# Lecture Guide. Math 42 - Elementary Algebra. Stephen Toner. Introductory Algebra, 3rd edition. Miller, O'Neill, Hyde. Victor Valley College

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1 Lecture Guide Math 42 - Elementar Algebra to accompan Introductor Algebra, 3rd edition Miller, O'Neill, Hde Prepared b Stephen Toner Victor Valle College Accompaning videos can be found at Last updated: 6/7/14 1

2 3.1 The Rectangular Coordinate Sstem Introduction to Graphing The four quadrants: 3.2 Linear Equations in Two Variables A line is an infinite collection of (,) points, each of which satisf the equation of that line. *Is (3, 4) on the line = 2? *Graph each line: 1. = + 5 (,) coordinates: 2. =

3 3. = Summar: a. When the given line is of the form =, use an - chart with an choices of (usuall = 0,1,2 is best). b. When the given line is of the form a + b = c, also known as standard from, graph using intercepts. c. When the given line is missing a variable, it is either horizontal or vertical = Graph = = 6 7. Find the - and -intercepts of 4 7 =

4 Review: Etra Practice: 8. Graph = Graph = Graph =

5 3.3 Slope of a Line and Rate of Change Slope: In word problems, slope is sometimes referred to as a rate of change. *Find the slope of the line which runs through the given pair of points: 1. ( 2,3) and (4,1) 2. (4,5) and (11, 3) *Find the slope of the graphed line (passes through ( 3, 1) and (2,1): Formula: m = rise run = *Find the slope of each line: **Parallel lines have the slope. **The slopes of perpendicular lines are of each other. eamples: 25

6 = m + b is called the form of a line. *Are the lines between these pairs of points parallel, perpendicular, or neither? line 1: (1,9) and (0,4) ; line 2: (5,2) and (10,1) *In each equation, identif the slope and the -intercept. 1. = = = 5 *Graph the line whcih passes through ( 2, 3), having a slope of = = 11 *Name two additional points which are on the line ou just graphed = 3 26

7 3.4 Slope-Intercept Form of a Line Graphing Using the Slope Intercept Form of a Line 4. = 2 A. Identif and plot the -intercept. B. Identif the slope. Rise and run (to the right) from the -intercept to another point on the line. C. Draw the line. *Graph each of the following lines: 1. = = 2. = = =

8 *Are the following pairs of lines parallel, perpendicular, or neither? 7. { = = = { = + 7 b. Identif the C-intercept. Interpret the meaning of the C-intercept in the contet of this problem. *Find the equation of the line having the given attributes: 9. m = 3 ; -intercept (0,8) 11 c. Use the equation to determine how much it would cost to rent the car for 1 week. 10. passes through (0, 3) with slope of #79 The cost for a rental car is \$49.95 per da plus a flat fee of \$31.95 for insurance. The equation, C = represents the total cost, C (in dollars), to rent the car for das. a. Identif the slope. Interpret the meaning of the slope in the contet of this problem. **Suggested Assignment: pg. 252 #

9 Review 1. Solve m(2 ) = 7 for. 6. Graph on the same graph: { = = Graph = In which quadrant(s) is > 0 and > 0? 3. In which quadrant(s) is > 0? 8. Graph the line passing through (2,3) with m = Graph = 2 5. Graph = Write the equation of each line below: f()=3-1 f()=

10 10. Convert 4 5 = 8 into slope-intercept form. 13. Graph = Convert 2 8 = 7 into slope-intercept form. 14. Graph = Find the slope between ( 2,7) and (3,5). 30

11 3.5 Point-Slope Formula c. passes through ( 2,5) and (3,7). Three Forms of a Line 1. a + b = c 2. = m + b 3. 1 = m( 1 ) d. passes through ( 5,1) and is parallel to the line 3 4 = 11. *Find the equation of the line (in slope-intercept form) which has has the following characteristics. a. m = 2 3 and has -intercept (0,5). b. m = 3 5 and the line passes through ( 1,4). e. passes through ( 6,2) and is perpendicular to the line =

