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6 University of California at Berkeley Structural Engineering Mechanics & Materials Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering Spring 2012 Student name : Doctoral Preliminary Examination in Dynamics Problem 1. A 2-story building with rigid floors has the mass and stiffness matrices M = m K = k where k = 24EI/h 3. The first modal frequency and mode shape are h h EI m/2 m EI F(t) ω 1 = k m rad/s φ 1 = 1 2 a) Determine the second mode shape φ 2 and corresponding modal frequency ω 2. b) Suppose the building is subjected to a step forcing function F t = F 0 0 t = 0 t < 0 applied at the roof. Assuming the building is undamped and initially at rest, derive an expression for the displacement at the roof level.

7 Student name: Problem 2. The two adjacent single-story buildings with rigid roofs are subject to an earthquake base motion described by the pseudo-acceleration response spectrum for 5% damping shown below. Given the information provided in the figure, estimate the minimum separation Δ between the two buildings that is required to avoid their pounding. Assume each building has 5% of crtitcal damping. 5m m EI Δ m EI 3m EI m = 500 m3 s 2 Pseudo-acceleration, S a 1g S a = (0.5g)/T T, sec 2

8 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Materials UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY SPRING SEMESTER 2011 Name: Ph.D. PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION: DYNAMICS Let s take a look at a reactor building at the Fukushima Daichi nuclear power plant. Problem 1 A two-story frame is used to model the reactor building. Note the distribution of masses (m vs. 8m) that reflect the weight of the spent fuel pool. The building has the following properties: m = 5kip sec2 /in, k = 100kips/in. The reactor containment structure is considered to be rigid at this stage of the analysis. There is a gap sized between the containment structure and the spent fuel pool. A pseudo-acceleration design spectrum given in the figure is derived from the 2011 Great Tohoku earthquake records. 1. Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the reactor building. 2. Using an appropriate modal combination rule, determine the smallest size of the gap req such that pounding does not occur given the design spectrum. Justify your choice of the modal combination rule. 1

9 u 1 2k m 2k 1.0 A/g 0.90/T u 2 4m 4m 0.3 6k 6k T(sec) Problem 2 A tsunami wave force is modeled using rectangular pulse function, shown, and two equivalent lateral forces, P at the spent fuel pool level and P/2 at the roof level. 1. Determine the maximum lateral displacement of the reactor building at the spent fuel pool level. 2. Assuming the containment vessel in unaffected by the tsunami wave, determine if the gap size req determined considering earthquake loading (Problem 1) is sufficient to prevent pounding due to tsunami wave loading. Yes or No. P/2 u 1 2k m 2k 0.2 P/(mg) P u 2 4m 4m 6k 6k 1.0 T(sec) Problem 3 The containment vessel and the suppression pool structure is sitting on soil. The structure is modeled using a rigid weight W supported by massless rigid bars. The foundation of the structure is modeled using two symmetrically positioned springs whose axial stiffness is k and a pin support, as shown. The aspect ratio h/b = 1. There are no dampers. Assume deflections are small. Neglect only the rotational inertia of the weight, but account for its translation inertia. 2

10 1. Determine the natural frequency ω n of this system. Neglect the action of gravity. 2. Compute the value of the weight W cr that would cause the system to buckle. By definition, W cr is the largest possible weight the structure can support in static equilibrium when deflected from its vertical position by a small angle φ. Include the effect of gravity. 3. Determine the natural frequency ω gn of this system. Include the effect of gravity. Show that: ω gn = ω n 1 W W cr rigid bar h W φ h rigid bar k k b 3

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18 University of California, Berkeley Civil and Environmental Engineering Structural Engineering Mechanics and Materials Spring Semester 2009 Doctoral Preliminary Examination Dynamics Problem 1 Viscous dampers are often constructed so that the damping force is proportional the velocity raised to a power other than one. Consider a damper where the damping force is given by F D = sgn(v)av 0.5 where sgn(v) is +1 for ν > 0 and is -1 for v < 0, a is an arbitrary positive-valued coefficient, and vis the velocity of the damper. Determine an expression for the equivalent linear viscous damping coefficient c eq for the forces developed by this damper when it is undergoing harmonic excitation with a non-zero displacement amplitude u 0 and frequency ω. Problem 2 Consider the undamped two-degree-of-freedom ELASTIC structure shown below. Each mass block has a mass of 2 k-sec 2 /in and each spring has a stiffness of 315 k/in. The mass on the left (between the two springs) is subjected to a horizontal harmonic forcing excitation equal to F(t) = F 0 sinωt. The frequency of the excitation ω is rad/sec. Determine: i) What are the maximum expected displacements of both masses, and ii) What are the expected maximum forces in the two springs? K K 1000k K 1000k

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22 Name: University of California at Berkeley Civil and Environmental Engineering Structural Engineering, Mechanics & Materials Spring Semester 2008 Preliminary Examination in Dynamics 1. Consider a simple single degree-of-freedom system shown below. The rigid block with mass m slides on the horizontal surface. The block is attached to a rigid support by a linear elastic spring with stiffness k. Movement of the block is also resisted by friction between the block and the sliding surface. The horizontal force needed to overcome the friction equals F f =μw, where μ is an unknown friction coefficient and W is the weight of the mass block. W equals 100 kips and k equals 50 kips/inch. The mass is moved to the right 4 inches and then released. What friction coefficient is needed so that after one cycle of oscillation, the amplitude of horizontal oscillation is reduced to 2 inches? 2. Consider the two-degree of freedom system shown below. It is subjected to a horizontal earthquake excitation represented by a simplified response spectrum D n =3T, were the spectral displacement D n is measured in inches, and period is specified in seconds. It is desired that the structure be proportioned so that the expected peak horizontal response of the mass on the right is 8 inches. Modal contributions to response can be estimated using SRSS methods. It may be assumed that peak responses in each mode can be represented by the specified spectrum. a. What is the stiffness required of the springs (all equal) to achieve the stipulated peak displacement? b. What is the expected maximum force in the spring located between the two masses?

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