# Group Theory

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1 Group Theory Solutions to the exam of 4 November November 2014 Question 1 (a) For every number n in the set {1, 2,..., 2013} there is exactly one transposition (n n + 1) in σ, so σ is a product of an odd number of transpositions. We conclude that σ is an odd permutation, hence its sign is 1. (b) Starting, as always, from the right, we see that σ = ( ), a 2014-cycle. (c) We have that 11 1 mod 2 and mod 8. This gives r 4 s 11 r 2014 = r 4 s 1 r 6. Now notice that r a s = sr a for any integer a. We use this to obtain: (d) Take for example r 4 s 11 r 2014 = r 4 s 1 r 6 = r 4 r 6 s = r 2 s = r 6 s. M = It is easy to check that M t M = MM = Moreover, we have det(m) = 1. We conclude that M O 3 (R), but M / SO 3 (R). Furthermore, M is of course not a diagonal matrix. Question 2 (a) This is false. Let for example G = Z 2 = {0, 1}. Then G is abelian, so its conjugacy classes all consist of just one element. This means that we can pick H = {1}. This is not even a subgroup of G, since = 0 H so, in particular, H is not a normal subgroup of G. It is true that, if H is a subgroup of G and moreover a union of conjugacy classes, then H is normal in G. This happens to be the definition of a normal subgroup. 1

2 (b) This is true. We show that G {e H } G H is a proper normal subgroup of G H. Because G is nontrivial, G {e H } also is nontrivial and because H is nontrivial, G {e H } is not the entire group G H. Let ϕ: G H H be the map given by (g, h) h. This is a homomorphism, since ϕ ( (g 1, h 1 ) ) ϕ ( (g 2, h 2 ) ) = h 1 h 2 = ϕ ( (g 1 g 2, h 1 h 2 ) ) for g 1, g 2 G, h 1, h 2 H. Furthermore, (g, h) ker ϕ ϕ ( (g, h) ) = e H h = e H, so ker ϕ = G {e H } and the latter group is a normal subgroup of G H by the first isomorphism theorem. One can also avoid using the first isomorphism theorem and prove directly that G {e H } G H is a normal subgroup. (c) This is false. Let G be any group with G = = Apply the Sylow theorems with p = 53. We get that the number n of subgroups of G of order 53 satisfies n 1 mod 53 and n = 114. The latter gives n 114, so n 1 mod 53 implies n {1, 54, 107}. Only n = 1 satisfies n 114, so there is a unique H G of order 53. By the reasoning on page 114 of Armstrong, H is normal. Since 1 < H < G, the group G can not be simple. Note that p = 19 also works, while p = 2 and p = 3 do not. (d) This is true. Recall from Theorem 5.2 in Armstrong s book that H K is indeed a subgroup. So we only need to show that it is normal in G. Let x H K and g G. Because x H and H is normal in G, we have that gxg 1 H. Similarly, gxg 1 K. Therefore, gxg 1 H K, which shows what we wanted. (e) This is true. We first prove that x ker ϕ {g G : ϕ(g) = ϕ(x)}. Let g x ker ϕ. Then g = xh for some h ker ϕ. Because ϕ is a homomorphism, we have ϕ(g) = ϕ(xh) = ϕ(x)ϕ(h) = ϕ(x)e H = ϕ(x). For the reverse inclusion, let g G be such that ϕ(g) = ϕ(x). Then, again using that ϕ is a homomorphism, ϕ(x 1 g) = ϕ(x) 1 ϕ(g) = e H. Therefore x 1 g ker ϕ, which is equivalent to g x ker ϕ. (f) This is true. That G/Z is cyclic means that there exists an x G such that every element of G/Z is of the form (xz) n for some integer n. Remember that (xz) n is defined as x n Z. Because the elements of G/Z, that is, the left cosets of Z in G, partition G, this implies that for every g G there is some power n and some z Z such that g = x n z. If also h G, then similarly h = x m z for some integer m and z Z. Hence gh = x n zx m z = x m z x n z = hg, where we used that powers of x commute with each other and elements of Z commute with everything. This shows that G is abelian. Note that G being abelian implies that Z = G, which means that G/Z is trivial. So we actually proved that if G/Z is cyclic, then it is automatically trivial. Question 3 (a) The dihedral group D 5 can be represented by the set of elements {e, r, r 2, r 3, r 4, s, sr, sr 2, sr 3, sr 4 } 2

