# The Geometry of Moduli Spaces of Maps from Curves

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 The Geometry of Moduli Spaces of Maps from Curves Thesis by Seunghee Ye In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Pasadena, California 2017 Defended May 3, 2017

3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii First, I would like to thank my avdisor, Tom Graber, for his guidance over the past five years. I have learned a lot under his supervision, and his insights helped me get through numerous obstacles that I encountered in my research. I am very grateful for his help and guidance, without which I could not have completed my research. I would also like to thank Tanvir Ahamed Bhuyain, William Chan, Brian Hwang, Emad Nasrollahpoursamami, and Pablo Solis for helpful discussions and their support. I am also grateful for Craig Sutton for having inspired me to pursue research in mathematics. Lastly, I would like to thank my parents, my brother, and my wife, Yang, for their love and unending support.

4 ABSTRACT iv A class of moduli spaces that has long been the interest of many algebraic geometers is the class of moduli spaces parametrizing maps from curves to target spaces. Different such moduli spaces have distinct geometry and also invariants associated to them. In this thesis, we will study the geometry of three such moduli spaces, M g,n ([pt/c ]), Quot C (n, d), and Q 0,2 (G(n, n), d). By understanding the global geometry of each moduli space, we will produce a stratification, which plays a central role in proving a result about invariants associated to the space. In Chapter 1, we study gauge Gromov-Witten invariants, which are the Euler characteristics of admissible classes on M g,n ([pt/c ]), the moduli space of maps from stable curves to [pt/c ]. In [1], Frenkel, Teleman, and Tolland show that while M g,n is not finite type, thsese gauge Gromov-Witten invariants are well-defined. By using a particular stratification of M 0,n, we prove that when g = 0, n-pointed gauge Gromov-Witten invariants can be reconstructed from 3-pointed invariants. This reconstruction theorem provides a concrete way to compute gauge Gromov-Witten invariants, and serves as an alternate proof of well-definedness of the invariants in genus 0 case. In Chapter 2, we compute the Poincare polynomials of Quot schemes, Quot C (n, d). We see that by using an appropriate stratification, we can recursively compute the Poincare polynomials of Quot C (n, d). Moreover, we see that the generating series for the Poincare polynomials is a rational function. As an application, we compute the Poincare polynomials of the moduli spaces of MOP-stable quotients, Q 0,2 (G(n, n), d). We show that the generating series for these polynomials is also a rational function.

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS v Acknowledgements iii Abstract iv Table of Contents v List of Illustrations vi Chapter I: Reconstruction Theorem in Gauge Gromov-Witten Theory Introduction Reconstruction in quantum K-theory Moduli stack of Gieseker bundles Outline Embedding C g,n M g,n Stratification of Z g,n = M g,n \ C g,n Type I curves Type II curves Type III curves Cohomology over Z g,n Towards finiteness of χ( M 0,n, α) String equation and divisor relations on M 0,n Reduction to boundary loci Admissible classes on Σ i Proof of the reconstruction theorem Future directions Chapter II: Generating Series for the Poincare Polynomials of Quot Schemes and Q 0,2 (G(n, n), d) Introduction Grothendieck ring of varieties and the Poincare polynomial Grothendieck Quot schemes Moduli space of stable quotients Poincare polynomials of punctual Quot schemes Generating series for Poincare polynomials of Quot C (n, d) The generating series for Poincare polynomials of Q 0,2 (G(n, n), d).. 74

6 vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Number Page 1.1 Examples of the correspondence C g,n M g,n Examples of the correspondence C g,n M g,n Examples of type I curves Examples of type II curves Examples of type III curves Type I curve lying in the image of C g,n Modular graphs and curves of W 1 i,d Modular graphs and curves of F 1 i,d Smoothing the node in the dashed circle Smoothing the node in the dashed circle Stratification of Z 1 i by Z 1 i,d Choosing a node on two stable components Choosing a point on a Gieseker bubble Choosing a node on a stable component and a bubble Modular graphs and curves of W 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) Modular graphs and curves of Y I,(d 1,d 2 ) Modular graphs and curves of F 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) Type II strata and their closure relations Closer look at U 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) Stratification of Z 2 I Z 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) when D d 1 d

7 1 C h a p t e r 1 RECONSTRUCTION THEOREM IN GAUGE GROMOV-WITTEN THEORY 1.1 Introduction In [9], Lee defines quantum K-invariants, which are K-theoretic push-forwards to Spec C of certain vector bundles on M g,n (X, β). These quantum K-invariants are shown to satisfy several axioms. Moreover, when g = 0 and X = P r, Lee and Pandharipande prove in [10] that there exist divisor relations in Pic(M 0,n (P r, β)) which allow one to reconstruct all quantum K-invariants of M 0,n (P r, β) from quantum K-invariants of M 0,1 (P r, β). In [1], Frenkel, Teleman, and Tolland consider the compactification of the moduli space of maps from curves to a space with automorphisms. They define the moduli stack of Gieseker bundles on stable curves, M g,n, and showed that there exist welldefined K-theoretic invariants in the case where the target is [pt/c ]. Proving well-definedness of these invariants is difficult because the resulting moduli space is complete but not finite type. Their proof of well-definedness of invariants relies on their description of local charts on the moduli stack. While the use of charts allows them to conclude that the invariants are indeed finite, it does not tell us how the invariants can be computed and does not easily generalize to [X/C ] for arbitrary scheme X. Instead of using local charts, I describe a stratification of M g,n by locally closed strata. When g = 0, this stratification, along with divisorial relations, allows us to reconstruct n-pointed invariants from lower pointed invariants. Theorem 1.1. n-pointed genus 0 gauge Gromov-Witten invariants can be reconstructed from 3-pointed invariants. The reconstruction theorem for genus 0 gauge Gromov-Witten invariants not only serves as an alternative proof of the well-definedness of the invariants but also gives an algorithm for computing them.

8 2 1.2 Reconstruction in quantum K-theory In this section, we will define the moduli spaces M g,n (X, β) and the resulting quantum K-invariants. We then state the reconstruction theorem for quantum K- invariants when g = 0. The background on M g,n follows [2] and the discussion of quantum K-invariants follows [9]. The moduli spaces M g,n (X, β) Definition 1.1. [2] Let X be a scheme and let β H 2 (X). Then, a stable map of class β from a prestable curve (C, x 1,..., x n ) of genus g with n marked points, x i, is a morphism f : C X satisfying the following conditions. 1. The homological push-forward of C satisfies f ([C]) = β. 2. Each irreducible component of C contracted by f is stable. In other words, if E is an irreducible component of C which is contracted by f, then g(e) + n(e) 3, where n(e) is the number of nodes and marked points on E. The moduli space of such maps is denoted by M g,n (X, β). It follows from the definition that stable maps have finite automorphisms. Using this fact, Kontsevich prove the following theorem. Theorem 1.2. [8] Let X be a smooth projective scheme over C, and let β H 2 (X). Then, M g,n (X, β) is a proper Deligne-Mumford stack. When X = Spec C, we denote M g,n (Spec C) = M g,n. There are two classes of morphisms that arise naturally. The first is the class of forgetful morphisms which forget the k-th marked point and stabilize if necessary. We denote the morphism forgetting the k-th marked point by f t k : M g,n+1 (X, β) M g,n (X, β). We also have the stabilization morphisms which forget the map f : C X, and stabilize the prestable curve, C, if necessary. This map is denoted by st : M g,n (X, β) M g,n.

9 3 Quantum K-invariants Definition 1.2. [11] Let X be a scheme. The Grothendieck group of locally free sheaves on X is the quotient of the free abelian group generated by the isomorphism classes of the locally free sheaves on X by the relation ( 1) i F i = 0, whenever 0 F 0 F 1 F k 0 is an exact sequence. The Grothendieck group of locally free sheaves on X is denoted K(X). If f : X Y is a proper morphism, we define the K-theoretic push-forward homomorphism f : K(X) K(Y) by f ([F]) = ( 1) i [R i f F]. The K-theoretic push-forward to Spec C is denoted χ. Now, we define the quantum K-invariants as the K-theoretic push-forwards of certain K-classes on M g,n. Definition 1.3. [9] The quantum K-invariants are γ 1,..., γ n, F = χ(m g,n (X, β), O vir ev (γ 1 γ n ) st F), where γ 1,..., γ n K(X), F K(M g,n ), and O vir is the virtual structure sheaf. While quantum K-invariants do not satisfy all the axioms of cohomological Gromov- Witten invariants [7], they satisfy seven of them, two of which are the splitting axiom and the string equation. Proposition 1.1. [9] Let g = g 1 + g 2 and n = n 1 + n 2 and let Φ : M g1,n 1 +1 M g2,n 2 +1 M g,n be the map gluing the last marked point of M g1,n 1 +1 with the first marked point of M g2,n Then, pulled back quantum K-invariants from M g,n can be written as a sum of products of quantum K-invariants of M g1,n 1 +1 and M g2,n Theorem 1.3 (String Equation). [9] Let f t : M g,n+1 (X, β) M g,n (X, β) be the morphism forgetting the last marked point. Let L i denote the cotangent line bundle along the i-th marked point. Then, for g = 0 we have ( ( n )) ( ) ( ( π O vir 1 n n )) q i = 1 + O vir 1, 1 q i=1 i L i 1 q i=1 i 1 q i=1 i L i

10 4 where both sides of the equation are formal series in formal variables q i. For g 1 we have ( π O vir 1 1 qh 1 [( = O vir 1 1 qh 1 n 1 i=1 1 1 q i L i 1 H 1 + where H = R 0 π ω C/M is the Hodge bundle. ) n 1 i=1 q i 1 q i ) ( n 1 i=1 1 1 q i L i )] (1.1), (1.2) Note that Theorem 1.3 relates (n + 1)-pointed quantum K-invariants not involving L n+1 with n-pointed quantum K-invariants. Reconstruction of quantum K-invariants In [10], Lee and Pandharipande prove that two relations hold in Pic(M 0,n (P r, β)). These divisor relations, combined with the axioms of quantum K-invariants, show that n-pointed quantum K-invariants can be reconstructed from 1-pointed invariants. Let β H 2 (P r ). Let β 1, β 2 H 2 (P r ) such that β 1 + β 2 = β. Partition the set {1,..., n} into S 1 and its complement S 2 := S1 c. Then, we denote by D S 1,β 1 S 2,β 2 the divisor in M 0,n parametrizing reducible curves C = C 1 C 2 such that the marked points p j C i if j S i and the images of C i are β i for i = 1 and 2. Now, define D i,β1 j,β j = D S1,β 1 S 2,β 2, and D i,j = D S1,β 1 S 2,β 2. i S 1 j S 2 i S 1,j S 2,β 1 +β 2 =β Denote by L i the class in Pic(M 0,n (P r, β)) corresponding to the i-th cotangent bundle. Then, we have the following theorem. Theorem 1.4. [10] Let β H 2 (P r ) and let L Pic(P r ). relations hold in Pic(M 0,n (P r, β)). 1. evi L = ev j L + β, L L j β 1, L D i,β1 j,β L i + L j = D i j. β 1 +β 2 =β Then, the following With Theorem 1.4, Lee and Pandharipande prove the reconstruction theorem for invariants in both quantum cohomology and quantum K-theory. Theorem 1.5. [10]

