# Module 2. DC Circuit. Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur

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1 Module DC Circuit

2 Lesson 4 Loop Analysis of resistive circuit in the context of dc voltages and currents

3 Objectives Meaning of circuit analysis; distinguish between the terms mesh and loop. To provide more general and powerful circuit analysis tool based on Kirchhoff s voltage law (KVL) only. L.4.1 Introduction The Series-parallel reduction technique that we learned in lesson- for analyzing DC circuits simplifies every step logically from the preceding step and leads on logically to the next step. Unfortunately, if the circuit is complicated, this method (the simplify and reconstruct) becomes mathematically laborious, time consuming and likely to produce mistake in calculations. In fact, to elevate these difficulties, some methods are available which do not require much thought at all and we need only to follow a well-defined faithful procedure. One most popular technique will be discussed in this lesson is known as mesh or loop analysis method that based on the fundamental principles of circuits laws, namely, Ohm s law and Kirchhoff s voltage law. Some simple circuit problems will be analyzed by hand calculation to understand the procedure that involve in mesh or loop current analysis. L Meaning of circuit analysis The method by which one can determine a variable (either a voltage or a current) of a circuit is called analysis. Basic difference between mesh and loop is discussed in lesson- with an example. A mesh is any closed path in a given circuit that does not have any element (or branch) inside it. A mesh has the properties that (i) every node in the closed path is exactly formed with two branches (ii) no other branches are enclosed by the closed path. Meshes can be thought of a resembling window partitions. On the other hand, loop is also a closed path but inside the closed path there may be one or more than one branches or elements. L.4. Solution of Electric Circuit Based on Mesh (Loop) Current Method Let us consider a simple dc network as shown in Figure 4.1 to find the currents through different branches using Mesh (Loop) current method.

4 Applying KVL around mesh (loop)-1:(note in mesh-1, I 1 is known as local current and other mesh currents I& I are known as foreign currents.) a c ( ) ( ) V V I I R I I R = a c ( ) V V = R + R I R I R = (4.1) I R11I1 R1I R1I Applying KVL around mesh (loop)-:(similarly in mesh-, I is local current and I I are known as foreign currents) 1& b ( ) ( ) V I I R I I R = ( ) Vb = R4I1+ R+ R4 I RI R1I1 + RI RI Applying KVL around mesh (loop)-: V I R I I R I I R = c ( ) ( ) ( ) = (4.) Vc = RI1 RI+ R1+ R+ R I = R1I1 RI + RI (4.) ** In general, we can write for i th mesh ( for i = 1,,... N ) V = R I R I... + R I R I... R I ii ii i1 1 i ii i i, i+ 1 i+ 1 in N V simply means to take the algebraic sum of all voltage sources around the mesh. R means the total self resistance around the ii R means the mutual resistance between the and ij th i mesh. th j meshes. th i

5 Note: Generally, Rij = R ji ( true only for linear bilateral circuits) I i the unknown mesh currents for the network. Summarize: Step-I: Draw the circuit on a flat surface with no conductor crossovers. Step-: Label the mesh currents ( I i ) carefully in a clockwise direction. Step-: Write the mesh equations by inspecting the circuit (No. of independent mesh (loop) equations=no. of branches (b) - no. of principle nodes (n) + 1). Note: To analysis, a resistive network containing voltage and current sources using mesh equations method the following steps are essential to note: If possible, convert current source to voltage source. Otherwise, define the voltage across the current source and write the mesh equations as if these source voltages were known. Augment the set of equations with one equation for each current source expressing a known mesh current or difference between two mesh currents. Mesh analysis is valid only for circuits that can be drawn in a two-dimensional plane in such a way that no element crosses over another. Example-L-4.1: Find the current through 'ab-branch' ( I ab ) and voltage ( V cg ) across the current source using Mesh-current method.

