) Section 2: CE amp Re partially bypassed (gain controlled). Section 3: CC amp (open
More informationFYSE400 ANALOG ELECTRONICS
YSE400 ANALOG ELECTONCS LECTUE 3 Bipolar Sub Circuits 1 BPOLA SUB CCUTS Bipolar Current Sinks and Sources Transistor operates in forwardactive region. < < sat CE CN max CE < < + BN CN BN max CE N N N
More informationEE105 Fall 2014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits
EE05 Fall 204 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Prof. Ming C. Wu wu@eecs.berkeley.edu 5 Sutardja Dai Hall (SDH) Terminal Gain and I/O Resistances of BJT Amplifiers Emitter (CE) Collector (CC) Base (CB)
More informationElectronic Circuits Summary
Electronic Circuits Summary Andreas Biri, DITET 6.06.4 Constants (@300K) ε 0 = 8.854 0 F m m 0 = 9. 0 3 kg k =.38 0 3 J K = 8.67 0 5 ev/k kt q = 0.059 V, q kt = 38.6, kt = 5.9 mev V Small Signal Equivalent
More informationUniversity of Pittsburgh
University of Pittsburgh Experiment #8 Lab Report The Bipolar Junction Transistor: Characteristics and Models Submission Date: 11/6/2017 Instructors: Dr. Minhee Yun John Erickson Yanhao Du Submitted By:
More informationESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics. Feedback Basics
Feedback Basics Stability Feedback concept Feedback in emitter follower Onepole feedback and root locus Frequency dependent feedback and root locus Gain and phase margins Conditions for closed loop stability
More information(e V BC/V T. α F I SE = α R I SC = I S (3)
Experiment #8 BJT witching Characteristics Introduction pring 2015 Be sure to print a copy of Experiment #8 and bring it with you to lab. There will not be any experiment copies available in the lab. Also
More informationSPICE SIMULATIONS OF CURRENT SOURCES BIASING OF LOW VOLTAGE
SPICE SIMULATIONS OF CURRENT SOURCES BIASING OF LOW VOLTAGE MONICAANCA CHITA, MIHAI IONESCU Key words: Bias circuits, Current mirrors, Current sources biasing of low voltage, SPICE simulations. In this
More informationForwardActive Terminal Currents
ForwardActive Terminal Currents Collector current: (electron diffusion current density) x (emitter area) diff J n AE qd n n po A E V E V th  e W (why minus sign? is by def.
More informationCHAPTER 7  CD COMPANION
Chapter 7  CD companion 1 CHAPTER 7  CD COMPANION CD7.2 Biasing of SingleStage Amplifiers This companion section to the text contains detailed treatments of biasing circuits for both bipolar and fieldeffect
More informationChapter 10 Instructor Notes
G. izzoni, Principles and Applications of lectrical ngineering Problem solutions, hapter 10 hapter 10 nstructor Notes hapter 10 introduces bipolar junction transistors. The material on transistors has
More informationEE105  Fall 2006 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits
EE105  Fall 2006 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Prof. Jan M. Rabaey (jan@eecs) Lecture 21: Bipolar Junction Transistor Administrative Midterm Th 6:308pm in Sibley Auditorium Covering everything
More informationRIB. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Analog Electronics. 8 Electrical Engineering RIBR T7. Detailed Explanations. Rank Improvement Batch ANSWERS.