11 5 1. Let R H (X) be a self-dual subring generated by Chern classes of elements of Pic(X). Suppose (τ i1 (γ 1 ),..., τ kn 1 (γ n 1 ), τ kn (ξ)) = 0 for all n-pointed invariants with γ i R and ξ R. Then, all n-pointed invariants of classes of R can be reconstructed from 1-point invariants of R. 2. Let R K (X) be a self-dual subring generated by elements of Pic(X). Suppose (τ i1 (γ 1 ),..., τ kn 1 (γ n 1 ), τ kn (ξ)) = 0 for all n-pointed invariants with γ i R and ξ R. Then, all n-pointed quantum K-invariants of classes of R can be reconstructed from 1-point quantum K-invariants of R. 1.3 Moduli stack of Gieseker bundles We will now present the moduli stack of Gieseker bundles as defined in [1]. Moduli stack of Gieseker bundles arise when studying the moduli space of maps from prestable curve to spaces with automorphisms such as [pt/c ]. We recall the definition of families of prestable marked curves. Definition 1.4. (π : C B, {σ i i I}) is called a family of prestable marked curves over a base scheme B if 1. π : C B is a flat proper morphism whose fibers are connected curves of genus g with at-worst-nodal singularities, and 2. I is an ordered indexing set such that for all i, σ i : B C is a section not passing through nodes of fibers, and If all rational components of C has at least 3 special points, we say (C, σ i ) is a family of stable marked curves. We will always assume that any rational component of a fiber of π has at least two special points. A map from a stable nodal curve C to [pt/c ] is equivalent to a principal C -bundle on C. Such a C bundle is given by a C -bundle on the normalization of C and identification of the two fibers at the preimages of each of the nodes. Since the space

12 6 of identifications of the two fibers is isomorphic to C, the moduli stack of principal C -bundles on stable curves fails to be complete. To make the space complete, we consider all Gieseker bundles on stable curves. Definition 1.5. [1] Let (C, σ i ) be a stable marked curve. A Gieseker bundle on (C, σ i ) is a pair (m, L) consisting of 1. a morphism m : (C, σ i ) (C, σ i) such that m is an isomorphism away from preimages of nodes of C, and the preimages of nodes of C are either nodes or a P 1 with two special points; and 2. a line bundle L on C such that the degree of L restricted to every unstable P 1 has degree 1. Such unstable rational components of C are called Gieseker bubbles. Then, M g,n is defined to be the moduli stack of Gieseker bundles on stable genus g, n-pointed curves. Definition 1.6. [1] The stack M g,n of Gieseker C -bundles on stable genus g curves with n marked points is a fibered category whose objects are (X, C, σ i, P), where 1. X is a test scheme, 2. π : C X is a flat projective family of prestable curves with marked points σ i : X C, and 3. p : P C is a Gieseker bundle on the stabilization of C. The morphisms in this category are commutative diagrams σ i p P f P p C f C X π π X where f is C equivariant and the bottom square is Cartesian. σ i,

13 M g,n carries several universal families. It has a family of stable curves of genus g with n marked points π : C g,n M g,n with σ i : M g,n C, and a Gieseker bundle p : P g,n C g,n. The universal Gieseker bundle defines a map ϕ : C g,n [pt/c ]. We define the evaluation maps ev i = ϕ σ i : M g,n [pt/c ]. The moduli space, Mg,n, is a disjoint union of components corresponding to the total degree of the Gieseker bundle. Each of the components of M g,n is complete but is not finite type in general. For example, consider the component of the moduli space M 0,4 corresponding to total degree D. There are infinitely many Gieseker bundles over reducible curve with two components, C = C 1 C 2, such that the line bundle, L, has degrees d 1 and d 2 over C 1 and C 2 and d 1 + d 2 = D. Thus, Mg,n is not finite type and therefore not proper. However, the following properties hold for M g,n. Proposition 1.2. [1] 7 1. Mg,n is locally of finite type and locally finitely presented. 2. Mg,n is unobstructed. For a prestable curve with a Gieseker bundle (C, σ i, P), we define its topological type to be the pair (γ, d), where γ is the modular graph of C and d : V(γ) Z is the degree map. The topological type of Gieseker bundles allow us to stratify M g,n. Proposition 1.3. [1] M g,n admits a topological type stratification by locally closed and disjoint substacks M (γ,d) parametrizing all curves with modular graph γ with degree d. Moreover, M (γ,d) are of finite type and finite presentation. Moreover, we know which kinds of deformations of curves can occur. Lemma 1.1. [1] Let (C, σ i, P) be a C bundle on a prestable curve having topological type (γ, d). Suppose that we are given a deformation (C, σ i, P ) of (C, σ i, P) over the Spec of a complete discrete valuation ring. The topological type (γ, d ) of the generic fiber can be any degree labeled modular graph obtained from (γ, d) by finite combinations of the following elementary operations: 1. Resolve a self node: delete a self-edge attached to a vertex v, increasing the genus g v by 1, leave the multi-degree unchanged.

14 8 2. Resolve a splitting node: join a pair of adjacent vertices v 1 and v 2 into a single vertex v, having genus g v = g v1 + g v2 and degree d v = d v1 + d v2. Delete one edge joining v 1 and v 2, and convert the others to self-edges. Moreover, all such modular graphs occur in some deformation. On M g,n, there are special K-theory classes that we want to consider. Definition 1.7. Let V be a finite dimensional representation of C. Let L i = σ i T π be the relative tangent sheaf to C at σ i. Then, we define the following K-theory classes on M g,n. 1. The evaluation bundle is evi [V] = σ i ϕ V. 2. The descendant bundles are ev i [V] [L j i i ], where j i Z. 3. The Dolbeault index I V of V is the complex Rπ ϕ V. 4. The admissible line bundles L are L (det Rπ ϕ C 1 ) q, where q Q >0. 5. An admissible complex is the tensor product of an admissible line bundle with Dolbeaut index, evaluation, and descendant bundles ( ) α = L Rπ ϕ V a ( i evi W i L n ) i i. a Theorem 1.6. [1] Let α be an admissible class. Let F : Mg,n M g,n be the forgetful morphism forgetting the bundle and stabilizing the curve. Then, the derived push-forward RF α is coherent. 1.4 Outline Let M 0,n := M 0,n ([pt/c ]) be the moduli stack of Gieseker stable bundle with the universal curve π n : C 0,n M 0,n. We will denote the universal bundle by P 0,n. Let α = det(rπ ϕ C 1 ) q ( evi C λ i L a ) i i be an admissible class on M0,n. We will show that the admissible class α can be reconstructed from finitely many admissible classes of M 0,3. Since M 0,3 [pt/c ], admissible classes on M 0,3 have finite Euler characteristics. The reconstruction proves that for g = 0, the invariants are well-defined.

15 First, we show that one can define an open embedding C g,n M g,n+1. If we denote the complement of the image of C g,n by Z g,n+1, using the long exact sequence of local cohomologies, we obtain provided all the terms above are finite. χ( M g,n+1, α) = χ( C g,n, α) + χ Zg,n+1 (α), Now, since C g,n is the universal curve over M g,n we can compute χ( C g,n, α) by pushing forward to M g,n along the map π n : C g,n M g,n. Therefore, we have Repeating, we conclude that χ( C g,n, α) = χ( M g,n, Rπ n α). χ( M g,n+1, α) = χ( M g,n, Rπ n α) + χ Zg,n+1 (α). χ( M 0,3, Rπ α) + χ( M g,n, α) = χ( M 1,1, Rπ α) + χ( M g,0, Rπ α) + 4 k n 2 k n 1 k n χ Z0,k (Rπ α) g = 0 χ Z1,k (Rπ α) g = 1, χ Zg,k (Rπ α) g 2 where π : Mg,n M g,k, k n is the composition of π l : C g,l M g,l for k l n 1. We then stratify Z g,n by countably many locally closed strata. This stratification will have the property that for g = 0, we can compute χ Z0,n (α) recursively as a finite sum of products of lower pointed invariants on M 0,k, where k < n. Moreover, the embedding of C g,n M g,n+1 will show that for admissible classes, α, on M g,n+1 that do not involve ev n+1 C λ n+1 and L n+1, the push-forward of α C g,n to M g,n is an admissible class on M g,n. A divisor relation similar to the relation proven in Theorem 1.4 then reduce the problem of computing admissible classes on M 0,n+1 to computing those that do not involve ev n+1 C λ n+1 and L n+1. Lastly, understanding the structure of the boundary loci in C 0,n as A s (P 1 ) t bundles over products of M 0,n, where n < n, allows us to compute χ( M 0,n+1 ) as a finite sum of χ( M 0,n ) where n < n. Combining, we will conclude that n-pointed invariants can be computed as a finite sum of products of lower pointed invariants. 9

16 1.5 Embedding C g,n M g,n+1 In this section, we will define an embedding C g,n M g,n+1. Recall that we have a similar embedding for the stable curves. If we let C g,n M g,n be the universal curve, we have an embedding C g,n M g,n+1. In short, given a point p on a n- pointed stable curve, (C, p 1,..., p n ), we can associate to it a (n + 1)-pointed curve, (C, p 1,..., p n+1 ), where if p C is not a special point, then C = C, p i = p i for all i = 1,..., n, and p n+1 = p; or 2. if p C is a special point, then (C, p 1,..., p n+1 ) is the stable curve whose stabilization after forgetting p n+1 is C, with the images of p i under the stabilization are p i for i = 1,..., n and p for i = n + 1. In other words, C is the stable curve obtained from C by adding a rational component at p with three special points, one of which is p n+1. Figure 1.1 show a few examples of the correspondence described above. In the second and third examples in the figure, the components containing p n+1 are rational. p 1 p p 2 p 1 p n+1 p 2 p 2 p n+1 p 1 p = p 2 p1 p p 1 p 2 p n+1 p 2 p 1 Figure 1.1: Examples of the correspondence C g,n M g,n+1. In other words, we consider a resolution of C g,n Mg,n C g,n along the subscheme where the diagonal meets the special points to obtain C C g,n such that each fiber