12 3.6 Applications of Linear Equations and Modeling 3.6 #10 The graph depicts the rise in the number of jail inmates in the United States since Two linear equations are given: one to describe the number of female inmates and one to describe the number of male inmates b ear. d. Assuming this trend continues, use the equation to predict the number of female inmates in Let represent the number of inmates (in thousands). Let represent the number of ears since a. What is the slope of the line representing the number of female inmates? Interpret the meaning of the slope in the contet of this problem. 3.6 #14 For a recent ear, children s admission to the Minnesota State Fair was \$8. Ride tickets were \$0.75 each. The equation = represented the cost,, in dollars to be admitted to the fair and to purchase ride tickets. a. Determine the slope of the line represented b = Interpret the meaning of the slope in the contet of this problem. b. Determine the -intercept. Interpret its meaning in the contet of this problem. b. What is the slope of the line representing the number of male inmates? Interpret the meaning of the slope in the contet of this problem. c. Use the equation to determine how much mone a child needed for admission and to ride 10 rides. c. Which group, males or females, has the larger slope? What does this impl about the rise in the number of male and female prisoners? 32

13 3.6 #18 The graph shows the average height for bos based on age. Let represent a bo s age, and let represent his height (in inches). a. Find a linear equation that represents the height of a bo versus his age. a. Use the points (0, 57) and (4, 143) to determine the slope of the line. b. Interpret the slope in the contet of this problem? c. Use the points (0, 57) and (4, 143) to find a linear equation relating the consumption of wind energ,, to the number of ears,, since b. Use the linear equation found in part (a) to predict the average height of a 5-ear-old bo. 3.6 #17 Wind energ is one tpe of renewable energ that does not produce dangerous greenhouse gases as a b-product. The graph shows the consumption of wind energ in the United States for selected ears. The variable represents the amount of wind energ in trillions of Btu, and the variable represents the number of ears since d. If this linear trend continues beond the observed data values, use the equation in part (c) to predict the consumption of wind energ in the ear

14 Eample: A phone bill is determined each month b a \$18.95 flat fee, plus \$0.08 per minute of long distance. a. Write a linear equation to compute the monthl cost of a phone bill,, if minutes of long distance are used. a. Write a linear equation to compute the total cost,, for 1 da if lemonades are produced. b. Use the equation to compute the cost for 1 da if 350 lemonades are produced. b. Use the equation to compute the phone bill for a month in which 1 hr and 27 min of long distance was used. Consider = a. Find the line parallel to this line through (4,1). b. Find the line perpendicular to this line through (4,1). 3.6 #22 An air-conditioning and heating compan has a fied monthl cost of \$5000. Furthermore, each service call costs the compan \$25. a. Write a linear equation to compute the total cost,, for 1 month if service calls are made. b. Use the equation to compute the cost for 1 month if 150 service calls are made. 3.6 #24 A beverage compan rents a booth at an art show to sell lemonade. The dail cost to rent a booth is \$35. Each lemonade costs \$0.50 to produce. 34

15 4.1 Solving Sstems b the Graphing Method consistent- 2 + = 4 2. { 4 2 = 4 independent- Three Cases: For each point in the table below, decide whether it is on Line 1, Line 2, both, or neither. *Find the solution to each sstem b graphing. 1. { = 2 =

16 4.2 Solving Sstems using Substitution 3 7 = 2 1. Solve: { = = 1 3. Solve: { 2 = 2 2 = Solve: { = = Solve: { = 12 36

17 4.2 #52 The sum of two numbers is 956. One number is 94 less than 6 times the other. Find the numbers. 4.2 #54 Two angles are complementar. One angle is 1 less than 6 times the other. Find the measure of each angle. 37

18 4.3 Solving Sstems using the Addition Method (aka Elimination Method) 2 + = 7 1. Solve: { 3 = 8 3 = Solve: { = = Solve: { = 9 4. Solve: { 6c 2d = 2 5c + 3d = 17 38