3 which satisfy r 5 = s 2 = e and srs = r 1. For every group G the identity element e is conjugate only to itself, so one conjugacy class is given by {e}. To find all the elements conjugate to r k for k {1, 2, 3, 4} notice first that r l r l (r l ) 1 = r l r k r l = r l+k l = r k for all l {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}. Conjugation of r k with sr l gives sr l r k (sr l ) 1 = sr l r k r l s = sr k s = r k, which shows that r is conjugate to r 1 = r 4 and r 2 is conjugate to (r 2 ) 1 = r 3. So two conjugacy classes are {r, r 4 } and {r 2, r 3 }. To determine the elements conjugate to s let us first determine r l s(r l ) 1 = r l sr l = sr 2l. For l = 1 this gives that s is conjugate to sr 2 = sr 3, for l = 2 it follows that s is conjugate to sr 4 = sr, for l = 3 the element s is conjugate to sr 6 = sr 1 = s 4 and for l = 4 the element s is conjugate to sr 8 = sr 3 = sr 2. So s, sr, sr 2, sr 3 and sr 4 are all in the same conjugacy class. Since all other elements of D 5 are found to be in other classes these five elements must form a conjugacy class. So the conjugacy classes of D 5 are {e}, {r, r 4 }, {r 2, r 3 } and {s, sr, sr 2, sr 3, sr 4 }. Here is an alternative argument: recall from Example (v) on page 93 and 94 of the book that for a finite group, the size of each conjugacy class divides the order of the group. Knowing this, less computations have to be performed to determine the conjugacy classes of D 5. These must then namely have 1, 2, 5 or 10 elements because the order of D 5 is 10. Since {e} is a conjugacy class, the remaining 9 elements in D 5 can not form a conjugacy class of order 10. By checking that s is conjugate to sr, sr 2, sr 3 and sr 4 (as above, using r l s(r l ) 1 = r l sr l = sr 2l for l {1, 2, 3, 4}) one can immediately conclude that these 5 elements must form one conjugacy class (more than 5 is not possible). It is also not possible that the remaining 4 elements, r, r 2, r 3 and r 4, are all in one conjugacy class because 4 is not a factor of 10. By checking that srs = r 1 = r 4 and sr 2 s = r 2 = r 3 it follows that {r, r 4 } and {r 2, r 3 } are conjugacy classes. (b) By the Counting Theorem we know that the total number of distinct colorings of the 5 diagonals is given by 1 D 5 g D 5 X g where X g is the set of distinct colorings of the 5 diagonals which are left invariant under the action (in this case rotation in 3-space) by g D 5. If g and h are conjugate, then X g = X h, so one has to determine the sizes of X g only for 4 representatives of the 4 conjugacy classes of D 5. Take e, r, r 2 and s as the representatives. For e, all 5 diagonals are left invariant and each diagonal can have n different colors, so there are n 5 distinct ways of coloring the 5 diagonals. For r (rotation by 2π 5 ), none of the diagonals are left invariant, so all diagonals must have the same color, which leaves n distinct possibilities for coloring the diagonals. The same is true for r 2. To visualize the action of s, associate s with rotation (mirroring) around the diagonal through 1 and the midpoint between 2 and 5. The diagonal 3 4 is then sent to itself, the diagonals 1 2 and 1 5 are interchanged 3

4 and the diagonals 3 2 and 5 4 are interchanged. This shows that 3 diagonals can be colored independently, giving n 3 possibilities The total number of distinct colorings of the 5 diagonals is therefore given by Question 4 X e + 2 X r + 2 X r2 + 5 X s 10 = n5 + 4n + 5n We will show that the symmetric group S n and the dihedral group D n!/2 are only isomorphic for n = 2 and n = 3. Case n = 2: Both S 2 = {e, (12)} and D 1 = {e, s} consist of just two elements and are thus isomorphic to Z 2. Case n = 3: The group S 3 is generated by the permutations ρ = (123) and σ = (12), which satisfy the relations ρ 3 = e, σ 2 = e and σρ = ρ 1 σ. Since #S 3 = 6, the elements ρ k σ l for k = 0, 1, 2 and l = 0, 1 are all distinct, allowing us to conclude that S 3 = {e, ρ, ρ 2, σ, ρσ, ρ 2 σ}, which is isomorphic to D 3. An explicit isomorphism ϕ: S 3 D 3 is given by ϕ(ρ k σ l ) = r k s l. This is a (well-defined) group homomorphism because ρ and σ satisfy the same relations as r and s. It is surjective because the generators r and s of D 3 are both in the image of ϕ, so bijectivity of ϕ follows from the fact that #S 3 = #D 3 = 6. Case n 4: We can show that S n and D n!/2 are not isomorphic for n 4 by finding some property which they do not share. We give some examples. So let n 4. The number of 3-cycles in S n is 2 (n 3) 8, so Sn contains at least 8 elements of order 3. On the other hand, D n!/2 has just 2 elements of order 3, namely r n!/6 and (r n!/6 ) 2. (Elements of the form r k s all have order 2 and (r k ) 3 = e if and only if 3k is a multiple of 1 2 n!.) Every n-cycle in S n can be uniquely written as (1a 2 a 3... a n ) with a i {2, 3,..., n} all distinct, so there are (n 1)! of them. This means that S n contains at least (n 1)! elements of order n. The only elements of D n!/2 that could have order n are of the form r i(n 1)!/2 for i = 1, 2,..., n 1 (with gcd(i, n) = 1), so D n!/2 contains at most n 1 elements of order n, which is less than (n 1)!. The element r D n!/2 has order 1 2 n!, while S n contains no elements of this order. This is true because any element σ S n is either an n-cycle, in which case ord(σ) = n = n! (n 1)! < 1 2n!, or it can be written as a product of disjoint cycles of length strictly smaller than n, in which case ord(σ) (n 1)! = 1 n n! < 1 2 n!. 4

