2.004 Dynamics and Control II Spring 2008


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1 MT OpenCourseWare Dynamics and Control Spring 008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit:
2 Massachusetts nstitute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering.004 Dynamics and Control Spring Term 008 Lecture 8 Reading: ise: Chapter 8 Root Locus Development (contd. from Lecture 7). Behavior of the Root Locus as the Gain K Becomes Large (contd.) For a closedloop system? J H A H F J 4 + /? / F 0 with openloop transfer function G(s) KG c (s)g p (s)h(s), we saw in Lecture 7 that the asymptotic angles are summarized in the following table: n m 3 4 Asymptote Angles 80 90, 70 60, 80, , 35, 5, 35 copyright c D.Rowell 008 8
3 # & %! " & $! # " #!! # We now refine this property a little further. Let s m + b m s m + b m s m b 0 (s z )(s z )... (s z m ) G(s) K K. s n + a n s n + a n s n a 0 (s p )(s p )... (s p n ) For any polynomial of degree k, the coefficient of the term in s k is the sum of the roots of the polynomial, so that b m (z + z z m ) a n (p + p p n ). Further for large s, assume that we can ignore all but the first two terms in each polynomial, and write: s m + b m s m s m (z + z z m )s m G(s) K K s n + a n s n s n (p + p p n )s. n For large K, m closedloop poles approach m of the openloop zeros (which are also closedloop zeros). and if we assume pole/zero cancellation we can do polynomial division and write G(s) K s n m + (a n b m )s n m We can then use the relationship that for large x x k + cx k (x + c/k) k to write where σ a a n b m n m G(s) K (s σa ) n m (p + p p n ) (z + z z m ) n m 8
4 The closedloop characteristic equation for large s and large K may be approximated and the asymptotes are given by K + KG(s) + (s σa ) n m 0 (s σ a ) K /(n m) ( ) /(n m) which is similar to the result obtained in Lecture 7, namely that the roots lie on a circle of radius K /n m, but this time with the difference that the asymptotes radiate from the point s σ a. The point s σ a is defined as the centroid of the asymptotes and poles zeros σ a, n m and σ a is always real because poles and zeros are either real of complex conjugates. The following figure shows the displacement of the origin of the asymptotes: M! " M $ " # The root locus sketching rule, for constructing the locus of a system with m openloop zeros, and n openloop poles, for large values of gain K is therefore: As the value of K, m of the closedloop poles approach the m open loop zeros. As the gain K becomes large, n m branches of the root locus diverge away from a point s σ a on the real axis and approach n m radial asymptotes, at angles θ k (k + )π/(n m), for k 0... (n m ). Example Sketch the root locus plot for the openloop system G(s) K (s + )(s + )(s + 4) and find the gain K at which it becomes unstable. We proceed as follows: 8 3
5 !. Determine and plot the openloop poles and zeros.. Determine and plot the regions of the real axis that lie on the root locus. 3. Determine the number of asymptotes. There are no finite zeros, therefore n m Determine the asymptote angles and centroid, then sketch the asymptotes. For three asymptotes the angles are (see the above table) 60, 80, 300. The centroid is σ a ((sum of the poles) (sum of the zeros))/(n m) 7 (( 4) (0)) 3 3 These steps were used to produce the following sketch: M % $ " $ The closedloop characteristic equation is: (s + )(s + )(s + 4) + K s 3 + 7s + 4s K 0 and at the point of marginal stability (when s jω) jω 3 7ω + j4ω K 0 + j0 Equating the real and imaginary parts 7ω K 0 ω 3 + 4ω 0 8 4
6 giving ω 0, 4 K 8, 90 Since the roor locus is defined only for K > 0 we conclude that the system will become unstable for K > 90, and the locus will cross the imaginary axis at s ±j (4) rad/s. Example Show the effect of PD control on the rootlocus of the previous example. Let G c (s) K p + K d s K(s + b), where b K p /K d and K K d. The PD controller has added a zero at s b to the system. The openloop transfer function is now and we have n m. s + b G(s) K (s + )(s + )(s + 4) Assume for now that b 3. There will be n m asymptotes, at angles 90 and 70. The centroid will be σ a ow assume b 6. The centroid will be These two cases are sketched below: (( 4) ( 3)) σ a (( 4) ( 6))
7 M M >! > $ "! $ " #, A H J! >, A H J $ otice that as the PD zero moves deeper into the l.h. plane, it moves the asymptote toward the imaginary axis, meaning that the dominant closedloop poles become lightly damped. You can show for yourself that if b > 7, the asymptote origin σ a > 0 and this system will become unstable as K is increased. Example 3 Show some typical effects of PD control on the rootlocus of the previous example. With PD control K i G c (s) K p + + K d s s s + (K p /K d )s + K i /K d K d s (s z )(s z ) K s The PD controller has added a pole at the origin, and two zeros, which we as designers can place in order to shape the root locus to meet a set of specifications on the dynamic response. The openloop transfer function is now (s z )(s z ) G(s) K s(s + )(s + )(s + 4) 8 6
8 and we have n m. There will be n m asymptotes, at angles 90 and 70. The two root loci below show cases for (a) two real zeros (z, 4.5, 5), and (b) two complex conjugate zeros (z, ± j). n the first case the centroid will be σ a ((0 4) ( 4.5 5)).5, while in the second case the centroid will be σ a ((0 4) ( + j j)) 0.5 These two cases are sketched below: M M # " # " # " # 8 7
2.004 Dynamics and Control II Spring 2008
MT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 2.004 Dynamics and Control Spring 2008 or information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. Reading: ise: Chapter 8 Massachusetts
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