Syllabus for AE3610, Aerodynamics I


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1 Syllabus for AE3610, Aerodynamics I Current Catalog Data: AE 3610 Aerodynamics I Credit: 4 hours A study of incompressible aerodynamics of flight vehicles with emphasis on combined application of theory and experiments for solving practical aerodynamic problems. Prerequisite Courses: AE 2610 Current Textbook: Anderson, J. D., Fundamentals of Aerodynamics (Fifth Edition), McGrawHill, New York, References: McCormick, B. W., Aerodynamics, Aeronautics, and Flight Mechanics, Wiley, Barlow, J. B., Rae, W. H. and Pope, A., LowSpeed Wind Tunnel Testing (Third Edition), Wiley, New York, 1999 Course Instructor: William W. Liou, Professor, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering G230, (269) , Office Hours: M 8am10am, 1pm2pm Course Objectives: 1. To understand the basic theory of incompressible aerodynamics; 2. To understand the standard experimental methods for wind tunnel testing; 3. To gain the preliminary knowledge of computational methods; 4. To gain the ability of interpreting experimental and computational data. Evaluation: Midterm Exam 1: 25% Final Exam: 30% Quiz: 20% Home Work & Lab: 25% Grades: A: , BA: 8084, B: 7579, CB: 7074, C: 6569, DC 6064, D: 5559, F: 050 Topics: Local surface quantities: pressure, skin friction, and temperature Integrated quantities: lift, drag, side force, pitch, roll and yaw moments Angle of attack, the center of pressure
2 Dimensional analysis, Reynolds number, Mach number Flow similarity, wind tunnel testing, experimental techniques Continuity equation, momentum equation, energy equation Streamline, vorticity, circulation Euler equation, Bernoulli s integral Potential flow, elemental solutions Nonlifting and lifting flows over a cylinder, KuttaJoukowski theorem Airfoils, thinairfoil theory Finite wing, Downwash, induced drag, liftingline theory Viscous flow, boundary layer Example Schedule for AE3610, Aerodynamics I 08/3109/07 (a) Introduction to aerodynamics and classification of aerodynamics; The most important local quantities on an aerodynamic surface: pressure, skin friction and temperature; The integrated forces and moments: lift, drag and side force, and pitch, roll and yaw moments; The nondimensional coefficients of the local and integrated forces and moments such as the pressure coefficient, skin fiction coefficient, lift coefficient, drag coefficient, and pitch moment coefficient. A historical remark on Theory vs. Empiricism in aerodynamics. Introduction to Applied Aerodynamics Laboratory at WMU. Discussions on static pressure measurements using taps with a Utube and velocity measurements using a Pitot tube. Hydrostatic equation and Bernoulli s equation. 09/0709/14 (a) Labor Day (b) Further discussions on the lift, drag and pitch moment; Calculations of the lift, drag, and pitch moments from the pressure and skin friction distributions on an airfoil; Introducing the angle of attack and the center of pressure (aerodynamic center). Brief show of quantitative, global pressure visualizations using the molecule sensor (pressure sensitive paint). Velocity calibration experiments using a Pitot tube in the small tunnel in AAL and determination of the velocity data obtained from an inclined tube manometer and the output from a pressure transducer digitized by an A/D converter in a PC. 09/1409/21 (a) Dimensional analysis (Buckingham Pi theorem); Nondimensional numbers in aerodynamics: Reynolds number and Mach number; Types of flows; (b) Flow similarity and wind tunnel testing; Various wind tunnels; Survey of experimental techniques for measurements of forces, moments, model attitude, and flow fields;
3 Balance calibration in a small wing tunnel to determine the relationship between the normal force and the outputs of strain gauges. 09/2109/28 (a) Vector algebra and calculus; Continuity equation and its application in lowspeed wind tunnels; (b) Momentum equation and physical interpretation; Substantial derivative; Measurements of the force and moment coefficients of a NACA airfoil in a small wind tunnel using a calibrated balance; 09/2810/05 (a) Application of the integral momentum equation in wake survey; Energy equation; Hierarchy of solutions in aerodynamics; (b) Midterm Exam I Measurement of the drag of a NACA airfoil or a cylinder based on wake survey; 10/0510/12 (a) Streamline, vorticity, and circulation; Euler equation and Bernoulli s integral; Applications of Bernoulli s equation in lowspeed tunnels; (b) Potential flow and Laplace equation; Potential and stream function; Measurements of the pressure distribution on a NACA airfoil using pressure taps connected with a scanning valve in a small wind tunnel. 10/1210/19 (a) Elemental solutions (uniform flow, source/sink flow and doublet flow) and combination of these solutions; (b) Potential flow around a nonlifting cylinder; the pressure distribution on a cylinder and comparison with experimental data; Measurements of the pressure distribution on a cylinder using a pressure tap by rotating the cylinder in a small wind tunnel; Comparison with the theoretical distribution given by the potential flow theory. 10/1910/26 (a) Liftingflow over a cylinder; (b) KuttaJoukowski theorem; Magnus effect; d Alembert paradox; Implication on the design of airfoils using the Joukowsky transformation;
4 Hotwire measurements of the unsteady wake behind a cylinder at different velocities; Observation of the change of the signal, indicating the different wake patterns. 10/2611/02 (a) Introduction to airfoils; Nomenclature of the airfoil geometry; Airfoil characteristics; Avian airfoils, NACA airfoils and lowspeed airfoils; (b) Vortex sheet as an idealized model of an airfoil; Kutta condition, Kelvin s circulation theorem; Symmetric thin airfoil theory; Hotwire measurements of the unsteady wake behind a cylinder at different velocities; Observation of the change of the signal, indicating the different flow patterns. 11/0211/09 (a) Cambered thin airfoil theory; Numerical method for arbitrary body; practical airfoils; Highlift configurations (flap and slat); (b) Midterm Exam II; Computational experiments using Sub 2D : Lifting circular cylinder flow; Comparison with experimental data; 11/0911/16 (a) Finite wing; Downwash and induced drag; BiotSavart theorem; (b) Prandtl s lifting line theory; Elliptical lift distribution; Aspect ratio effect; Physical significance; Computational experiments using Sub 2D : The pressure distributions, the lift and moment coefficients of a NACA airfoil at different angles of attack; 11/1611/23 (a) Lifting surface theory: vortex lattice method; Survey of various wings; Wing and body integration; (b) Thanksgiving Day Recess; 11/2311/30 (a) Viscous flows and skin friction drag; Boundary layer; Skin friction in a flatplate laminar boundary layer; (b) Transition and turbulence; Skin friction in a flatplate turbulent boundary layer;
5 12/08. Final Exam
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