17 11 is a (n + 1)-pointed, genus g stable curve. This gives us the desired embedding of C g,n M g,n+1. More precisely, we have the following theorem by Knudsen. Theorem 1.7. [6] Consider a S-valued point of C g,n, i.e. an n-pointed stable curve π : X S with n sections, σ 1,..., σ n, and an extra section. Let I be the ideal sheaf of, and define K on X by the exact sequence 0 O X I ν O X (σ σ n ) K 0, where δ : O X I ν O X (σ σ n ) is the diagonal, δ(t) = (t, t). Now, let X s := Proj(Sym K). Then, σ 1,..., σ n, have unique liftings σ 1,..., σ n+1 making X s into a (n + 1)-pointed stable curve with X s X a contraction. Moreover, this gives rise to an embedding C g,n M g,n. We will use a similar strategy to define our embedding of C g,n M g,n+1. Let (C, p 1,..., p n, P) be a Gieseker bundle parametrized by a point of M g,n and let p C. Then, we define a Gieseker bundle on a (n+1)-pointed curve, (C, p 1,..., p n+1, P ) as follows: 1. if p C is not a special point, then C = C, p i = p i for i = 1,..., n, p n+1 = p, and P = P; or 2. if p C is a special point, then C is the curve obtained from C by adding a rational component at p with three special points, one of which is p n+1. The map, ϕ : C C, contracting the component containing p n+1 is an isomorphism away from p C, and the images of p i are p i for i = 1,..., n. Finally, we define P := ϕ P. Note that P does satisfy the Gieseker condition. We always have a map ϕ : C C which forgets p n+1 and stabilizes the component containing p n+1 if necessary. In both cases, P = ϕ P and note that all Gieseker bubbles of C are preimages of Gieseker bubbles of C1. Hence, P satisfies the Gieseker conditions since P satisfies them. Figure 1.2 shows a few examples of the correspondence described above. The dashed lines in third and fourth figures represent Gieseker bubbles, which are 1 We are only allowed to add a single stable rational component.

18 12 unstable rational components with two nodes over which the line bundle has degree 1. In the first and third examples, the line bundle over the (n + 1)-pointed curve is the same as the line bundle over the n-pointed curve as the two curves are the same. In second and fourth examples, p collides with a special point on the n-pointed curve and the corresponding (n + 1)-pointed curve has an extra rational component containing p n+1. In these cases, the line bundle over the (n + 1)-pointed curve has degree 0 over the component containing p n+1. Over the other components, the line bundle remains unchanged. p 1 p p 2 p 1 p n+1 p 2 p 2 p n+1 p 1 p = p 2 p1 p p n+1 p p n+1 Figure 1.2: Examples of the correspondence C g,n M g,n+1 In other words, we can define an embedding C g,n M g,n+1 as follows. Let π n : C g,n M g,n be the universal curve over M g,n. Then, we have sections σ i : M g,n C g,n for i = 1,..., n. Let D i := σ i ( M g,n ) and let D sing be the locus of singular points of the fibers of π n. Let C g,n Mg,n C g,n be the diagonal. Then, by using the analogous sheaf, K, defined in Theorem 1.7, we get a contraction ε : C := Proj(Sym K) C g,n Mg,n C g,n.

19 13 Composing with the projection from the fiber product to C g,n we get π = pr 2 ε : C C g,n Mg,n C g,n C g,n, such that the bundle (pr 1 ε) P g,n is a Gieseker bundle over C g,n. As in Theorem 1.7, the sections, σ i, have unique lifts, giving us n sections σ i : C g,n C. The lift of the diagonal,, gives us another section, which we will denote by σ n+1. Therefore, ( C, σ 1,..., σ n+1, (pr 1 ε) P g,n ) is a family of Gieseker bundles over C g,n with (n+1) sections. Hence, we get a map C g,n M g,n+1 which is an open embedding. We have the following diagram: C C g,n+1 ε π=pr 2 ε C g,n Mg,n C g,n pr 2 C g,n π n+1 Mg,n+1 pr 1 π n C g,n π n Mg,n Note that ϕ C 1 ẽv n+1 C 1, where ϕ : C g,n [pt/c ] and ẽv n+1 : Mg,n+1 [pt/c ]. Now, we consider the restriction to C g,n of the determinant bundle and the evaluation bundles on M g,n+1. In particular, we want to compare these line bundles to the pullbacks of their analogs from M g,n. Proposition 1.4. Let π n : C g,n M g,n be the universal curve, and consider the embedding of C g,n M g,n+1 described above. Then the following are true over C g,n. 1. For all i = 1,..., n, π n ev i C λ ẽv i C λ, where ev i : M g,n [pt/c ] and ẽv i : M g,n=1 [pt/c ] are the respective evaluation morphisms. 2. det Rπ n+1 ϕ C 1 π n det Rπ n ϕ C 1, where ϕ : C g,n [pt/c ] and ϕ : C g,n+1 [pt/c ]. Proof. First, let s consider the evaluation line bundles. We know π n ev i C λ π n σ i ϕ C λ (σ i π n ) ϕ C λ. By definition, σ i is the lift of σ i. In other words, π σ i σ i π n. Hence, we see that (σ i π n ) ϕ C λ ( π σ i ) ϕ C λ σ i ( π ϕ C λ ) ẽv i C λ. Therefore, the

20 pull-back of the evaluation line bundles on M g,n are isomorphic to the evaluation line bundles on M g,n+1 when restricted to C g,n. Since C g,n M g,n is flat, we know that πn(rπ n P) Rpr 2 (pr1 P) and hence, πn(det Rπ n P) det Rpr 2 (pr1 P). If ϕ : C [pt/c ], then we know that ϕ C 1 pr1 ε ϕ C 1. Since ε : C C g,n Mg,n C g,n simply contracts rational curves, we have that Rε O C = O C g,n Mg,n C g,n. Thus, we conclude that det Rpr 2 (pr 1 ϕ C 1 ) det R(pr 2 ε) ((ε pr 1 ) ϕ C 1 ) det R π ( ϕ C 1 ). Since π is the restriction of π n+1 to C C g,n, the pull-back of the determinant line bundle is isomorphic to the restriction of the determinant line bundle. 14 Let α be an admissible class on M g,n+1, which is a class of the form α = (det Rπ n+1 ϕ C 1 ) q ( i evi C λ i L a ) i i. We are interested in the push-forward of α C g,n to M g,n. We first recall the projection formula. Theorem 1.8 (Projection formula). [4] Let f : X Y be a morphism of ringed spaces. Let F be an O X -module and let E be a locally free O Y -module of finite rank. Then, for all i, R i f (F f E) R i f (F) E. By the projection formula and the observations above, we have Rπ n ( α C g, n ) Rπ n ((det Rπ n+1 ϕ C 1 ) q Rπ n (π n(det Rπ n ϕ C 1 ) q ( n+1 i=1 ( n i=1 ev i C λ i L a i i )) π n ev i C λ i L a i i ( n ) n+1 (det Rπ n ϕ C 1 ) q ev i C λ i Rπ n (ev n+1 C λ n+1 i=1 ) ev n+1 C λ n+1 L a n+1 n+1 ) i=1 L a i i. ) In particular, if α does not involve ev n+1 C λ n+1 and L a n+1 n+1, we have ( ( ) n ) ( n Rπ n α C g,n = (det Rπ n ϕ C 1 ) q evi C λ i Rπ n i=1 i=1 L a i i ).

21 Stratification of Z g,n = M g,n \ C g,n 1 Now, we will study the complement of the image of C g,n 1 in M g,n and define a stratification of the complement by a countably infinite collection of locally closed strata. Recall that we embedded C g,n 1 in M g,n by considering points of the fibers of π n 1 : C g,n 1 M g,n 1 as the last marked point and attaching an extra rational component at p if necessary. In particular, any n-pointed curve such where p n lies on a component with more than 4 special points is in the image of C g,n 1. Hence, a point in M g,n is not in the image of C g,n 1 only if it parametrizes a Gieseker bundle (C, p 1,..., p n, P) such that the component containing p n, call it C, becomes unstable after forgetting p n. Thus, C is not in the image of C g,n 1 only if C is a rational curve containing precisely three special points2. Since one of the special points is p n, C can have either one or two nodes. If C has exactly one node, we will call C a curve of type I. If C has two nodes, C \ C can either have one or two connected components. If C \ C is the disjoint union of two connected components we will say C is a curve of type II. If C \ C is connected, we will say C is of type III. p i p n p i p n Figure 1.3: Examples of type I curves p n p n p n Figure 1.4: Examples of type II curves Figures 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5 show examples of type I, II, and III curves, respectively. As before, dashed lines represent Gieseker bubbles over which the line bundle has 2 This is because all rational components have at least two components and only Gieseker bubbles are allowed to have two special points, both of which must be nodes.

22 16 p n p n p n Figure 1.5: Examples of type III curves degree 1. In all the figures, the component containing p n is rational. All other connected components of the curves in the figures, along with the restriction of the given line bundle, are lower pointed Gieseker bundles3. Note that Z g,n is the disjoin union of the strata of type I, II, and III curves. In the subsections that follow, we will stratify subschemes of Z g,n of type I, II, and III curves. Also, we will consider the connected component Mg,n,D M g,n parametrizing Gieseker bundles of some fixed total degree D. 1.7 Type I curves Let (C, p 1,..., p n, P) M g,n be a type I curve. As before, let C denote the irreducible component of C containing p n. Then, C is a rational component containing 2 marked points and a node. Let the marked points be p i and p n. Note that there is only one way a type I curve can be in the image of C g,n 1. This happens when we choose the point p = p i on the fiber as shown in Figure 1.6. p = p i p i p n C Figure 1.6: Type I curve lying in the image of C g,n 1 If a type I curve is in the image of C g,n 1, then the degree of P C must be 0. Moreover, such curve cannot have a Gieseker bubble attached to C. Therefore, the type I curves that do not lie in the image of C g,n 1 are the ones such that either deg P C 0 or C is attached to a Gieseker bubble. 3 These components can have genus greater than 0.

