Dynamic Combinational Circuits. Dynamic Logic


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1 Dynamic Combinational Circuits Dynamic circuits Charge sharing, charge redistribution Domino logic npcmos (zipper CMOS) Krish Chakrabarty 1 Dynamic Logic Dynamic gates use a clocked pmos pullup Two modes: precharge and evaluate Krish Chakrabarty 2 1
2 Dynamic Logic O u t I n 1 I n 2 I n 3 P D N C L I n 1 I n 2 I n 3 P U N O u t C L n network P r e c h a r g e p network 2 p h a s e o p e r a t i o n : E v a l u a t i o n Krish Chakrabarty 3 Logical Effort Krish Chakrabarty 4 2
3 Dynamic Logic N+2 transistors for Ninput function Better than 2N transistors for complementary static CMOS Comparable to N+1 for ratioed logic No static power dissipation Better than ratioed logic Careful design, clock signal needed Krish Chakrabarty 5 Dynamic Logic: Principles Precharge O u t = 0, Out is precharged to V DD by M p. M e is turned off, no dc current flows (regardless of input values) I n 1 I n 2 I n 3 P D N C L Evaluation = 1, M e is turned on, M p is turned off. Output is pulled down to zero depending on the values on the inputs. If not, precharged value remains on C L. Important: Once Out is discharged, it cannot be charged again! Gate input can make only one transition during evaluation Minimum clock frequency must be maintained Can M e be eliminated? Krish Chakrabarty 6 3
4 The Foot What if pulldown network is ON during precharge? Use series evaluation transistor to prevent fight. Krish Chakrabarty 7 Example O u t R a t i o l e s s N o S t a t i c P o w e r C o n s u m p t i o n A B C N o i s e M a r g i n s s m a l l ( N M L ) R e q u i r e s C l o c k Krish Chakrabarty 8 4
5 Dynamic 4 Input NAND Gate V DD Out In 1 In 2 In 3 In 4 GND Krish Chakrabarty 9 Cascading Dynamic Gates V O u t 1 O u t 2 I n I n O u t 1 V T n O u t 2 t Krish Chakrabarty 10 5
6 Monotonicity Dynamic gates require monotonically rising inputs during evaluation 0 > 0 0 > 1 1 > 1 But not 1 > 0 Krish Chakrabarty 11 Monotonicity Woes But dynamic gates produce monotonically falling outputs during evaluation Illegal for one dynamic gate to drive another! Krish Chakrabarty 12 6
7 Reliability Problems Charge Leakage O u t A ( 1 ) ( 2 ) C L V o u t p r e c h a r g e e v a l u a t e t A = 0 ( a ) L e a k a g e s o u r c e s ( b ) E f f e c t o n w a v e f o r m s t (1) Leakage through reversebiased diode of the diffusion area (2) Subthreshold current from drain to source M i n i m u m C l o c k F r e q u e n c y Krish Chakrabarty 13 Leakage Dynamic node floats high during evaluation Transistors are leaky (I OFF 0) Dynamic value will leak away over time Formerly miliseconds, now nanoseconds! Use keeper to hold dynamic node Must be weak enough not to fight evaluation Krish Chakrabarty 14 7
8 Charge Sharing (redistribution) Assume: during precharge, A and B are 0, C a is discharged During evaluation, B remains 0 and A rises to 1 Charge stored on C L is now redistributed over C L and C a O u t A B = 0 M a X M b C a C L C L V DD = C L V out (t) + C a V X V X = V DD  V t, therefore V out (t) = V out (t)  V DD = C a (V DD V t ) C L C b Desirable to keep the voltage drop below threshold of pmos transistor (why?) C a /C L < 0.2 Krish Chakrabarty 15 Charge Sharing Dynamic gates suffer from charge sharing Krish Chakrabarty 16 8
9 Charge Redistribution  Solutions M b l O u t M b l O u t A M a A M a B M b B M b ( a ) S t a t i c b l e e d e r ( b ) P r e c h a r g e o f i n t e r n a l n o d e s Krish Chakrabarty 17 Secondary Precharge Solution: add secondary precharge transistors Typically need to precharge every other node Big load capacitance C Y helps as well Krish Chakrabarty 18 9