8 Electrical Engineering RIBR T7 Session 089 S.No. : 9078_LS RIB Rank Improvement Batch ELECTRICL ENGINEERING nalog Electronics NSWERS. (d) 7. (a) 3. (c) 9. (a) 5. (d). (d) 8. (c) 4. (c) 0. (c) 6. (b)
More informationDelhi Noida Bhopal Hyderabad Jaipur Lucknow Indore Pune Bhubaneswar Kolkata Patna Web: Ph:
Serial : ND_EE_NW_Analog Electronics_05088 Delhi Noida Bhopal Hyderabad Jaipur Lucknow ndore Pune Bhubaneswar Kolkata Patna Web: Email: info@madeeasy.in Ph: 04546 CLASS TEST 089 ELECTCAL ENGNEENG Subject
More informationECE342 Test 2 Solutions, Nov 4, :008:00pm, Closed Book (one page of notes allowed)
ECE342 Test 2 Solutions, Nov 4, 2008 6:008:00pm, Closed Book (one page of notes allowed) Please use the following physical constants in your calculations: Boltzmann s Constant: Electron Charge: Free
More informationCHAPTER.4: Transistor at low frequencies
CHAPTER.4: Transistor at low frequencies Introduction Amplification in the AC domain BJT transistor modeling The re Transistor Model The Hybrid equivalent Model Introduction There are three models commonly
More informationBipolar junction transistor operation and modeling
6.01  Electronic Devices and Circuits Lecture 8  Bipolar Junction Transistor Basics  Outline Announcements Handout  Lecture Outline and Summary; Old eam 1's on Stellar First Hour Eam  Oct. 8, 7:309:30
More informationChapter 3 Output stages
Chapter 3 utput stages 3.. Goals and properties 3.. Goals and properties deliver power into the load with good efficacy and small power dissipate on the final transistors small output impedance maximum
More informationHomework Assignment 09
Homework Assignment 09 Question 1 (Short Takes) Two points each unless otherwise indicated. 1. What is the 3dB bandwidth of the amplifier shown below if r π = 2.5K, r o = 100K, g m = 40 ms, and C L =
More informationElectronics II. Midterm #2
The University of Toledo EECS:3400 Electronics I Section sums_elct7.fm  StudentName Electronics II Midterm # Problems Points. 8. 3. 7 Total 0 Was the exam fair? yes no The University of Toledo sums_elct7.fm
More informationElectronics II. Midterm II
The University of Toledo su7ms_elct7.fm  Electronics II Midterm II Problems Points. 7. 7 3. 6 Total 0 Was the exam fair? yes no The University of Toledo su7ms_elct7.fm  Problem 7 points Equation ()
More informationWhereas the diode was a 1junction device, the transistor contains two junctions. This leads to two possibilities:
Part Recall: two types of charge carriers in semiconductors: electrons & holes two types of doped semiconductors: ntype (favor e), ptype (favor holes) for conduction Whereas the diode was a junction
More informationSection 5.4 BJT Circuits at DC
12/3/2004 section 5_4 JT Circuits at DC 1/1 Section 5.4 JT Circuits at DC Reading Assignment: pp. 421436 To analyze a JT circuit, we follow the same boring procedure as always: ASSUME, ENFORCE, ANALYZE
More informationThe current source. The Active Current Source
V ref +  The current source Minimum noise euals: Thevenin Norton = V ref DC current through resistor gives an increase of /f noise (granular structure) Accuracy of source also determined by the accuracy
More informationAssignment 3 ELEC 312/Winter 12 R.Raut, Ph.D.
Page 1 of 3 ELEC 312: ELECTRONICS II : ASSIGNMENT3 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Winter 2012 1. A commonemitter amplifier that can be represented by the following equivalent circuit,
More information(Refer Time Slide: 1:35)
Analog Electronic Circuits Prof. S. C. Dutta Roy Department of Electrical Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Lecture No 04 Problem Session 1 On DC Analysis of BJT Circuits This is the fourth
More informationEE 230 Lecture 33. Nonlinear Circuits and Nonlinear Devices. Diode BJT MOSFET
EE 230 Lecture 33 Nonlinear Circuits and Nonlinear Devices Diode BJT MOSFET Review from Last Time: nchannel MOSFET Source Gate L Drain W L EFF Poly Gate oxide nactive psub depletion region (electrically
More informationCARLETON UNIVERSITY. FINAL EXAMINATION December DURATION 3 HOURS No. of Students 130
ALETON UNIVESITY FINAL EXAMINATION December 005 DUATION 3 HOUS No. of Students 130 Department Name & ourse Number: Electronics ELE 3509 ourse Instructor(s): Prof. John W. M. ogers and alvin Plett AUTHOIZED
More informationJunction Bipolar Transistor. Characteristics Models Datasheet