23 For i = 1,..., n 1, let Z 1 i be the closed subscheme of M g,n whose points parametrize type I curves not in the image of C g,n 1 such that C contains p n and p i. First, note that Z 1 i is closed in M g,n : any degeneration of a type I curve is another type I curve; and the degree of P C is locally constant away from the Gieseker bubble. Now, denote by Wi,d 1 the locally closed stratum corresponding to the topological types depicted in Figure 1.7, where (γ, D d) is any topological type of genus g Gieseker bundle of degree D d. In other words, Wi,d 1 is the stratum corresponding 17 p i g=0 d γ D d p i p n C p n deg P C = d Figure 1.7: Modular graphs and curves of W 1 i,d to type I curves such that 1. deg P C = d; and 2. C is not attached to a Gieseker bubble. Note that W 1 i,d C g,n 1 if and only if d = 0. Denote by Fi,d 1 the closed stratum corresponding to the topological types depicted in Figure 1.8, where (γ, D d 1) is any topological type of genus g Gieseker bundle of degree D d 1. In other words, F 1 i,d is the stratum corresponding to type I p i g=0 d g=0 1 γ D d 1 C p i p n p n deg P C = d Figure 1.8: Modular graphs and curves of F 1 i,d curves such that 1. deg P C = d; and 2. C is attached to a Gieseker bubble.

24 18 Note that F 1 i,d C g,n 1 for all i and d. By Lemma 1.1, we see that for each i and d, we have W 1 i,d = W1 i,d F1 i,d F1 i,d 1. Moreover, all the curves in Z g,n that are deformations of curves of Fi,d 1 are parametrized by points of Fi,d 1, W1 i,d and W1 i,d+1. More precisely, points of W1 i,d parametrize curves obtained from a curve in Fi,d 1 by smoothing the node on the connecting Gieseker bubble opposite to C 4. Figure 1.9 shows such a deformation. C p i p n p i p n C deg P C = d deg P C = d Figure 1.9: Smoothing the node in the dashed circle Likewise, the points of Wi,d+1 1 parametrize curves obtained from curves in F1 i,d by smoothing the node on C as shown in Figure C p i p n p i p n C deg P C = d deg P C = d + 1 Figure 1.10: Smoothing the node in the dashed circle We can visualize the stratum of type I curves in the following way: Wi,d 1 1 F1 i,d 1 W1 i,d where A B means A lies in the closure of B. Now, we define Zi,d 1 as follows. Z 1 i,d = F1 i,d W1 i,d+1 F1 i,d+1 W1 i,d+2, Wi,d 1 F1 Wi,d+1 1 F1 i,d d < 0. i,d d 0 Keeping in mind Wi,0 1 C g,n 1, we see that Zi 1 = Zi,d 1 stratification of Zi 1 (see Figure 1.11). of C g,n. gives us the desired 4 We cannot smooth both since such a deformation would result in a curve that lies in the image

25 19. Z 1 i,1 W 1 i, 1 F 1 i,1 Z 1 i,0 W 1 i,1 F 1 i,0 W 1 i,0 C g,n 1 Z 1 i, 1 Z 1 i, 2 F 1 i, 1 W 1 i, 1 F 1 i, 2 W 1 i, 2. Figure 1.11: Stratification of Z 1 i by Z 1 i,d Before we move onto type II curves, we give an alternate way of defining Z 1 i,d, which will be useful later. Let Ui,d 1 be the stratum of points parametrizing all curves of Z g,n obtained by smoothing nodes of curves in Fi,d 1. By Lemma 1.1, this is precisely U 1 i,d = W1 i,d F1 i,d W1 i,d+1. Note that {U 1 i,d d Z} is an open cover of Z1 i. Then, we can define Zi,d 1 as follows. Zi,d 1 = Ui,d 1 \ U1 i,d+1 d < 0. U i,d 1 \ U1 i,d 1 d 0 Geometry of Fi,d 1 and Z1 i,d We defined Fi,d 1 as the stratum of points parametrizing curves of splitting type ({i, n}, {i, n} c ) where marked points p i and p n are on a rational curve connected to a Gieseker bubble. Moreover, the universal bundle has degree d restricted to the

26 component, C, containing p i and p n, and degree e := D d 1 restricted to the component, C 1, containing the other marked points. Hence, F 1 i,d M d 0,3 M e g,n 1, where we identify the third marked point of M 0,3 d and the (n 1)-st marked point of M g,n 1 e as the two nodes on the connecting Gieseker bubble. The marked points of M 0,3 d are denoted p i, p n, and the node p 3. The marked points of M g,n 1 e are the points p j for j i, n, and the node p n 1. Now, we take a closer look at Zi,d 1. Proposition 4.15 and Corollary 4.16 of [1] tell us that Zi,d 1 is an affine bundle over F1 i,d. Proposition 1.5. [1] For d 0, Zi,d 1 classifies bundles which arise from F1 i,d by smoothing away the node attaching C to the connecting Gieseker bubble. 2. For d < 0, Zi,d 1 classifies bundles which arise from F1 i,d by smoothing away the node attaching the connecting Gieseker bubble to the components not containing p n. 3. We have a map η : Zi,d 1 F1 i,d bundle. such that η is the structure map of an affine Note that our Fi,d 1 correspond to those labeled F in [1], and our Z1 i,d correspond to those labeled Z (when d 0) and W (when d < 0). 1 and 2 of Proposition 1.5 follow directly from the definition of Z 1 i,d. While Frenkel, Teleman, and Tolland do not say exactly which affine bundle η : Zi,d 1 F1 i,d is, the proof of Proposition 4.15 in [1] contains more information which leads to the following Proposition: Proposition 1.6. The map η : Zi,d 1 F1 i,d from Proposition 1.5 is given by the bundle (L3 1 P3 d) (Pe n 1 ) 1 d 0, (P 3 d) 1 (Ln 1 1 P3 n 1 ) d < 0 where 1. L 3 is the cotangent bundle along the third section on M d 0,3,

27 21 2. L n 1 is the cotangent bundle along the (n 1)-st section on M g,n 1 e, 3. P3 d is the restriction of the universal bundle along the third section on M 0,3 d, and 4. Pn 1 e is the restriction of the universal bundle along the (n 1)-st section on M g,n 1 e. Proof. Let d 0 and consider curves parametrized by points of Zi,d 1. All such curves have splitting type ({i, n}, {i, n} c ). Recall that we denote the component containing p n by C, and the other component by C 1, where we discard the connecting Gieseker bubble between them if there is one. Let P denote the universal bundle over curves of Zi,d 1. Now, we have two trivializations of P restricted to the two components C and C 1, say t : P pn C and t 1 : P pk C, where k i, n. These two trivializations then give us the gluing isomorphism, ι, of the fibers of P over the node. Now, as proof of Proposition 4.15 in [1] points out, scaling t to 0, we obtain in the limit a connecting Gieseker bubble with a degree 1 transferred from C 5. Hence, this gives rise to a map η : Zi,d 1 F1 i,d for d 0. Similarly, scaling t to gives a map Zi,d 1 F1 i,d for d < 0. Moreover, the choices of the trivializations t and t 1 give us a map between the two fibers of the universal bundles over the nodes on C and C 1, which are P p3 and P pn 1, respectively. As Remark in [1] explains, this map P pn 1 P p3 is given by t /t 1, and is precisely the gluing isomorphism, ι, over the node attaching C with C 1 when we have a type I curve with no connecting Gieseker bubble. When t = 0, this map P pn P p3 becomes the 0 map and we get a connecting Gieseker bubble, as we saw above. Hence, given a section of η : Zi,d 1 F1 i,d, we obtain a morphism P σn 1 P σ3. Now, since Fi,d 1 M 0,3 d M g,n 1 e, we try to write P σ n 1 and P σ3 in terms of pull-backs of line bundles over M 0,3 d and M g,n 1 e. Let pr 1 : Fi,d 1 M 0,3 d and pr 2 : Fi,d 1 M g,n 1 e be the projection maps. First, P σ n 1 is equal to pr2 Pe n 1 by definition. However, P σ3 is not equal to pr1 Pd 3 since Pd 3 is the restriction of the universal bundle over M 0,3 d to σ 3 and thus, has 1 lower degree than P σ3 : deg P σ3 = d +1. Recall that the map η : Zi,d 1 F1 i,d inserted a connecting Gieseker bubble by scaling the trivialization, t, to 0 and transferring 1 degree from C to the bubble. Hence, P σ3 pr 1 (Pd 3 L 1 3 ). 5 See Remark in [1].

28 22 Therefore, sections of η : Zi,d 1 F1 i,d correspond to sections of Hom ( ) pr2 Pe n 1, pr 1 (L 1 3 P3 d ) pr 1 (L 1 3 P d 3 ) (pr 2 Pe n 1 ) 1. Hence, we conclude that for d 0, η : Zi,d 1 F1 i,d is the affine bundle given by (L 1 3 P d 3 ) (Pe n 1 ) 1. For d < 0, the situation is symmetric. Recall that when d < 0, instead of transferring 1 degree to the bubble from C, we transfer it from C 1. The map η : Z 1 i,d F1 i,d is then defined by scaling the trivialization, t, to. By the same argument as in the d 0, case we conclude that η : Zi,d 1 F1 i,d is the affine bundle given by (P d 3 ) 1 (L 1 n 1 Pe n 1 ). Another way to show that Zi,d 1 is the affine bundle given by (L 1 3 Pd 3 ) (Pe n 1 ) 1 is by considering the formal neighborhood of Fi,d 1. Z1 i,d corresponds to smoothings of the node attaching C to the connecting Gieseker bubble, which is the marked point p 3 on M 0,3 d. Smoothing a node is represented by the formal neighborhood given by T + T where T ± denote the tangent bundles at the node on the two components. In our case, those bundles are L 1 3 from C, and P d 3 (Pe n 1 ) 1 from the connecting Gieseker bubble. The tangent bundle at the node on the connecting Gieseker bubble is P3 d (Pe n 1 ) 1 since O(1) of the Gieseker bubble is glued on the two nodes, p 3 and p n 1, to the fibers P p3 and P pn 1. Hence, Zi,d 1 corresponds to the affine bundle over Fi,d 1 given by ( pr1 L 1 3 P3 d (Pe n 1 ) 1) (L3 1 P3 d ) (Pe n 1 ) Type II curves Now, we stratify the stratum of type II curves. Let (C, p 1,..., p n, P) M g,n be a type II curve and let C denote the irreducible component of C containing p n. Since C is a type II curve, C contains the marked point p n and two nodes, and C \ C has two connected components. Note that there are precisely three ways for a type II curve to lie in the image of C g,n We choose the node on two stable components as p (Figure 1.12); or