10 Domino Logic O u t 1 M r O u t 2 I n 1 I n 2 I n 3 P D N I n 4 P D N S t a t i c I n v e r t e r w i t h L e v e l R e s t o r e r Static inverters between dynamic stages Krish Chakrabarty 19 Domino Gates Follow dynamic stage with inverting static gate Dynamic / static pair is called domino gate Produces monotonic outputs Krish Chakrabarty 20 10
11 Domino Logic  Characteristics O n l y n o n  i n v e r t i n g l o g i c V e r y f a s t  O n l y 1  > 0 t r a n s i t i o n s a t i n p u t o f i n v e r t e r Precharging makes pullup very fast A d d i n g l e v e l r e s t o r e r r e d u c e s l e a k a g e a n d c h a r g e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n p r o b l e m s O p t i m i z e i n v e r t e r f o r f a n  o u t Krish Chakrabarty 21 Domino Optimizations Each domino gate triggers next one, like a string of dominos toppling over Gates evaluate sequentially but precharge in parallel Thus evaluation is more critical than precharge HIskewed static stages can perform logic (fast rising output) Compound domino 8input domino mux HIskew static NAND gate Krish Chakrabarty 22 11
12 DualRail Domino Domino only performs noninverting functions: AND, OR but not NAND, NOR, or XOR Dualrail domino solves this problem Takes true and complementary inputs Produces true and complementary outputs sig_h sig_l Meaning 0 0 Precharged invalid Krish Chakrabarty 23 Example: AND/NAND Given A_h, A_l, B_h, B_l Compute Y_h = A * B, Y_l = ~(A * B) Pulldown networks are conduction complements Krish Chakrabarty 24 12
13 Example: XOR/XNOR Sometimes possible to share transistors Krish Chakrabarty 25 Noise Sensitivity Dynamic gates are very sensitive to noise Inputs: V IH V tn Outputs: floating output susceptible to noise noise Noise sources Capacitive crosstalk Charge sharing Power supply noise Feedthrough noise And more! 10: Circuit Families 26 13
14 Power Domino gates have high activity factors Output evaluates and precharges If output probability = 0.5, = 0.5 Output rises and falls on half the cycles Clocked transistors have = 1 Leads to very high power consumption 10: Circuit Families 27 Pass Transistor Circuits Use pass transistors like switches to do logic Inputs drive diffusion terminals as well as gates CMOS + Transmission Gates: 2input multiplexer Gates should be restoring 28 14
15 LEAP LEAn integration with Pass transistors Get rid of pmos transistors Use weak pmos feedback to pull fully high Ratio constraint 29 Domino Summary Domino logic is attractive for highspeed circuits 1.5 2x faster than static CMOS But many challenges: Monotonicity Leakage Charge sharing Noise Widely used in highperformance microprocessors Krish Chakrabarty 30 15
16 CPL Complementary Passtransistor Logic Dualrail form of pass transistor logic Avoids need for ratioed feedback Optional crosscoupling for railtorail swing 31 Pass Transistor Summary Researchers investigated pass transistor logic for general purpose applications in the 1990 s Benefits over static CMOS were small or negative No longer generally used However, pass transistors still have a niche in special circuits such as memories where they offer small size and the threshold drops can be managed 32 16
17 npcmos (Zipper CMOS) O u t 1 I n 1 I n 2 I n 3 P D N I n 4 P U N O u t 2 Only 10 transitions allowed at inputs of PUN Used a lot in the Alpha design Krish Chakrabarty 33 np CMOS Adder Krish Chakrabarty 34 17
18 CMOS Circuit Styles  Summary Krish Chakrabarty 35 18
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