Designing Information Devices and Systems I Fall 2018 Lecture Notes Note Introduction: Op-amps in Negative Feedback

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1 EECS 16A Designing Information Devices and Systems I Fall 2018 Lecture Notes Note Introduction: Op-amps in Negative Feedback In the last note, we saw that can use an op-amp as a comparator. However, since the internal gain of an op-amp A is very large, in practice any input U and U with a slight difference between them will result in an output U out = A(U U ) that is clipped to either V DD or V SS. However, what if sometimes we would like to scale an input, but not to the point where that causes the op amp to clip out? As we will see later, negative feedback gives us a way to build blocks that depend only on ratio of physical quantities as long as the op amp has high enough (but not precise) internal gain. But let s first see an example of why this might be useful Design example DAC A digital to analog converter (DAC) is a component that translates digital signals into output analog voltages. Say we have a song stored digitally on our computer and we d like to convert it to a voltage with a DAC and then play it on a speaker. Using a simple circuit model of the DAC and speaker, let s try to design this audio system. 3.3V 10V DAC 0V The DAC takes in digital bits and converts them into an analog signal. Then this signal is fed into a speaker, as illustrated on the right. The maximum voltage the DAC can produce is 3.3V, and the minimum voltage the DAC can produce is 0V. However, you want the input voltage to the speaker to be between 0V and 10V (in order to make the speaker loud enough). So somehow you want to be able to map voltages from 0 to 3.3V to voltages from 0 to 10V. Suppose that we can model the speaker as an 8Ω resistor connected to ground and we model the DAC with its Thevenin equivalent with voltage V T H and thevenin resistance R T H = 1kΩ. What if we connect the DAC and the speaker directly? We will have the following circuit EECS 16A, Fall 2018, Note 18 1

2 R T H =1kΩ V T H V speaker 8Ω Now we can see that V speaker = V T H (1) which is much smaller than V T H. Recall that we want V speaker to be three times (10/3.3) larger than V T H in this example so this circuit isn t going to do what we would like. This shows that we cannot directly connect the DAC and speaker we need some intermediate circuit. In addition to providing a gain of roughly 3, we also want our intermediate circuit to act as a buffer. This means that attaching the speaker will not affect the output voltage of the DAC, and the speaker can draw any current required to power the device. So we want something like the following 3.3V 3 10V DAC V DAC 3V DAC 0V This looks just like the internal of an op amp! Now notice that based on what we know so far about op amps as comparators, we can t just scale the voltage linearly as we we would have wished: if we connect an ideal op amp (infinite internal gain) with V DD = 10V and V SS = 0V, the output voltage would either be 10V or 0V, but not something in between. To achieve what we would like, we need another tool, which we will introduce in the next section Negative feedback Negative feedback is used just about everywhere, including electronics, biology, mechanics, robotics, and more. The basic idea is that we measure an output, compare it to where we want to be (i.e. some target output), then adjust the inputs to get closer to that desired output. Let s turn this high level description into a more mathematical one. Concretely, we want to get a certain known gain out of our op amp. Currently we have an op-amp with some very large uncertain internal gain. We can describe this problem using a block diagram; a collection of drawings (mathematical in nature) that operate on quantities of interest using simplified representations. EECS 16A, Fall 2018, Note 18 2

3 Let s take a look at a generic block diagram for negative feedback systems. input feedback error A f output The idea is we take the difference between the input and a scaled version (multiplied by f ) of the output, which we call feedback, and apply gain A on it to again produce the output. Observe that if the feedback signal for some system is increased, the error (input - feedback) signal will decrease (move down), which then causes the output to go down as well, i.e., the loop has ability to suppress the original change in the feedback signal! Now we can get an intuitive idea of how negative feedback can be useful. When we want to get a system to have a desired output, negative feedback loops can help re-adjust to the value of the desired output when the output is too high or too low relative to the target value. Now let s see how negative feedback loops can be realized in op amps. Consider the following circuit: V DD V in V SS V f b To help analyze circuits of this kind, we will introduce two "golden rules" that we could use to make our lives simpler Golden Rules Recall the op amp symbol and equivalent circuit from the previous note: EECS 16A, Fall 2018, Note 18 3