29 23 2. we choose a point on a Gieseker bubble as p (Figure 1.13); or 3. we choose the node on a stable component and a Gieseker bubble as p (Figure 1.14). p p n+1 Figure 1.12: Choosing a node on two stable components p p n+1 Figure 1.13: Choosing a point on a Gieseker bubble p p n+1 Figure 1.14: Choosing a node on a stable component and a bubble Therefore, a type II curve is in the image of C g,n 1 if and only if either 1. deg P C = 1 and C is not connected to a Gieseker bubble; or 2. deg P C = 0 and C is connected to 0 or 1 Gieseker bubbles. For a type II curve, C \ C has two connected components. For I [n 1] := {1,..., n 1} such that I, I c 2, let Z 2 I be the closed subscheme of M g,n whose points parametrize type II curves not in the image of C g,n 1 such that points {p i i I} and {p i i I} are on separate connected components of C \ C. Without loss of generality, denote by C 1 the curve containing points with indices in I, and C 2 the other connected component. As we did with type I curves, we will first look at the stratification of ZI 2 by topological types. We will fix D, the total degree of the Gieseker bundle, and also the splitting g 1 + g 2 = g of the total genus g into genus, g 1, of C 1 and g 2 of C 2. Note

30 24 that type II curves can have 0, 1, or 2 Gieseker bubbles attached to C. We will call these strata W 2,Y 2, and F 2, respectively. Let d 1, d 2 Z. We denote by W 2 the locally closed stratum corresponding I,(d 1,d 2 ) to the topological type depicted in Figure 1.15, where (γ i, d i ) is any topological type of genus g i Gieseker bundle of degree d i with marked points of C i, such that g = g 1 + g 2. p n γ 1 d 1 g=0 d d = D d 1 d 2 γ 2 d 2 p n Figure 1.15: Modular graphs and curves of W 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) In other words, W 2 is the stratum corresponding to type II curves such that I,(d 1,d 2 ) 1. deg P Ci = d i ; and 2. C is not connected to any Gieseker bubbles. We will denote by W 2 I,d := D d 1 d 2 =d W 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ). Note that W 2 I,d C g,n 1 if and only if d = 0 or 1 by the discussion from the beginning of the section. The type II curves with a Gieseker bubble connecting C with C 1 will be denoted Y 2. The topological type of such curves is shown in Figure I,(d 1,d 2 ) γ 1 d 1 g=0 1 p n g=0 d d = D d 1 d 2 1 γ 2 d 2 p n Figure 1.16: Modular graphs and curves of Y 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) We also define Y 2 I,d := D d 1 d 2 =d ( ) Y 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) Y 2 I c,(d 2,d 1 ).

31 Note that Y 2 I,d C g,n 1 if and only d = 1. Lastly, we denote by F 2 the stratum of type II curves with two Gieseker bubbles I,(d 1,d 2 ) with the topological type shown in Figure γ 1 d 1 g=0 1 p n g=0 d g=0 1 d = D d 1 d 2 2 γ 2 d 2 p n Figure 1.17: Modular graphs and curves of F 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) Also, define FI,d 2 := F 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ). D d 1 d 2 =d Again by Lemma 1.1, we see that F 2 I,d and F2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) are closed in M g,n. Similarly to the type I case, let U 2 denote the stratum of points parametrizing all curves of I,(d 1,d 2 ) Z g,n that are obtained by smoothing 0 or 1 of the nodes on each Gieseker bubble of curves of F 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) 6. U 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) := F 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) Y 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) Y 2 I,(d 1,d 2 +1) Y 2 I c,(d 2,d 1 ) Y 2 I c,(d 2,d 1 +1) W 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) W2 I,(d 1 +1,d 2 ) W2 I,(d 1,d 2 +1) W2 I,(d 1 +1,d 2 +1). Note that {U 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) D d 1 d 2 = d} forms an open cover of Z 2 I,d in Z g,n. Also, the stratum of all smoothings of curves of FI,d 2 is UI,d 2 = D d 1 d 2 =d U 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) = F 2 I,d Y 2 I,d Y 2 I,d 1 W2 I,d W2 I,d 1 W2 I,d 2. Note that {U 2 I,d d Z} forms an open cover of Z2 I. We can visualize the closure relations of these type II strata using the following infinite two dimensional grid7 in Figure Figure 1.19 shows U 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) as deformations of curves in F2. The dashed lines I,(d 1,d 2 ) attached to the nodes on the Gieseker bubbles indicate which deformation happen as we smooth the chosen node. 6 As we saw in Section 1.7, we cannot smooth both nodes of the same Gieseker bubble since such deformation would result in a curve lying in the image of C g,n 1. 7 The two dimensions correspond to smoothings of the two connecting Gieseker bubbles. The direction along each axis is determined by which of the two nodes on the bubble is smoothed. 8 Keep in mind closure relations are transitive.

32 26 U 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) W 2 I,(d 1 1,d 2 +1) Y 2 I,(d 1 1,d 2 +1) W 2 I,(d 1,d 2 +1) Y 2 I,(d 1,d 2 +1) W 2 I,(d 1 +1,d 2 +1) Y 2 I,(d 1 1,d 2 ) F 2 I,(d 1 1,d 2 ) Y 2 I c,(d 2,d 1 ) F 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) Y 2 I c,(d 2,d 1 +1) W 2 I,(d 1 1,d 2 ) Y 2 I,(d 1 1,d 2 ) W 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) Y 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) W 2 I,(d 1 +1,d 2 ) Y 2 I c,(d 2 1,d 1 1) F 2 I,(d 1 1,d 2 1) Y 2 I c,(d 2 1,d 1 ) F 2 I,(d 1,d 2 1) Y 2 I c,(d 2 1,d 1 +1) W 2 I,(d 1 1,d 2 1) Y 2 I,(d 1 1,d 2 1) W 2 I,(d 1,d 2 1) Y 2 I,(d 1,d 2 1) W 2 I,(d 1 +1,d 2 1) U 2 I,(d 1 1,d 2 1) Figure 1.18: Type II strata and their closure relations (d 1, d 2 + 1) (d 1 + 1, d 2 + 1) (d 1, d 2 + 1) (d 1 + 1, d 2 + 1) Figure 1.19: Closer look at U 2 I,(d 1,d 2 )

33 27 We are finally ready to define our stratification of Z 2 I. Define We also define ZI,d 2 := UI,d 2 \ U2 I,d+1 d 1. U I,d 2 \ U2 I,d 1 d 2 Z 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) := Z2 I,d U I,(d 1,d 2 ). Recalling that WI,0 2, W2 I,1,Y I,1 2 C g,n 1, we see that ZI,d 2 stratify Z2 I. Moreover, for each d, ZI,d 2 is the disjoint union ZI,d 2 = Z 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ). D d 1 d 2 =d Figure 1.20 shows the stratification of ZI 2 by Z2 I,d and Z2. All superscripts and I,(d 1,d 2 ) subscripts except for the degrees are suppressed for the sake of simplicity. In Figure 1.20, d 1, d 2 Z are such that D d 1 d 2 = 1. The strata that lie in the blue shaded region are the ones that are in the image of C g,n 1. The red boxes are the Z 2 I,(d,d ), where (d, d ) are the degrees corresponding to the F (d,d ) in the same box. For example, the box labeled (2.2) correspond to Z 2. Moreover, each I,(d 1,d 2 1) box labeled (d, k) lie in ZI,d 2. For example, boxes (1.1), (1.2), and (1.3), which are Z 2 I,(d 1 1,d 2 +1), Z2 I,(d 1,d 2 ), Z2 I,(d 1 +1,d 2 1), respectively, all lie in Z2 I,1. Note that D (d 1 1) (d 2 + 1) = D d 1 d 2 = D (d 1 + 1) (d 2 1) = 1. Geometry of F 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) and Z2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) By the same argument as in the type I case, F 2 I,d 1,d 2 M d 1 g 1, I +1 M d 0,3 M d 2 g 2, I c +1, where d = D d 1 d 2 2. Also, by Proposition 1.5, we know that there exists a map η : Z 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) F2, which is the structure map of an affine bundle. From I,(d 1,d 2 ) our description of Z 2, we know that I,(d 1,d 2 ) 1. for d 2, Z 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) classifies bundles which arise from F2 by smoothing I,(d 1,d 2 ) away nodes attaching the connecting Gieseker bubbles to C 1 and C 2 ; and 2. for d 1, Z 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) classifies bundles which arise from F2 by smoothing I,(d 1,d 2 ) away nodes attaching the connecting Gieseker bubbles to C.

34 28 W d1 1,d 2 +2 Y d1 1,d 2 +2 W d1,d 2 +2 Y d1,d 2 +2 W d1 +1,d 2 +2 Y d1 +1,d 2 +2 W d1 +2,d Y d1 1,d 2 +1 F d1 1,d 2 +1 Y d1,d 2 +1 F d1,d 2 +1 Y d1 +1,d 2 +1 F d1 +1,d 2 +1 Y d1 +2,d 2 +1 W d1 1,d 2 +1 Y d1 1,d 2 +1 W d1,d 2 +1 Y d1,d 2 +1 W d1 +1,d 2 +1 Y d1 +1,d 2 +1 W d1 +2,d Y d1 1,d 2 F d1 1,d 2 Y d1,d 2 F d1,d 2 Y d1 +1,d 2 F d1 +1,d 2 Y d1 +2,d W d1 1,d 2 Y d1 1,d 2 W d1,d 2 Y d1,d 2 W d1 +1,d 2 Y d1 +1,d 2 W d1 +2,d Y d1 1,d 2 1 F d1 1,d 2 1 Y d1,d 2 1 F d1,d 2 1 Y d1 +1,d 2 1 F d1 +1,d 2 1 Y d1 +2,d W d1 1,d 2 1 Y d1 1,d 2 1 W d1,d 2 1 Y d1,d 2 1 W d1 +1,d 2 1 Y d1 +1,d 2 1 W d1 +2,d 2 1 Y d1 1,d 2 2 F d1 1,d 2 2 Y d1,d 2 2 F d1,d 2 2 Y d1 +1,d 2 2 F d1 +1,d 2 2 Y d1 +2,d W d1 1,d 2 2 Y d1 1,d 2 2 W d1,d 2 2 Y d1,d 2 2 W d1 +1,d 2 2 Y d1 +1,d 2 2 W d1 +2,d 2 2 Figure 1.20: Stratification of Z 2 I Figure 1.21: Z 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) when D d 1 d 2 2 By the same argument as in the proof of Proposition 1.6, we obtain the following proposition.

