Sheng S. Li. Semiconductor Physical Electronics. Second Edition. With 230 Figures. 4) Springer


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1 Sheng S. Li Semiconductor Physical Electronics Second Edition With 230 Figures 4) Springer
2 Contents Preface 1. Classification of Solids and Crystal Structure Introduction The Bravais Lattice The Crystal Structure Miller Indices and Crystal Planes The Reciprocal Lattice and Brillouin Zone Types of Crystal Bindings Defects in a Crystalline Solid 18 Problems 23 Bibliography Lattice Dynamics Introduction The OneDimensional Linear Chain Dispersion Relation for a ThreeDimensional Lattice The Concept of Phonons The Density of States and Lattice Spectrum Lattice Specific Heat 39 Problems 42 References 44 Bibliography Semiconductor Statistics Introduction Maxwell Boltzmann Statistics Fermi Dirac Statistics Bose Einstein Statistics Statistics for the ShallowImpurity States in a Semiconductor 57 ix
3 x Contents Problems 59 Bibliography Energy Band Theory Introduction Basic Quantum Concepts and Wave Mechanics The Bloch Floquet Theorem The Kronig Penney Model The Nearly Free Electron Approximation The TightBinding Approximation Energy Band Structures for Some Semiconductors The Effective Mass Concept for Electrons and Holes Energy Band Structures and Density of States for LowDimensional Systems 96 Problems 101 References 103 Bibliography Equilibrium Properties of Semiconductors Introduction Densities of Electrons and Holes in a Semiconductor Intrinsic Semiconductors Extrinsic Semiconductors lonization Energies of Shallow and DeepLevel Impurities Hall Effect, Electrical Conductivity, and Hall Mobility Heavy Doping Effects in a Degenerate Semiconductor 128 Problems 130 References 132 Bibliography Excess Carrier Phenomenon in Semiconductors Introduction Nonradiative Recombination: The Shockley Read Hall Model BandtoBand Radiative Recombination BandtoBand Auger Recombination Basic Semiconductor Equations The ChargeNeutrality Equation The Haynes Shockley Experiment The Photoconductivity Decay Experiment Surface States and Surface Recombination Velocity DeepLevel Transient Spectroscopy Technique Surface Photovoltage Technique 165 Problems 169 References 170 Bibliography 170
4 Contents xi 7. Transport Properties of Semiconductors Introduction Galvanomagnetic, Thermoelectric, and Thermomagnetic Effects Boltzmann Transport Equation Derivation of Transport Coefficients for ntype Semiconductors Transport Coefficients for the Mixed Conduction Case Transport Coefficients for Some Semiconductors 198 Problems 208 References 209 Bibliography Scattering Mechanisms and Carrier Mobilities in Semiconductors Introduction Differential Scattering CrossSection Ionized Impurity Scattering Neutral Impurity Scattering Acoustical Phonon Scattering Optical Phonon Scattering Scattering by Dislocations Electron and Hole Mobilities in Semiconductors HotElectron Effects in a Semiconductor 239 Problems 243 References 244 Bibliography Optical Properties and Photoelectric Effects Introduction Optical Constants of a Solid FreeCarrier Absorption Process Fundamental Absorption Process The Photoconductivity Effect The Photovoltaic (Dember) Effect The Photomagnetoelectric Effect 277 Problems 281 References 283 Bibliography MetalSemiconductor Contacts Introduction Metal Work Function and Schottky Effect Thermionic Emission Theory Ideal Schottky Contact Current Flow in a Schottky Diode 295
5 xii Contents 10.6 Current Voltage Characteristics of a Silicon and a GaAs Schottky Diode Determination of Schottky Barrier Height Enhancement of Effective Barrier Height Applications of Schottky Diodes Ohmic Contacts in Semiconductors 324 Problems 330 References 332 Bibliography pn Junction Diodes Introduction Equilibrium Properties of a pn Junction Diode pn Junction Diode Under Bias Conditions Minority Carrier Distribution and Current Flow Diffusion Capacitance and Conductance Minority Carrier Storage and Transient Behavior Zener and Avalanche Breakdowns Tunnel Diodes pn Heterojunction Diodes Junction FieldEffect Transistors 371 Problems 377 References 380 Bibliography Solar Cells and Photodetectors Introduction Photovoltaic Devices (Solar Cells) Photodetectors 417 Problems 454 References 456 Bibliography LightEmitting Devices Introduction Device Physics, Structures, and Characteristics of LEDs LED Materials and Technologies Principles of Semiconductor LDs Laser Diode (LD) Materials and Technologies 493 Problems 509 References 511 Bibliography 512
6 Contents xiii 14. Bipolar Junction Transistors Introduction Basic Device Structures and Modes of Operation Current Voltage Characteristics Current Gain, Base Transport Factor, and Emitter Injection Efficiency Modeling of a Bipolar Junction Transistor Switching and Frequency Response Advanced Bipolar Junction Transistors Thyristors Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors 548 Problems 562 References 565 Bibliography MetalOxideSemiconductor FieldEffect Transistors Introduction An Ideal MetalOxideSemiconductor System Oxide Charges and Interface Traps MOS FieldEffect Transistors SOI MOSBETS ChargeCoupled Devices 601 Problems 609 References 610 Bibliography HighSpeed IIIV Semiconductor Devices Introduction Metal Semiconductor FieldEffect Transistors High Electron Mobility Transistors HotElectron Transistors Resonant Tunneling Devices TransferredElectron Devices 653 Problems 659 References 660 Bibliography 661 Solutions to Selected Problems 664 Appendix 687 Index 689
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