# Proofs. by Bill Hanlon

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1 Proofs by Bill Hanlon

2 Future Reference To prove congruence, it is important that you remember not only your congruence theorems, but know your parallel line theorems, and theorems concerning triangles. Quite often you will need to use construction to create triangles that will allow you to do proofs or solve problems. Thm - Vertical angles are congruent 1 Given: 1 and 2 are 3 vertical angles 2 Prove: 1 2 Strategy: Knowing angles 1 and 3 are two angles whose ext. sides form a straight line as do angles 2 and 3. Those angles form sup s, whose sum is and 2 are Given vert s 2. 1 and 3 are Ext sides, 2 adj supp s s in a line 3. 2 and 3 are Same as #2 supp s = 180 Def of Supp s = = Sub 6. 1 = 2 Sub Prop of Equality Def of Congruence

3 Thm If 2 parallel lines are cut by a transversal, the alternate interior angles are congruent Strategy: Since we know by postulate that 1 and 3 are equal by corresponding s and 2 and 3 are equal because of vertical, we can make those equations and substitute 1. l ll m Given 1 and 2 are alt int s 2. 1 and 3 Def of corr. s are corr. s Two ll lines, cut by t, corr. s Vert s Transitive Prop

4 G: DEF The sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180º F R S P: = 180º D 1 3 E Strategy: Using our knowledge of ll lines being cut by a transversal, we will construct a line thru F ll to line segment DE, then segments DF and EF are transversals and the alt int s are 1. Draw RS ll DE Construction 2. 4 DFS are supp Ext sides of 2 adj 2 s DFS = 180 Def Supp s 4. DFS = Angle Add Post = 180 Sub 6. 1 = 4 2! lines cut by t, 3 = 5 alt int s = = 180 Sub into line 5

5 Congruence Postulates SSS SAS ASA Thm If two angles and the non included side of one triangle are congruent to the corresponding parts of another triangle, the triangles are congruent. C F A B D E Given : A D, C F, ΑΒ DE Prove: Δ ABC Δ DEF Strategy: Knowing 2 s of one triangle are equal to two angles of another triangle, the third angles must be equal. That allows me to them use one of the other congruence postulates to complete the proof. 1. A D Given C F ΑΒ DE 2. B E 2 s of a Δ congruent 2 s of another Δ, 3 rd s congruent 3. Δ ABC Δ DEF ASA

6 Thm. The exterior of a is equal to the sum of the 2 remote interior s G: ABC C P: 1 = A + C A 2 1 Strategy: We know the sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 180, we know that the ext sides of angles 1 and 2 lie in a line, hence equal 180, we set them equal and solve 1. A + C + 2 = 180 Int s of = are supp Ext sides 2 adj s = 180 Def Supp s 4. A + C + 2 = Sub 5. A + C = 1 Sub Prop Equality

7 Thm. If 2 s of are, the sides opposite those s are G: ABC A B C 1 2 P: AC BC A X B Strategy: To prove congruence, we need two triangles, we only have one. Constructing an angle bisector results in two triangles being formed which allows me to use the congruence theorems to prove triangles congruent, then use cpctc 1. Draw bisector CX Construction Def bisector 3. A B Given 4. CX CX Reflexive Prop 5. CAX CBX AAS 6. AC BC cpctc

8 Thm. A diagonal of a ogram separates the ogram into 2 s W T G: RSTW P: RST TWR R S Strategy: Use the congruence theorems to prove the triangles congruent 1. RSTW is a ogram Given 2. RS WT Def -!ogram ! lines cut by t, alt int s 4. RT RT Reflexive 5. RW ST Def -!ogram ! lines cut by t, alt int s 7. RST TWR ASA

9 The diagonals of a ogram bisect each other. M G: JKLM P: LE JE ; KE ME J 4 2 E 1 3 K L Strategy: Drawing the diagonals and using the theorems we have about parallel lines being cut by a transversal, we are able to label angles, show triangles congruent, then use cpctc 1. JKLM is ogram Give 2. JK! ML Def - ogram Alt int s 4. JK ML opposite sides ogram Alt int s 6. JEK LEM ASA 7. JE LE cpctc KE ME

10 The diagonals of a rhombus are G: Rhombus RSTW R P: RT SW S 1 2 A W T Strategy: Constructing the diagonals and using the def of a rhombus and parallelogram theorems, we have to show congruent adjacent angles to prove lines are perpendicular. So by proving triangles are congruent, we can use cpctc 1. RSTW Rhombus Give 2. RS SW Def Rhombus 3. SA WA Diagonals ogram bisect each other 4. RA RA Reflexive 5. RSA RWA SSS cpctc 7. RT SW 2 lines form adj s

11 The median of a trapezoid is to the bases and is equal to half the sum of the bases. G: RSTW trap R W P: MN ST M º º N MN RW MN = 1 (ST + RW) 2 S T Strategy: Use Coordinate Geometry. Place trap on coordinate axes, label pts. carefully keeping relationships. Find slopes,! lines have = slopes. Find distances. (2a, 2b) (2c, 2b) R W (a, b) (c + d, b) º M N º S T (0, 0) (2d, 0) Since MN, RW, and ST have the same slope, the lines are MN = c + d a RW + ST = 2c 2a + 2d RW = 2c 2a = 2(c a + d) ST = 2d MN = c + d a MN = 1 (STW + RW) 2

12 If a line is to one side of a and intersects the other 2 sides, it divides them proportionally. C G: ABC, YZ! AB P: AY YC BZ ZC = Y 2 4 Z 1 3 A B Strategy: Show 2 triangles formed are similar to write proportion, then use the Segment Add Post to make substitutions Reason 1. YZ! AB Given ; 3 4 2! lines cut by t, c s 3. ACB ~ YCZ Angle Angle Post AC BC = ~ sides in proportion YC ZC AC- YC BC- ZC = YC ZC Prop of proportions 6. AY +YC = AC Segment Add Post BZ + ZC = BC 7. AY = AC YC Sub Prop = BZ = BC ZC 8. AY BZ YC = ZC Sub. In line 5