4 U out u u I I V DD V SS U out u u A(u u ) V SS V DD V SS 2 For simplicity, we will sometimes assume that V SS = V DD, and we will not draw the supply terminals, as shown below. 1 When this happens, (V DD V SS )/2 = 0, so we can simplify the equivalent circuit by removing the lower dependent source. U out u u I I U out u u A(u u ) For an ideal op amp, the "golden rules" are (1) I = I = 0. Now let s think about why this is the case. Recall that the equivalent op amp circuit is the following: u u A(u u ) U out Notice that there is no closed circuit connected to the positive or negtiave input terminal of the op amp. Thus, no current can flow into the positive or negative input terminal. Note that this rule holds regardless of whether there is negative feedback or not. (2) u = u : We will explain later why this is true, but intuitively this means that the "error signal" going into the op amp must be zero. One important thing to note now is this rule only holds when there is negative feedback. 1 Note that omitting the supply terminals only makes sense when the op-amp is in negative feedback. When the op-amp is acting as a comparator (i.e. not in negative feedback) the output voltage is basically always either V DD or V SS. Therefore, we probably want to know what V DD and V SS are. However, when an op-amp is in negative feedback, the output voltage is generally independent of the supply voltages, so it is ok to omit them. However, even in negative feedback, the output cannot go above V DD or below V SS. When we omit the supply voltages, we are implicitly stating that the supply voltages are large enough that this never happens. EECS 16A, Fall 2018, Note 18 4

5 A implies the Golden Rules. We will see this in homework. Now let s use the golden rules to analyze the circuit we saw earlier: I I V in I 1 V f b I 2 First we apply KCL at the junction between and to get the following relationship By the first golden rule, we know that I = I = 0. Hence, Now let s apply the second golden rule, V = V. Using this, we have Now we can solve for I 2 using Ohm s law, V f b = I 2, hence Using Ohm s law on, we also have V f b = I 1. Hence, However, we know that I 1 = I 2, which gives us the following relationship I 1 = I 2 I. (2) I 1 = I 2. (3) V in = V f b. (4) I 2 = V f b. (5) I 1 = V f b. (6) which is equivalent to I 1 = V f b = V f b = I 2, (7) Moving terms around, this gives us I 1 = V in = V in = I 2. (8) ( = V in 1 R ) 1. (9) EECS 16A, Fall 2018, Note 18 5

6 Notice that here the ratio V in only depends on the ratio. This is a great property since it is rather difficult to produce resistors with a particular absolute resistance. As long as the two resistors are produced with the same error rate ε, i.e., they have resistance (1 ε) and (1 ε), the ratio between their resistance will remain the same (1 ε) (1 ε) =. (10) 18.5 Second golden rule revisited Recall that in the last section, we stated the second golden rule U = U, i.e., the voltage potential at the positive input terminal (relative to ground) and the voltage at the negative input terminal (relative to the same ground) are the same when there is negative feedback. Now we would like to justify why this is the case. We return to the block diagram we drew earlier for a general negative feedback loop, but now focus on its application in circuits. V in V error A V f b f Observe that if V f b remains unchanged and V in goes up, then V error goes up. Then since A is a positive number, also goes up, which causes V f b to go up. In other words, the magnitude of V error goes down, meaning that the system is going to stablize itself. Now what if we change the minus sign to a plus sign in the diagram, i.e., changing the system into a positive feedback system. With a similar logic, you could verify that if V in goes up, V f b goes up, but V error goes up, which further causes to go up. We see that it is not possible to stabilize the system. Let s look at the negative feedback op amp circuit we ve seen earlier, I I V in I 1 V f b I 2 We know that when V in increases, also increases since = A ( ) V in V f b. When Vout increases, V f b = also increases, which then cause V error, and hence, to go down. (Note in this case, f = EECS 16A, Fall 2018, Note 18 6