Junction Bipolar Transistor Characteristics Models Datasheet Characteristics (1) The BJT is a threeterminal device, terminals are named emitter, base and collector. Small signals, applied to the base,
More informationECE 2201 PRELAB 5B BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR (BJT) FUNDAMENTALS
EE 2201 PRELAB 5B BIPOLAR JUNTION TRANSISTOR (BJT) FUNDAMENTALS P1. β Meter The circuit of Figure P51 can be used to measure the current gain β of the BJT. Determine values for resistors R1 and R2 to meet
More informationElectronic Circuits 1. Transistor Devices. Contents BJT and FET Characteristics Operations. Prof. C.K. Tse: Transistor devices
Electronic Circuits 1 Transistor Devices Contents BJT and FET Characteristics Operations 1 What is a transistor? Threeterminal device whose voltagecurrent relationship is controlled by a third voltage
More information55:041 Electronic Circuits The University of Iowa Fall Final Exam
Final Exam Name: Score Max: 135 Question 1 (1 point unless otherwise noted) a. What is the maximum theoretical efficiency for a classb amplifier? Answer: 78% b. The abbreviation/term ESR is often encountered
More information(Refer Slide Time: 1:41)
Analog Electronic Circuits Professor S. C. Dutta Roy Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Lecture no 13 Module no 01 Midband Analysis of CB and CC Amplifiers We are
More informationElectronic Circuits. Transistor Bias Circuits. Manar Mohaisen Office: F208 Department of EECE
lectronic ircuits Transistor Bias ircuits Manar Mohaisen Office: F208 mail: manar.subhi@kut.ac.kr Department of Review of the Precedent Lecture Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) BJT haracteristics and
More informationCapacitors Diodes Transistors. PC200 Lectures. Terry Sturtevant. Wilfrid Laurier University. June 4, 2009
Wilfrid Laurier University June 4, 2009 Capacitor an electronic device which consists of two conductive plates separated by an insulator Capacitor an electronic device which consists of two conductive
More informationCHAPTER.6 :TRANSISTOR FREQUENCY RESPONSE
CHAPTER.6 :TRANSISTOR FREQUENCY RESPONSE To understand Decibels, log scale, general frequency considerations of an amplifier. low frequency analysis  Bode plot low frequency response BJT amplifier Miller
More informationElectronic Circuits. Bipolar Junction Transistors. Manar Mohaisen Office: F208 Department of EECE
Electronic Circuits Bipolar Junction Transistors Manar Mohaisen Office: F208 Email: manar.subhi@kut.ac.kr Department of EECE Review of Precedent Class Explain the Operation of the Zener Diode Explain Applications
More informationEngineering 1620 Spring 2011 Answers to Homework # 4 Biasing and Small Signal Properties
Engineering 60 Spring 0 Answers to Homework # 4 Biasing and Small Signal Properties.).) The inband Thevenin equivalent source impedance is the parallel combination of R, R, and R3. ( Inband implies the
More informationThe BJT Differential Amplifier. Basic Circuit. DC Solution
c Copyright 010. W. Marshall Leach, Jr., Professor, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. The BJT Differential Amplifier Basic Circuit Figure 1 shows the circuit
More informationLecture 7: Transistors and Amplifiers
Lecture 7: Transistors and Amplifiers Hybrid Transistor Model for small AC : The previous model for a transistor used one parameter (β, the current gain) to describe the transistor. doesn't explain many
More informationElectronic Devices and Circuits Lecture 18  Single Transistor Amplifier Stages  Outline Announcements. Notes on Single Transistor Amplifiers
6.012 Electronic Devices and Circuits Lecture 18 Single Transistor Amplifier Stages Outline Announcements Handouts Lecture Outline and Summary Notes on Single Transistor Amplifiers Exam 2 Wednesday night,
More informationID # NAME. EE255 EXAM 3 April 7, Instructor (circle one) Ogborn Lundstrom
ID # NAME EE255 EXAM 3 April 7, 1998 Instructor (circle one) Ogborn Lundstrom This exam consists of 20 multiple choice questions. Record all answers on this page, but you must turn in the entire exam.
More informationmith College Computer Science CSC270 Spring 16 Circuits and Systems Lecture Notes Week 3 Dominique Thiébaut
mith College Computer Science CSC270 Spring 16 Circuits and Systems Lecture Notes Week 3 Dominique Thiébaut dthiebaut@smith.edu Crash Course in Electricity and Electronics Zero Physics background expected!