35 Proposition 1.7. The map η : Z 2 I,(d 1,d 2 ) F2 is the structure map of the affine I,(d 1,d 2 ) bundle (( L 1 I +1 Pd 1 I +1 ( ( P d 1 I +1 where ) ) ( ( (P d1 ) 1 O M2 O M 1 (P3 d) 1 ) ) ( ( ) O M2 O M 2 L3 1 P3 d ) 1 ( L 1 1 P d 1 L 1 I c +1 Pd 2 I c +1 ( P d 2 I c +1 ) 1 ) )) 29 d 2 d 1, 1. L I +1 is the cotangent bundle along the ( I +1)-st section, σ I +1, on M d 1 g 1, I +1 ; 2. P d 1 I +1 is the restriction to σ I +1 of the universal bundle over M d 1 g 1, I +1 ; 3. L 1 and L 3 are the cotangent bundles along σ 1 and σ 3 on M d 0,3 ; 4. P d 1 and Pd 3 are the restrictions to σ 1 and σ 3 of the universal bundle over M d 0,3 ; 5. L I c +1 is the cotangent bundle along σ I c +1 on M d 2 g 2, I c +1 ; and 6. P d 2 I c +1 is the restriction to σ I c +1 of the universal bundle over M d 2 g 2, I c Type III curves A necessary and sufficient condition for a type III curve to be in the image of C g,n 1 is the same as the condition for type II curves. Denote by Z 3 the closed subscheme of M g,n whose points parametrize type III curves that do not lie in the image of C g,n 1. For j Z consider the strata Fd 3 whose points parametrize type III curves such that 1. deg P C = j; and 2. C is connected to two Gieseker bubbles. Then, for j 0, we define Z 3 j recursively as Z 3 j = ( U 3 j Z 3) \ 0 k j 1 where U 3 j = M γ,d is the union running over all (γ, d) such that there exists a modification f : (γ, d ) (γ, d) with (γ, d ) the modular graph of a bundle in Fj 3. Z 3 k,

### A RECONSTRUCTION THEOREM IN QUANTUM COHOMOLOGY AND QUANTUM K-THEORY

A RECONSTRUCTION THEOREM IN QUANTUM COHOMOLOGY AND QUANTUM K-THEORY Y.-P. LEE AND R. PANDHARIPANDE Abstract. A reconstruction theorem for genus 0 gravitational quantum cohomology and quantum K-theory is

### TAUTOLOGICAL EQUATION IN M 3,1 VIA INVARIANCE THEOREM

TAUTOLOGICAL EQUATION IN M 3, VIA INVARIANCE THEOREM D. ARCARA AND Y.-P. LEE This paper is dedicated to Matteo S. Arcara, who was born while the paper was at its last phase of preparation. Abstract. A

### SPACES OF RATIONAL CURVES IN COMPLETE INTERSECTIONS

SPACES OF RATIONAL CURVES IN COMPLETE INTERSECTIONS ROYA BEHESHTI AND N. MOHAN KUMAR Abstract. We prove that the space of smooth rational curves of degree e in a general complete intersection of multidegree

### Logarithmic geometry and moduli

Logarithmic geometry and moduli Lectures at the Sophus Lie Center Dan Abramovich Brown University June 16-17, 2014 Abramovich (Brown) Logarithmic geometry and moduli June 16-17, 2014 1 / 1 Heros: Olsson

### SPACES OF RATIONAL CURVES ON COMPLETE INTERSECTIONS

SPACES OF RATIONAL CURVES ON COMPLETE INTERSECTIONS ROYA BEHESHTI AND N. MOHAN KUMAR Abstract. We prove that the space of smooth rational curves of degree e on a general complete intersection of multidegree

### THE QUANTUM CONNECTION

THE QUANTUM CONNECTION MICHAEL VISCARDI Review of quantum cohomology Genus 0 Gromov-Witten invariants Let X be a smooth projective variety over C, and H 2 (X, Z) an effective curve class Let M 0,n (X,

### Relative maps and tautological classes

J. Eur. Math. Soc. 7, 3 49 c European Mathematical Society 2005 C. Faber R. Pandharipande Relative maps and tautological classes Received October, 2003 and in revised form April 2, 2004 0. Introduction

### Representations and Linear Actions

Representations and Linear Actions Definition 0.1. Let G be an S-group. A representation of G is a morphism of S-groups φ G GL(n, S) for some n. We say φ is faithful if it is a monomorphism (in the category

### Mini-Course on Moduli Spaces

Mini-Course on Moduli Spaces Emily Clader June 2011 1 What is a Moduli Space? 1.1 What should a moduli space do? Suppose that we want to classify some kind of object, for example: Curves of genus g, One-dimensional

### We can choose generators of this k-algebra: s i H 0 (X, L r i. H 0 (X, L mr )

MODULI PROBLEMS AND GEOMETRIC INVARIANT THEORY 43 5.3. Linearisations. An abstract projective scheme X does not come with a pre-specified embedding in a projective space. However, an ample line bundle

### DIVISOR CLASSES AND THE VIRTUAL CANONICAL BUNDLE FOR GENUS 0 MAPS

DIVISOR CLASSES AND THE VIRTUAL CANONICAL BUNDLE FOR GENUS 0 MAPS A. J. DE JONG AND JASON STARR Abstract. We prove divisor class relations for families of genus 0 curves and used them to compute the divisor

### APPENDIX 3: AN OVERVIEW OF CHOW GROUPS

APPENDIX 3: AN OVERVIEW OF CHOW GROUPS We review in this appendix some basic definitions and results that we need about Chow groups. For details and proofs we refer to [Ful98]. In particular, we discuss

### RELATIVE VIRTUAL LOCALIZATION AND VANISHING OF TAUTOLOGICAL CLASSES ON MODULI SPACES OF CURVES

RELATIVE VIRTUAL LOCALIZATION AND VANISHING OF TAUTOLOGICAL CLASSES ON MODULI SPACES OF CURVES TOM GRABER AND RAVI VAKIL ABSTRACT. We prove a localization formula for the moduli space of stable relative

### Algebraic Cobordism. 2nd German-Chinese Conference on Complex Geometry East China Normal University Shanghai-September 11-16, 2006.

Algebraic Cobordism 2nd German-Chinese Conference on Complex Geometry East China Normal University Shanghai-September 11-16, 2006 Marc Levine Outline: Describe the setting of oriented cohomology over a

### Chern classes à la Grothendieck

Chern classes à la Grothendieck Theo Raedschelders October 16, 2014 Abstract In this note we introduce Chern classes based on Grothendieck s 1958 paper [4]. His approach is completely formal and he deduces

### MA 206 notes: introduction to resolution of singularities

MA 206 notes: introduction to resolution of singularities Dan Abramovich Brown University March 4, 2018 Abramovich Introduction to resolution of singularities 1 / 31 Resolution of singularities Let k be

### NOTES ON THE MODULI SPACE OF STABLE QUOTIENTS

NOTES ON THE MODULI SPACE OF STABLE QUOTIENTS Dragos Oprea 1 1 Partially supported by NSF grants DMS-1001486, DMS 1150675 and the Sloan Foundation. 2 Outline These notes are based on lectures given at

### Logarithmic geometry and rational curves

Logarithmic geometry and rational curves Summer School 2015 of the IRTG Moduli and Automorphic Forms Siena, Italy Dan Abramovich Brown University August 24-28, 2015 Abramovich (Brown) Logarithmic geometry

### PROBLEMS FOR VIASM MINICOURSE: GEOMETRY OF MODULI SPACES LAST UPDATED: DEC 25, 2013

PROBLEMS FOR VIASM MINICOURSE: GEOMETRY OF MODULI SPACES LAST UPDATED: DEC 25, 2013 1. Problems on moduli spaces The main text for this material is Harris & Morrison Moduli of curves. (There are djvu files

### On the WDVV-equation in quantum K-theory

On the WDVV-equation in quantum K-theory Alexander Givental UC Berkeley and Caltech 0. Introduction. Quantum cohomology theory can be described in general words as intersection theory in spaces of holomorphic

### DEFINITION OF ABELIAN VARIETIES AND THE THEOREM OF THE CUBE

DEFINITION OF ABELIAN VARIETIES AND THE THEOREM OF THE CUBE ANGELA ORTEGA (NOTES BY B. BAKKER) Throughout k is a field (not necessarily closed), and all varieties are over k. For a variety X/k, by a basepoint

### Proof of Langlands for GL(2), II

Proof of Langlands for GL(), II Notes by Tony Feng for a talk by Jochen Heinloth April 8, 016 1 Overview Let X/F q be a smooth, projective, geometrically connected curve. The aim is to show that if E is

### EXPANDED DEGENERATIONS AND PAIRS DAN ABRAMOVICH, CHARLES CADMAN, BARBARA FANTECHI, AND JONATHAN WISE

EXPANDED DEGENERATIONS AND PAIRS DAN ABRAMOVICH, CHARLES CADMAN, BARBARA FANTECHI, AND JONATHAN WISE Abstract. Since Jun Li s original definition, several other definitions of expanded pairs and expanded

### Porteous s Formula for Maps between Coherent Sheaves

Michigan Math. J. 52 (2004) Porteous s Formula for Maps between Coherent Sheaves Steven P. Diaz 1. Introduction Recall what the Thom Porteous formula for vector bundles tells us (see [2, Sec. 14.4] for

### THE STRUCTURE OF THE MODULI STACK OF ELLIPTIC CURVES

THE STRUCTURE OF THE MODULI STACK OF ELLIPTIC CURVES CHARMAINE SIA ABSTRACT. We study the multiplication-by-p map on an elliptic curve, which gives a stratification of the moduli stack of elliptic curves

### The Kontsevich Space of Rational Curves on Cyclic Covers of P n. A Dissertation presented. Lloyd Christopher John Smith. The Graduate School

The Kontsevich Space of Rational Curves on Cyclic Covers of P n A Dissertation presented by Lloyd Christopher John Smith to The Graduate School in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree

### 9. Birational Maps and Blowing Up

72 Andreas Gathmann 9. Birational Maps and Blowing Up In the course of this class we have already seen many examples of varieties that are almost the same in the sense that they contain isomorphic dense

### THE TAUTOLOGICAL RINGS OF THE MODULI SPACES OF STABLE MAPS TO FLAG VARIETIES

THE TAUTOLOGICAL RINGS OF THE MODULI SPACES OF STABLE MAPS TO FLAG VARIETIES DRAGOS OPREA Abstract. We show that the rational cohomology classes on the moduli spaces of genus zero stable maps to SL flag

### Oral exam practice problems: Algebraic Geometry

Oral exam practice problems: Algebraic Geometry Alberto García Raboso TP1. Let Q 1 and Q 2 be the quadric hypersurfaces in P n given by the equations f 1 x 2 0 + + x 2 n = 0 f 2 a 0 x 2 0 + + a n x 2 n

### LECTURE 7: STABLE RATIONALITY AND DECOMPOSITION OF THE DIAGONAL

LECTURE 7: STABLE RATIONALITY AND DECOMPOSITION OF THE DIAGONAL In this lecture we discuss a criterion for non-stable-rationality based on the decomposition of the diagonal in the Chow group. This criterion

### NOTES ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE MODULI SPACE OF CURVES

NOTES ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE MODULI SPACE OF CURVES DAN EDIDIN The purpose of these notes is to discuss the problem of moduli for curves of genus g 3 1 and outline the construction of the (coarse)

### Three Descriptions of the Cohomology of Bun G (X) (Lecture 4)

Three Descriptions of the Cohomology of Bun G (X) (Lecture 4) February 5, 2014 Let k be an algebraically closed field, let X be a algebraic curve over k (always assumed to be smooth and complete), and

### Gromov-Witten invariants of hypersurfaces

Gromov-Witten invariants of hypersurfaces Dem Fachbereich Mathematik der Technischen Universität Kaiserslautern zur Erlangung der venia legendi vorgelegte Habilitationsschrift von Andreas Gathmann geboren

### MODULI STACKS OF STABLE TORIC QUASIMAPS

MODULI STACKS OF STABLE TORIC QUASIMAPS IONUŢ CIOCAN-FONTANINE AND BUMSIG KIM Abstract. We construct new virtually smooth modular compactifications of spaces of maps from nonsingular curves to smooth projective

### DIVISOR CLASSES AND THE VIRTUAL CANONICAL BUNDLE FOR GENUS 0 MAPS

DIVISOR CLASSES AND THE VIRTUAL CANONICAL BUNDLE FOR GENUS 0 MAPS A. J. DE JONG AND JASON STARR Abstract. We prove divisor class relations for families of genus 0 curves and used them to compute the divisor

### Equivariant geometry and the cohomology of the moduli space of curves

Equivariant geometry and the cohomology of the moduli space of curves Dan Edidin Abstract. In this chapter we give a categorical definition of the integral cohomology ring of a stack. For quotient stacks

### Wild ramification and the characteristic cycle of an l-adic sheaf

Wild ramification and the characteristic cycle of an l-adic sheaf Takeshi Saito March 14 (Chicago), 23 (Toronto), 2007 Abstract The graded quotients of the logarithmic higher ramification groups of a local

### Gromov-Witten theory of A n -resolutions

Gromov-Witten theory of A n -resolutions arxiv:82.2681v1 [math.ag] 19 Feb 28 Davesh Maulik February 16, 213 Abstract We give a complete solution for the reduced Gromov-Witten theory of resolved surface

### h M (T ). The natural isomorphism η : M h M determines an element U = η 1

MODULI PROBLEMS AND GEOMETRIC INVARIANT THEORY 7 2.3. Fine moduli spaces. The ideal situation is when there is a scheme that represents our given moduli functor. Definition 2.15. Let M : Sch Set be a moduli

### Moduli space of curves and tautological relations

MSc Mathematical Physics Master Thesis Moduli space of curves and tautological relations Author: Farrokh Labib Supervisor: prof. dr. Sergey Shadrin Examination date: July, 017 Korteweg-de Vries Institute

### Cycle groups for Artin stacks

Cycle groups for Artin stacks arxiv:math/9810166v1 [math.ag] 28 Oct 1998 Contents Andrew Kresch 1 28 October 1998 1 Introduction 2 2 Definition and first properties 3 2.1 The homology functor..........................

### On the Virtual Fundamental Class

On the Virtual Fundamental Class Kai Behrend The University of British Columbia Seoul, August 14, 2014 http://www.math.ubc.ca/~behrend/talks/seoul14.pdf Overview Donaldson-Thomas theory: counting invariants

### Equivariant geometry and the cohomology of the moduli space of curves

Equivariant geometry and the cohomology of the moduli space of curves Dan Edidin Abstract. In this chapter we give a categorical definition of the integral cohomology ring of a stack. For quotient stacks

### Math 797W Homework 4

Math 797W Homework 4 Paul Hacking December 5, 2016 We work over an algebraically closed field k. (1) Let F be a sheaf of abelian groups on a topological space X, and p X a point. Recall the definition

### MODULI TOPOLOGY. 1. Grothendieck Topology

MODULI TOPOLOG Abstract. Notes from a seminar based on the section 3 of the paper: Picard groups of moduli problems (by Mumford). 1. Grothendieck Topology We can define a topology on any set S provided

### arxiv: v2 [math.ag] 24 Oct 2017

A GIT CONSTRUCTION OF DEGENERATIONS OF HILBERT SCHEMES OF POINTS MARTIN G. GULBRANDSEN, LARS H. HALLE, AND KLAUS HULEK arxiv:1604.00215v2 [math.ag] 24 Oct 2017 Abstract. We present a Geometric Invariant

### Algebraic Cobordism Lecture 1: Complex cobordism and algebraic cobordism

Algebraic Cobordism Lecture 1: Complex cobordism and algebraic cobordism UWO January 25, 2005 Marc Levine Prelude: From homotopy theory to A 1 -homotopy theory A basic object in homotopy theory is a generalized

### STABLE BASE LOCUS DECOMPOSITIONS OF KONTSEVICH MODULI SPACES

STABLE BASE LOCUS DECOMPOSITIONS OF KONTSEVICH MODULI SPACES DAWEI CHEN AND IZZET COSKUN Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Preliminary definitions and background 3 3. Degree two maps to Grassmannians 4 4.

### Nef line bundles on M 0,n from GIT

Nef line bundles on M 0,n from GIT David Swinarski Department of Mathematics University of Georgia November 13, 2009 Many of the results here are joint work with Valery Alexeev. We have a preprint: arxiv:0812.0778

### Abelian Varieties and the Fourier Mukai transformations (Foschungsseminar 2005)

Abelian Varieties and the Fourier Mukai transformations (Foschungsseminar 2005) U. Bunke April 27, 2005 Contents 1 Abelian varieties 2 1.1 Basic definitions................................. 2 1.2 Examples

### 1. Algebraic vector bundles. Affine Varieties

0. Brief overview Cycles and bundles are intrinsic invariants of algebraic varieties Close connections going back to Grothendieck Work with quasi-projective varieties over a field k Affine Varieties 1.

### 1 Notations and Statement of the Main Results

An introduction to algebraic fundamental groups 1 Notations and Statement of the Main Results Throughout the talk, all schemes are locally Noetherian. All maps are of locally finite type. There two main

### ARITHMETICALLY COHEN-MACAULAY BUNDLES ON HYPERSURFACES

ARITHMETICALLY COHEN-MACAULAY BUNDLES ON HYPERSURFACES N. MOHAN KUMAR, A. P. RAO, AND G. V. RAVINDRA Abstract. We prove that any rank two arithmetically Cohen- Macaulay vector bundle on a general hypersurface

### Stable maps and Quot schemes

Stable maps and Quot schemes Mihnea Popa and Mike Roth Contents 1. Introduction........................................ 1 2. Basic Setup........................................ 4 3. Dimension Estimates

### The Hitchin map, local to global

The Hitchin map, local to global Andrei Negut Let X be a smooth projective curve of genus g > 1, a semisimple group and Bun = Bun (X) the moduli stack of principal bundles on X. In this talk, we will present

### Cohomological Formulation (Lecture 3)

Cohomological Formulation (Lecture 3) February 5, 204 Let F q be a finite field with q elements, let X be an algebraic curve over F q, and let be a smooth affine group scheme over X with connected fibers.

### Corollary. Let X Y be a dominant map of varieties, with general fiber F. If Y and F are rationally connected, then X is.

1 Theorem. Let π : X B be a proper morphism of varieties, with B a smooth curve. If the general fiber F of f is rationally connected, then f has a section. Corollary. Let X Y be a dominant map of varieties,

### Systems of linear equations. We start with some linear algebra. Let K be a field. We consider a system of linear homogeneous equations over K,

Systems of linear equations We start with some linear algebra. Let K be a field. We consider a system of linear homogeneous equations over K, f 11 t 1 +... + f 1n t n = 0, f 21 t 1 +... + f 2n t n = 0,.