7 in the block diagram.) Now let s derive why U = U in this case. We know that in the above circuit, U = V in and U = V f b. Let s redraw the block diagram. U V error A U f Now when the system stablilizes, we have Combining the last two equations, we have which gives us Finally, we have Hence, V error = U U (11) = AV error = A(U U ) (12) U = f (13) = A(U f ), (14) (1 A f ) = AU. (15) = U = f = A 1 A f U. (16) f A 1 A f U. (17) Now we know that the gain A is very large, hence f A is very large. Hence, the ratio f A 1 A f Thus, when A which is what we assume for an ideal op amp, U = U. 1. (18) 18.6 Inverting op amp Let s apply what we ve learned so far about Golden rules and negative feedback to the following op amp circuit: EECS 16A, Fall 2018, Note 18 7

8 R f If I in I V in U I Given an ideal op-amp (with power rails of sufficiently large magnitude), what is if we input an arbitrary voltage of V in? The first golden rule says that I = I = 0. Hence using KCL at the node labelled with voltage V, we have We have I in = I I f = 0 I f = I f. (19) I in = I f. (20) Now, let s apply the second golden rule, U = U. Since the positive input terminal is connected to ground, U = 0. Hence, we have By Ohm s law, Since I in = I f, we have Moving terms around, we have U = U = 0. (21) I in = V in U I f = U R f = V in (22) = R f. (23) V in = R f. (24) = R f V in. (25) Observe that the output voltage is a multiple of the input voltage with a scaling factor of R f. In addition, notice that the and V in are of opposite signs. This type of circuit is what we call an inverting amplifier. EECS 16A, Fall 2018, Note 18 8

9 18.7 More complicated op amp example Now let s take a look at a slightly more complicated op amp circuit example with two voltage sources: I I V R 3 I 3 I 1 V 1 I 2 V 2 First, let s apply the first golden rule, I = I = 0. Applying KCL at the node labelled V, we have Hence, we have I 1 I 2 = I I 3 = 0 I 3 = I 3. (26) I 1 I 2 = I 3. (27) Now by the second golden rule and the fact that the positive input terminal is connected to ground, we have Applying Ohm s law at each of the three resistors, we have U = U = 0. (28) I 1 = V 1 U = V 1 (29) I 2 = V 2 U = V 2 (30) I 3 = U R 3 = R 3 (31) Plugging in the above result to the KCL equation I 1 I 2 = I 3 derived previously, we have (32) Multiplying both sides by R 3, we have V 1 V 2 = R 3. (33) = R 3 V 1 R 3 V 2, (34) relating the final output with the two inputs V 1 and V 2. EECS 16A, Fall 2018, Note 18 9

10 18.8 Practice Problems These practice problems are also available in an interactive form on the course website. 1. True or False: We can use both Golden Rules to analyze any op-amp circuit. 2. True or False: An op-amp can operate without externally supplied power. 3. Find an expression for the output voltage in terms of the input voltage V in if the comparator is not railing (the output is between V DD and V SS ). Assume that the op-amp has a gain of A. V in 1kΩ 3kΩ 2V 5V 4. An op-amp does not change the voltage of the circuit it is connected to because: (a) it has infinite gain. (b) it has infinite input resistance. (c) the Thévenin equivalent resistance at the output is If we switched the negative terminal and the positive terminal on an op-amp in negative feedback, would the gain across the amplifier be the same? For example, consider the op amp below. V in (a) Yes, it would be the same. (b) No, it would be the inverse of the original gain. EECS 16A, Fall 2018, Note 18 10

11 (c) No, because we can no longer assume that U and U are equal. 6. True or False: An ideal op-amp behaves as though it has infinite gain. EECS 16A, Fall 2018, Note 18 11

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