More information6.012 Electronic Devices and Circuits
Page 1 of 12 YOUR NAME Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Massachusetts Institute of Technology 6.012 Electronic Devices and Circuits FINAL EXAMINATION Open book. Notes: 1. Unless
More informationEE 330 Lecture 22. Small Signal Modelling Operating Points for Amplifier Applications Amplification with Transistor Circuits
EE 330 Lecture 22 Small Signal Modelling Operating Points for Amplifier Applications Amplification with Transistor Circuits Exam 2 Friday March 9 Exam 3 Friday April 13 Review Session for Exam 2: 6:00
More informationESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Bode Plot Review High Frequency BJT Model
Bode Plot Review High Frequency BJT Model 1 Logarithmic Frequency Response Plots (Bode Plots) Generic form of frequency response rational polynomial, where we substitute jω for s: H s=k sm a m 1 s m 1
More informationEE201 Review Exam I. 1. The voltage Vx in the circuit below is: (1) 3V (2) 2V (3) 2V (4) 1V (5) 1V (6) None of above
EE201, Review Probs Test 1 page1 Spring 98 EE201 Review Exam I Multiple Choice (5 points each, no partial credit.) 1. The voltage Vx in the circuit below is: (1) 3V (2) 2V (3) 2V (4) 1V (5) 1V (6)
More informationAs light level increases, resistance decreases. As temperature increases, resistance decreases. Voltage across capacitor increases with time LDR
LDR As light level increases, resistance decreases thermistor As temperature increases, resistance decreases capacitor Voltage across capacitor increases with time Potential divider basics: R 1 1. Both
More informationChapter 9 Bipolar Junction Transistor
hapter 9 ipolar Junction Transistor hapter 9  JT ipolar Junction Transistor JT haracteristics NPN, PNP JT D iasing ollector haracteristic and Load Line ipolar Junction Transistor (JT) JT is a threeterminal
More informationDevice Physics: The Bipolar Transistor
Monolithic Amplifier Circuits: Device Physics: The Bipolar Transistor Chapter 4 Jón Tómas Guðmundsson tumi@hi.is 2. Week Fall 2010 1 Introduction In analog design the transistors are not simply switches
More informationFigure 1 Basic epitaxial planar structure of NPN. Figure 2 The 3 regions of NPN (left) and PNP (right) type of transistors
Figure 1 Basic epitaxial planar structure of NPN Figure 2 The 3 regions of NPN (left) and PNP (right) type of transistors Lecture Notes: 2304154 Physics and Electronics Lecture 6 (2 nd Half), Year: 2007
More informationTransistor amplifiers: Biasing and Small Signal Model
Transistor amplifiers: iasing and Small Signal Model Transistor amplifiers utilizing JT or FT are similar in design and analysis. Accordingly we will discuss JT amplifiers thoroughly. Then, similar FT
More informationFigure Circuit for Question 1. Figure Circuit for Question 2
Exercises 10.7 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. For the circuit of Figure 10.44 the time constant is A. 0.5 ms 71.43 µs 2, 000 s D. 0.2 ms 4 Ω 2 Ω 12 Ω 1 mh 12u 0 () t V Figure 10.44. Circuit for Question
More informationSOME USEFUL NETWORK THEOREMS
APPENDIX D SOME USEFUL NETWORK THEOREMS Introduction In this appendix we review three network theorems that are useful in simplifying the analysis of electronic circuits: Thévenin s theorem Norton s theorem
More informationA NONLINEAR DIGITAL MODEL OF THE EMS VCS3 VOLTAGE CONTROLLED FILTER
A NONLINEAR DIGITAL MODEL OF THE EMS VCS3 VOLTAGE CONTROLLED FILTER Marco Civolani University of Verona Dipartimento di Informatica 15 Strada Le Grazie Verona 37134, Italy marcocivolani@gmailcom Federico
More information7. DESIGN OF ACCOUPLED BJT AMPLIFIERS FOR MAXIMUM UNDISTORTED VOLTAGE SWING
à 7. DESIGN OF ACCOUPLED BJT AMPLIFIERS FOR MAXIMUM UNDISTORTED VOLTAGE SWING Figure. AC coupled common emitter amplifier circuit ü The DC Load Line V CC = I CQ + V CEQ + R E I EQ I EQ = I CQ + I BQ I
More informationFig. 1 Simple BJT (NPN) current mirror and its test circuit