13 If a ray bisects an of, it divides the opposite side into segments whose lengths are proportional to the lengths of the other 2 sides. G: LMN LP bisects MLN P: MP PN = LM LN M L 1 3 Y 2 4 P N 1. Extend ML, YN! LP Construction 2. MP PN = LM LY for MYN Corr s line, divides pro Det bisector Alt int s Sub 7. LY LN Base s, sides 8. MP PN = LM LN Sub

14 If the altitude is drawn to the hypotenuse of a right, the 2 s formed are similar to the given and each other. G: Rt ABC, CD AB C P: ADC ~ ACB CDB ~ ACB ADC ~ CDB 1 A D B 2 1. ACB rt, CD AB Give 2. 1, 2 are rt s lines form rt s 3. A A; ACB & ADC Reflexive 4. ADC ~ ACB AA Postulate 5. B B, ACB & CDB Reflexive 6. CDB ~ ACB AA Postulate 7. ADC ~ CDB Transitive; 4 & 6

15 Given: The length of the median to the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to one-half the length of the hypotenuse B ABC, C is the right angle CM is the median D M Prove: CM = ½ (AB) C A 1. ABC is rt Given CM is the median 2. Construct DM thru M Construction parallel to AC 3. MDC is rt angle Corresponding angles 4. BM = AM Def of median 5. BD = DC lines, congruent segments 6. MBD MCD HL Thm 7. CM MB cpctc 8. BM + MA = AB Segment Add Thm 9. BM + BM = AB Sub BM = AB Dist Prop CM = AB Sub 12. CM = ½ (AB) Div Prop Eq

16 In any rt the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs. G: Rt ACB P: c² = a² + b² b C a x y A C B 1. Draw from c to AB Construction 2. c a = a y ; c b = b x The length of a leg of a rt is the geo mean. 3. cy = a²; cx = b² Prop of Proportion 4. cy + cx = a² + b² APE 5. c(y + x) = a² + b² D Prop 6. c c = a² + b² Sub 7. c² = a² + b² Exponents

17 In a º, the hypotenuse is 2 times the leg. G: Rt RST 45 R = T = 45º T P: RT = l 2 R l S 1. Rt RST Give R = T 2. RS = TS legs opp. base s isos. 3. (RT)² = l ² + l ² Pythagorean Thm 4. (RT)² = 2 l ² D Prop 5. RT = 2 l Exponents

18 In a , the hypotenuses is twice the shorter leg and the longer leg is 3 times the shorter leg. B G: Rt ACB 60º BAC = 30 s B = 60º 30º l BC = s A C AC = l P: AB = 2 s l = s 3 R X 1.!!!!"!!!!" Draw BC, & AX so that Construction BAX = BAR is equilateral equiangular s are equilateral 3. AB = BR Def equilateral 4. BR = 2 s = AB Altitude of \/ bisects opp side 5. s² + l² = (AB)² Pyth Thm 6. s² + l ² = (2s)² Sub 7. s² + l² = 4s² Exp 8. l² = 3s² SPE 9. l = 3 s

19 A diameter that is to a chord bisects the chord and its 2 arcs A G: O AB XY O P: XK YK 1 2 XB! YB! K X Y B 1. Draw OX and OY Construction 2. AB XY Give 3. OK OK Reflexive 4. OY OX Radii of are 5. OKX OKY HL 6. XK YK cpctc XB YB 2 control s are, the arcs are

20 The measure of an inscribed is half the measure of the intercepted arc. B Give: ABC inscribed Prove: ABC = 1 2 AC! A O C Strategy: Go back to triangle theorems 1. Draw OA Construction 2. OB OA Radii 3. A B 2 sides of are, s opposite are 4. AOC = A + B Ext = 2 remote int s 5. AOC = B + B Sub 6. AOC = 2 B D-Prop AOC = B Div Prop Eq 8. AOC AC! Def Central, arc AC! = B Sub

21 When 2 secants intersect in a circle, the formed is = to 1 2 the sum of the arcs formed by the vertical. G: XY & ZW intersect Y Z P: 1 = 1 2 (! XZ + YW! ) 2 3 W X 1 Strategy: Construct triangles and use their relationships with the theorems on central angles and inscribed angles 1. Draw Construction XW 2. 1 = Ext of = 2 remote int s 3. 2 = 1! 2 XZ Inscribed = 1 2 intercepted arc 3 = 1 2 YW! 4. 1 = 1! 2 XZ YW! Sub 5. 1 = 1 2 (! XZ + YW! ) D-Prop

22 When 2 chords intersect, the product of the lengths of the segments of one chord is equal to the product of the lengths of the segments of the other. G: Chords XY & ZW P: a b = c d X a d K W Z c b Y 1. Draw XZ and WY Construction 2. X W Inscribed s intercept Z Y same arc 3. XKZ ~ WKY AA Postulate 4. a d = c b ~ s proportic 5. ab = cd Prop of Proportion

23 If 2 secants are drawn to a circle from an exterior pt, the product of the lengths of one secant segment and its external segment is equal to the product of the other secant and its external segment. Give: secants PX and PY Prove: PX PY = PZ PW Z X Y W P 1. Draw XW and ZY Construction 2. X Z Inscribed, same arcs 3. P P Reflexive 4. XPW ~ ZPY AA Postulate 5. PX PZ = PW PY ~ s, sides in proportion 6. PX PY = PZ PW Prop of Proportion

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