6 Solution: Assume voltage across the current source is ( c is higher potential than g (ground potential and assumed as zero potential) and note I = -A (since assigned current direction ( I ) is opposite to the source current) Loop - 1: (Appling KVL) V I I R I I R I I I a ( 1 ) ( 1 ) 4 = 0 = 1 v 1 I I = 1 1 (4.4) Loop - : (Appling KVL) Let us assume the voltage across the current source is v 1 and its top end is assigned with a positive sign. v ( I I ) R ( I I ) R = 0 v = I + 6I 4I I I = v (note: I = A ) (4.5) 1 1 Loop - : (Appling KVL) I R ( I I ) R ( I I ) R = 0 I 4I + 8I = I 8I = 8 (Note, I = A) (4.6) 1

7 48 Solving equations (4.4) and (4.6), we get I1 = = A and 69 5 I = = A, I ab = I1 I = 0. 9A, I bc = I I = 0. 91A and I bg = I I 1. 04A 1 = - ve sign of current means that the current flows in reverse direction (in our case, the current flows through 4Ω resistor from c to b point). From equation (4.5), one can get v 1 == 6.7 volt. Another way: v1+ vbg + vbc = 0 v1 = vcg = 6.7 volt. Example-L-4. For the circuit shown Figure 4. (a) find V x using the mesh current method. Solution: One can easily convert the extreme right current source (6 A) into a voltage source. Note that the current source magnitude is 6 A and its internal resistance is 6 Ω. The given circuit is redrawn and shown in Figure 4. (c)

8 Loop-1: (Write KVL, note I1 = 1 A) Vx ( I1 I) 18= 0 Vx + I=54 (4.7) Loop-: (write KVL) 18 ( I I1) I 6 6= 0 9 I= 18 I= A Using the value of I = A in equation (4.7), we get V = 48 volt. v R Example-L-4. Find for the circuit shown in figure 4.4 using mesh current method. Calculate the power absorbed or delivered by the sources and all the elements. x

9 Solution: Assume the voltage across the current source is v and the bottom end of current source is marked as positive sign. For loop No. 1: (KVL equation) v ( I I ) 100 I 100 = 0 v 00 I I = 0 (4.8) It may be noted that from the figure that the current flowing through the 100Ω resistor (in the middle branch) is10 ma. More specifically, one can write the following expression I I = (4.9) For loop No. : (KVL equation) 0 ( I I ) 100 v I 100= 0 v+ 00 I 100 I = 0 (4.10) 1 1 Solving equations (4.8) (4.10), one can obtained the loop currents as I 1 = = 95mA (-ve sign indicates that the assigned loop current direction is not correct or in other words loop current ( I 1) direction is anticlockwise.) and I = = 105mA (note, loop current ( I ) direction is anticlockwise). Now the voltage across the 100 Ω resistor (extreme right branch) is given by vr = I 100= = 10.5 volt..this indicates that the resistor terminal (b) adjacent to the voltage source is more positive than the other end of the resistor terminal

10 (a). From equation (4.8) v = 8.5volt and this implies that the top end of the current source is more positive than the bottom end. Power delivered by the voltage source = =.1W (note that the current is leaving the positive terminal of the voltage source). On the other hand, the power received or absorbed by the current source = = 0.085W (since current entering to the positive terminal (top terminal) of the current source). Power absorbed by the all resistance is given = (0.105) (0.095) (10 10 ) 100 =.015W. Further one can note that the power delivered ( P =.1W ) = power absorbed ( P = =.1W ) =.1W ab d L.4. Test Your Understanding [Marks:50] T.4.1 To write the Kirchhoff s voltage law equation for a loop, we proceed clockwise around the loop, considering voltage rises into the loop equation as terms and voltage drops as terms. [] T.4. When writing the Kirchhoff s voltage law equation for a loop, how do we handle the situation when an ideal current source is present around the loop? [] T.4. When a loop current emerges with a positive value from mathematical solution of the system of equations, what does it mean? What does it mean when a loop current emerges with a negative value? [] T.4.4 In mesh current method, the current flowing through a resistor can be computed with the knowledge of loop current and loop current. [] T.4.5 Find the current through 6 Ω resistor for the circuit Figure 4.5 using mesh current method and hence calculate the voltage across the current source. [10]

11 (Answer:.18 A ; 1. V ) T.4.6 For the circuit shown in Figure 4.6, find the current through I AB, I AC, ICD and I EF using mesh current method. [1] (Answer: I = AI ; = AI ; = AandI = 0 A. ) AB AC CD EF T.4.7 Find the current flowing through the RL = 1kΩ resistor for the circuit shown in Figure 4.7 using mesh current method. What is the power delivered or absorbed by the independent current source? [10] (Answer: 1 ma;10mw ) T.4.8 Using mesh current method, find the current flowing through Ω resistor for the circuit shown in Figure 4.8 and hence compute the power consumed by the same Ω resistor. [10]

12 (Answer: 6 A; 7W )

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