1 Lab 01: Current Mirrors Total 30 points: 20 points for lab, 5 points for wellorganized report, 5 points for immaculate circuit on breadboard Note: There are two parts for this lab. You must answer the
More informationEE 230 Lecture 31. THE MOS TRANSISTOR Model Simplifcations THE Bipolar Junction TRANSISTOR
EE 23 Lecture 3 THE MOS TRANSISTOR Model Simplifcations THE Bipolar Junction TRANSISTOR Quiz 3 Determine I X. Assume W=u, L=2u, V T =V, uc OX =  4 A/V 2, λ= And the number is? 3 8 5 2? 6 4 9 7 Quiz 3
More informationDigital Integrated CircuitDesign
Digital Integrated CircuitDesign Lecture 5a Bipolar Transistor Dep. Region Neutral Base n(0) b B C n b0 P C0 P e0 P C xn 0 xp 0 x n(w) b W B Adib Abrishamifar EE Department IUST Contents Bipolar Transistor
More information(Refer Slide Time: 1:49)
Analog Electronic Circuits Professor S. C. Dutta Roy Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Lecture no 14 Module no 01 Midband analysis of FET Amplifiers (Refer Slide
More informationElectronics II. Final Examination
The University of Toledo f17fs_elct27.fm 1 Electronics II Final Examination Problems Points 1. 11 2. 14 3. 15 Total 40 Was the exam fair? yes no The University of Toledo f17fs_elct27.fm 2 Problem 1 11
More informationECE343 Test 2: Mar 21, :008:00, Closed Book. Name : SOLUTION
ECE343 Test 2: Mar 21, 2012 6:008:00, Closed Book Name : SOLUTION 1. (25 pts) (a) Draw a circuit diagram for a differential amplifier designed under the following constraints: Use only BJTs. (You may
More informationEE105 Fall 2014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits. NMOS Transistor Capacitances: Saturation Region
EE105 Fall 014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Prof. Ming C. Wu wu@eecs.berkeley.edu 511 Sutardja Dai Hall (SDH) 1 NMOS Transistor Capacitances: Saturation Region Drain no longer connected to channel
More informationLecture 24 Multistage Amplifiers (I) MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIER
Lecture 24 Multistage Amplifiers (I) MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIER Outline. Introduction 2. CMOS multistage voltage amplifier 3. BiCMOS multistage voltage amplifier 4. BiCMOS current buffer 5. Coupling amplifier
More informationEECS 105: FALL 06 FINAL
University of California College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences Jan M. Rabaey TuTh 23:30 Wednesday December 13, 12:303:30pm EECS 105: FALL 06 FINAL NAME Last
More informationOperational Amplifiers
Operational Amplifiers A Linear IC circuit Operational Amplifier (opamp) An opamp is a highgain amplifier that has high input impedance and low output impedance. An ideal opamp has infinite gain and
More informationGeneral Purpose Transistors
General Purpose Transistors NPN and PNP Silicon These transistors are designed for general purpose amplifier applications. They are housed in the SOT 33/SC which is designed for low power surface mount
More informationI. Frequency Response of Voltage Amplifiers
I. Frequency Response of Voltage Amplifiers A. CommonEmitter Amplifier: V i SUP i OUT R S V BIAS R L v OUT V Operating Point analysis: 0, R s 0, r o >, r oc >, R L > Find V BIAS such that I C
More informationExperiment Determining the beta where it is stable.(6) Analysis and design of dcbiased transistor configurations (9)
Visit http://electronicsclub.cjb.net for more resources DC BIASING BJTs (Analysis & Design) Design Procedure..(3) Limits of operation....(3) BJT modes of operation...(4) The Beta(h FE ).....(5) Experiment
More information(Refer Slide Time: 1:22)
Analog Electronic Circuits Professor S. C. Dutta Roy Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Lecture no 19 Module no 01 Problem Session 5 on Frequency Response of Small
More informationLecture 35  Bipolar Junction Transistor (cont.) November 27, Currentvoltage characteristics of ideal BJT (cont.)
6.720J/3.43J  Integrated Microelectronic Devices  Fall 2002 Lecture 351 Lecture 35  Bipolar Junction Transistor (cont.) November 27, 2002 Contents: 1. Currentvoltage characteristics of ideal BJT (cont.)
More information