19 5m 2n = 4 5. Solve: { 3m + n = Solve: { + 2 = = = Solve: { = #67 Si times the smaller of 2 numbers minus the larger is 9. Ten times the smaller number plus five times the larger number is 5. Find the numbers. 4.3 #65 The difference of two positive numbers is 2. The sum of these numbers is 36. Find the numbers. 39

20 Miscellaneaous Review 8 2 = 5 1. Solve: { = #8 Two angles are supplementar. The measure of one angle is 9 more than twice the other. Find both angle measures Solve: { + 1 = = #22 How man gallons of a 20% antifreeze and a 10% antifreeze solution must be mied to obtain 40 gallons of a 16% antifreeze solution? 4.4 Word Problems 4.4 #6 The difference of two numbers is 264. The larger number is 3 times the smaller. Find the numbers. 40

21 4.4 #24 How man gallons of a 25% antifreeze and a 15% antifreeze solution must be mied to obtain 15 gallons of a 23% antifreeze solution? 4.4 #36 A kid is collecting state quarters and new \$1 coins. If she has 25 coins and the number of quarters is 9 more than the number of dollar coins, how man of each coin tpe does she have? 4.4 #16 \$12,000 was invested in two accounts, one earning 12% simple interest and the other earning 8%. If the total interest at the end of 1 ear was \$1240, how much was invested at each rate? Two cars start traveling toward each other from 600 miles apart. One travels 10 mph faster than the other. The meet in 4 hours. How fast is each driving? 41

22 A hiker hikes uphill for 4 hours. Going downhill, the return trip takes 2 hours. The hiker's speed going down the hill is 2 mph faster than when going upward. How fast is the hiker going in each direction? 4.4 #32 A plane flies 720 miles with the wind in 3 hours. The return trip takes four hours. What is the wind speed, and what is the plane's speed in still air? 4.4 #30 A boat takes 1.5 hours to go 12 miles upstream agains a current. It can go 24 miles downstream with the current in the same amount of time. Find the speed of the boat in still water and the speed of the current. 4.5 Sstems of Inequalities 42

23 1. Graph: > Graph: 4 < 4 2. Graph: < 5. Graph: { > 3 3. Graph: < 15 > Graph: { < 4 > 1 43

24 Review of Chapters 3 & 4 *Graph each of the following: 7. Find the slope of the lines which are parallel and perpendicular to 3 7 = = 6 2. = Find the equation of the line which passes through the point ( 2,4) and is... a. parallel to 3 7 = = 2 b. perpendicular to 3 7 = = 5. Find the slope between (3, 4) and (5,9). 6. Find the equation of the line containing the points (3, 4) and (5,9). 9. Find the - and -intercepts of 4 9 =

25 10. In 1995, 8 million homes were online. B the ear 2005, 97 million homes were online. Let = 0 represent the ear a. Find an equation to model this data. 12. Graph: > b. What is the slope? c. Interpret the slope in contet. 13. Graph: 2 3 > 6 d. Use the equation to predict the number of online homes in = Solve b graphing: { = Solve: { <

26 = Solve: { 2 3 = A 4% acid solution is mied with a 20% acid solution. How man ml of each should be mied in order to have 24 ml of a 10% acid? = Solve: { = A plane took 6 hours to fl to its destination with the wind and 8 hours on the return trip against the wind. If the distance of the trip is 3600 miles (each direction), find the speed of the plane and the wind speed. 17. Two angles are supplementar. The larger angle is 20 less than three times the smaller. Find both angle measures. 46

27 3 + 2 = Solve: { = Solve: { + = 7 3 = Pat bought a combination of 42-cent stamps and 50- cent stamps. If she spends eactl \$22.60 on fift stamps, how man of each did she bu? 23. Tina bought 3 adult tickets and 1 child's ticket to a movie for \$23. Lisa bought 2 adult tickets and 5 child tickets for \$ Find the cost of each tpe of ticket. 47

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