### MODULI SPACES OF CURVES

MODULI SPACES OF CURVES SCOTT NOLLET Abstract. My goal is to introduce vocabulary and present examples that will help graduate students to better follow lectures at TAGS 2018. Assuming some background

### FOUNDATIONS OF ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY CLASS 43

FOUNDATIONS OF ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY CLASS 43 RAVI VAKIL CONTENTS 1. Facts we ll soon know about curves 1 1. FACTS WE LL SOON KNOW ABOUT CURVES We almost know enough to say a lot of interesting things about

### Exercises of the Algebraic Geometry course held by Prof. Ugo Bruzzo. Alex Massarenti

Exercises of the Algebraic Geometry course held by Prof. Ugo Bruzzo Alex Massarenti SISSA, VIA BONOMEA 265, 34136 TRIESTE, ITALY E-mail address: alex.massarenti@sissa.it These notes collect a series of

### Introduction to Chiral Algebras

Introduction to Chiral Algebras Nick Rozenblyum Our goal will be to prove the fact that the algebra End(V ac) is commutative. The proof itself will be very easy - a version of the Eckmann Hilton argument

### The Canonical Sheaf. Stefano Filipazzi. September 14, 2015

The Canonical Sheaf Stefano Filipazzi September 14, 015 These notes are supposed to be a handout for the student seminar in algebraic geometry at the University of Utah. In this seminar, we will go over

### A Desingularization of the Main Component of the Moduli Space of Genus-One Stable Maps into P n

A Desingularization of the Main Component of the Moduli Space of Genus-One Stable Maps into P n Ravi Vakil and Aleksey Zinger September 7, 2007 Abstract We construct a natural smooth compactification of

### Lecture 7: Etale Fundamental Group - Examples

Lecture 7: Etale Fundamental Group - Examples October 15, 2014 In this lecture our only goal is to give lots of examples of etale fundamental groups so that the reader gets some feel for them. Some of

### Compatibly split subvarieties of Hilb n (A 2 k)

Compatibly split subvarieties of Hilb n (A 2 k) Jenna Rajchgot MSRI Combinatorial Commutative Algebra December 3-7, 2012 Throughout this talk, let k be an algebraically closed field of characteristic p

### Vertex algebras, chiral algebras, and factorisation algebras

Vertex algebras, chiral algebras, and factorisation algebras Emily Cliff University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign 18 September, 2017 Section 1 Vertex algebras, motivation, and road-plan Definition A

### The derived category of a GIT quotient

September 28, 2012 Table of contents 1 Geometric invariant theory 2 3 What is geometric invariant theory (GIT)? Let a reductive group G act on a smooth quasiprojective (preferably projective-over-affine)

### Odds and ends on equivariant cohomology and traces

Odds and ends on equivariant cohomology and traces Weizhe Zheng Columbia University International Congress of Chinese Mathematicians Tsinghua University, Beijing December 18, 2010 Joint work with Luc Illusie.

### TAUTOLOGICAL RELATIONS ON THE STABLE MAP SPACES

TAUTOLOGICAL RELATIONS ON THE STABLE MAP SPACES DRAGOS OPREA Abstract. The cohomology of the spaces of rational stable maps to flag varieties is generated by tautological classes. We study relations between

### STABLE BASE LOCUS DECOMPOSITIONS OF KONTSEVICH MODULI SPACES

STABLE BASE LOCUS DECOMPOSITIONS OF KONTSEVICH MODULI SPACES DAWEI CHEN AND IZZET COSKUN Abstract. In this paper, we determine the stable base locus decomposition of the Kontsevich moduli spaces of degree

### Using Stacks to Impose Tangency Conditions on Curves

Using Stacks to Impose Tangency Conditions on Curves arxiv:math/0312349v3 [math.ag] 5 Jul 2005 Charles Cadman Abstract We define a Deligne-Mumford stack X D,r which depends on a scheme X, an effective

### Fourier Mukai transforms II Orlov s criterion

Fourier Mukai transforms II Orlov s criterion Gregor Bruns 07.01.2015 1 Orlov s criterion In this note we re going to rely heavily on the projection formula, discussed earlier in Rostislav s talk) and

### Algebraic Geometry. Question: What regular polygons can be inscribed in an ellipse?

Algebraic Geometry Question: What regular polygons can be inscribed in an ellipse? 1. Varieties, Ideals, Nullstellensatz Let K be a field. We shall work over K, meaning, our coefficients of polynomials

### Tautological Rings of Moduli Spaces of Curves MEHDI TAVAKOL

Tautological Rings of Moduli Spaces of Curves MEHDI TAVAKOL Doctoral Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2011 TRITA-MAT-11-MA-03 ISSN 1401-2278 ISRN KTH/MAT/DA 11/02-SE ISBN 978-91-7501-043-4 KTH Institutionen för

### On the tautological ring of M g,n

Proceedings of 7 th Gökova Geometry-Topology Conference, pp, 1 7 On the tautological ring of M g,n Tom Graber and Ravi Vakil 1. Introduction The purpose of this note is to prove: Theorem 1.1. R 0 (M g,n

### Equivariant Algebraic K-Theory

Equivariant Algebraic K-Theory Ryan Mickler E-mail: mickler.r@husky.neu.edu Abstract: Notes from lectures given during the MIT/NEU Graduate Seminar on Nakajima Quiver Varieties, Spring 2015 Contents 1

### AFFINE PUSHFORWARD AND SMOOTH PULLBACK FOR PERVERSE SHEAVES

AFFINE PUSHFORWARD AND SMOOTH PULLBACK FOR PERVERSE SHEAVES YEHAO ZHOU Conventions In this lecture note, a variety means a separated algebraic variety over complex numbers, and sheaves are C-linear. 1.

### DIVISOR THEORY ON TROPICAL AND LOG SMOOTH CURVES

DIVISOR THEORY ON TROPICAL AND LOG SMOOTH CURVES MATTIA TALPO Abstract. Tropical geometry is a relatively new branch of algebraic geometry, that aims to prove facts about algebraic varieties by studying

### ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY COURSE NOTES, LECTURE 9: SCHEMES AND THEIR MODULES.

ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY COURSE NOTES, LECTURE 9: SCHEMES AND THEIR MODULES. ANDREW SALCH 1. Affine schemes. About notation: I am in the habit of writing f (U) instead of f 1 (U) for the preimage of a subset

### EXCLUDED HOMEOMORPHISM TYPES FOR DUAL COMPLEXES OF SURFACES

EXCLUDED HOMEOMORPHISM TYPES FOR DUAL COMPLEXES OF SURFACES DUSTIN CARTWRIGHT Abstract. We study an obstruction to prescribing the dual complex of a strict semistable degeneration of an algebraic surface.

### Algebraic varieties and schemes over any scheme. Non singular varieties

Algebraic varieties and schemes over any scheme. Non singular varieties Trang June 16, 2010 1 Lecture 1 Let k be a field and k[x 1,..., x n ] the polynomial ring with coefficients in k. Then we have two

### Invariance of tautological equations

Invariance of tautological equations Y.-P. Lee 28 June 2004, NCTS An observation: Tautological equations hold for any geometric Gromov Witten theory. Question 1. How about non-geometric GW theory? e.g.

### An Atlas For Bun r (X)

An Atlas For Bun r (X) As told by Dennis Gaitsgory to Nir Avni October 28, 2009 1 Bun r (X) Is Not Of Finite Type The goal of this lecture is to find a smooth atlas locally of finite type for the stack

### Chern numbers and Hilbert Modular Varieties

Chern numbers and Hilbert Modular Varieties Dylan Attwell-Duval Department of Mathematics and Statistics McGill University Montreal, Quebec attwellduval@math.mcgill.ca April 9, 2011 A Topological Point

### arxiv:math/ v2 [math.ag] 13 Apr 2008

arxiv:math/0603151v2 [math.ag] 13 Apr 2008 GROMOV WITTEN THEORY OF DELIGNE MUMFORD STACKS DAN ABRAMOVICH, TOM GRABER, AND ANGELO VISTOLI Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Chow rings, cohomology and homology

### Math 248B. Applications of base change for coherent cohomology

Math 248B. Applications of base change for coherent cohomology 1. Motivation Recall the following fundamental general theorem, the so-called cohomology and base change theorem: Theorem 1.1 (Grothendieck).

### Gauge Theory and Mirror Symmetry

Gauge Theory and Mirror Symmetry Constantin Teleman UC Berkeley ICM 2014, Seoul C. Teleman (Berkeley) Gauge theory, Mirror symmetry ICM Seoul, 2014 1 / 14 Character space for SO(3) and Toda foliation Support

### ON DEGENERATIONS OF MODULI OF HITCHIN PAIRS

ELECRONIC RESEARCH ANNOUNCEMENS IN MAHEMAICAL SCIENCES Volume 20, Pages 105 110 S 1935-9179 AIMS (2013) doi:10.3934/era.2013.20.105 ON DEGENERAIONS OF MODULI OF HICHIN PAIRS V. BALAJI, P. BARIK, AND D.S.

### Vector bundles in Algebraic Geometry Enrique Arrondo. 1. The notion of vector bundle

Vector bundles in Algebraic Geometry Enrique Arrondo Notes(* prepared for the First Summer School on Complex Geometry (Villarrica, Chile 7-9 December 2010 1 The notion of vector bundle In affine geometry,

### Symplectic varieties and Poisson deformations

Symplectic varieties and Poisson deformations Yoshinori Namikawa A symplectic variety X is a normal algebraic variety (defined over C) which admits an everywhere non-degenerate d-closed 2-form ω on the

### arxiv: v1 [math.ag] 30 Mar 2016

arxiv:1603.09213v1 [math.ag] 30 Mar 2016 A GENERALIZATION OF THE DOUBLE RAMIFICATION CYCLE VIA LOG-GEOMETRY JÉRÉMY GUÉRÉ Abstract. We give a log-geometric description of the space of twisted canonical

### Moduli Space of Riemann Surfaces

Moduli Space of Riemann Surfaces Gabriel C. Drummond-Cole June 5, 2007 1 Ravi Vakil Introduction to the Moduli Space [Tomorrow there is a reception after the first talk on the sixth floor. Without further

### H(G(Q p )//G(Z p )) = C c (SL n (Z p )\ SL n (Q p )/ SL n (Z p )).

92 19. Perverse sheaves on the affine Grassmannian 19.1. Spherical Hecke algebra. The Hecke algebra H(G(Q p )//G(Z p )) resp. H(G(F q ((T ))//G(F q [[T ]])) etc. of locally constant compactly supported

### Theta divisors and the Frobenius morphism

Theta divisors and the Frobenius morphism David A. Madore Abstract We introduce theta divisors for vector bundles and relate them to the ordinariness of curves in characteristic p > 0. We prove, following

### COUNTING ELLIPTIC PLANE CURVES

PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY Volume 125, Number 12, December 1997, Pages 3471 3479 S 0002-9939(97)04136-1 COUNTING ELLIPTIC PLANE CURVES WITH FIXED j-invariant RAHUL PANDHARIPANDE (Communicated

### FROBENIUS MORPHISM AND VECTOR BUNDLES ON CYCLES OF PROJECTIVE LINES

FROBENIUS MORPHISM AND VECTOR BUNDLES ON CYCLES OF PROJECTIVE LINES IGOR BURBAN Abstract. In this paper we describe the action of the Frobenius morphism on the indecomposable vector bundles on cycles of

### MATH 8253 ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY WEEK 12

MATH 8253 ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY WEEK 2 CİHAN BAHRAN 3.2.. Let Y be a Noetherian scheme. Show that any Y -scheme X of finite type is Noetherian. Moreover, if Y is of finite dimension, then so is X. Write f