5 The dihedral group D n!/2 has two conjugacy classes that consist of just one element, namely {e} and {r n!/4 }. The only conjugacy class in S n consisting of just one element is {e} since permutations of the same cycle type are conjugate in this group and one can write down multiple permutations for every other cycle type. (An alternative formulation: D n!/2 has center {e, r n!/4 }, while the center of S n is trivial.) The commutator subgroup [D n!/2, D n!/2 ] = r 2 = {e, r 2, r 4,..., r n!/2 2 } has n!/4 elements (and is abelian) if n 4, while [S n, S n ] = A n has n!/2 elements (and is not abelian). (See Example (viii) and Example (ix) from chapter 15 of the book for the computations.) Question 5 Let p denote a prime number, let G be a finite group and let ϕ: G G denote the map x x p. We will first show that if ϕ is a bijection, then the order of G is not divisible by p. We do this by contraposition. Assume the order of G is divisible by p. By Cauchy s theorem, this implies the existence of an element x G with order p. We then see that ϕ(x) = x p = e = e p = ϕ(e). Since x e, we see that ϕ is not injective, hence it is not a bijection. We will now show that if the order of G is not divisible by p, then ϕ is a bijection. Denote the order of G by n. Note that for any finite set X, a map X X is surjective if and only if it is injective. Therefore, in order to prove that ϕ is a bijection, it is enough to prove that it is an injection or to prove that it is a surjection. We will present two different proofs. The first one proves the injectivity of ϕ, and also provides us with an inverse function. The second one proves the surjectivity of ϕ. We will first show that ϕ is injective. Note that ϕ is not, in general, a homomorphism. It is therefore not enough to show that the set {x G : ϕ(x) = e} is trivial. To show injectivity, assume that ϕ(x) = ϕ(y) for some x, y G. Then by definition x p = y p. By Lagrange s theorem, we also see that x n = e = y n, where n denotes the order of G. Since we assumed that p does not divide n, and p is prime, we see that gcd(n, p) = 1. By Euclid s algorithm, there exist a, b Z such that an + bp = 1. We now see that x = x an+bp = (x n ) a (x p ) b = (y n ) a (y p ) b = y an+bp = y, so ϕ(x) = ϕ(y) implies that x = y. We therefore conclude that ϕ is injective, hence bijective. This method also gives us the inverse function of ϕ. If we define ψ : G G by x x b, where b is as above, then ψ ( ϕ(x) ) = ϕ ( ψ(x) ) = x bp = x 1 an = x(x n ) a = xe a = x. Using modular arithmetic, we can also write down the above proof in a more compact way. Since gcd(p, n) = 1, we know that there exists a b Z such that bp 1 mod n). Since x n = e for any x G, we see that this implies x bp = x 1 = x. Hence the map x x b is an inverse for ϕ. We now give a proof that shows that ϕ is surjective. It is based on the fact that, if p does not divide the order of G, then ϕ preserves the order of elements (i.e. ord(x) = ord(x p ) for all x G). We will first show that 5

6 this holds. Let x G, and let k = ord(x). We see that (x p ) k = (x k ) p = e, so ord(x p ) divides k. Let l = ord(x p ). We see that (x l ) p = (x p ) l = e, so ord(x l ) divides p. Since it also divides G by Lagrange s theorem, we see that ord(x l ) = 1, so x l = e. Therefore k = ord(x) divides l. We already saw that l divides k, so l = k. Hence x and x p have the same order for any x G. We will now use this to prove surjectivity of ϕ. Let x G. Then x and x p have the same order, hence x p = x. Since x p x by definition, we see that x p x. Because they have the same number of elements, we see that x p = x. Therefore x x p, so there is an m Z such that x = (x p ) m = (x m ) p. By definition, we now see that ϕ(x m ) = x. Hence we see that for every x G, there exists a y G such that ϕ(y) = x. We conclude that ϕ is surjective, hence it is bijective. 6

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