# Lecture 22 Chapters 3 Logic Circuits Part 1

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1 Lecture 22 Chapters 3 Logic Circuits Part 1

2 LC-3 Data Path Revisited How are the components Seen here implemented? 5-2

3 Computing Layers Problems Algorithms Language Instruction Set Architecture Microarchitecture Circuits Devices CS270 - Fall Semester 3

4 Transistor: Building Block of Computers Logically, each transistor acts as a switch Combined to implement logic functions (gates) AND, OR, NOT Combined to build higher-level structures Adder, multiplexer, decoder, register, memory Adder, multiplier Combined to build simple processor LC-3 4

5 Simple Switch Circuit Switch open: Open circuit, no current Light is off V out is +2.9V Switch closed: Short circuit across switch, current flows Light is on V out is 0V Switch-based circuits can easily represent two states: on/off, open/closed, voltage/no voltage. 5

6 n-type MOS Transistor MOS = Metal Oxide Semiconductor two types: n-type and p-type n-type when Gate has positive voltage, short circuit between #1 and #2 (switch closed) when Gate has zero voltage, open circuit between #1 and #2 (switch open) Gate = 1 Gate = 0 Terminal #2 must be connected to GND (0V). 6

7 p-type MOS Transistor p-type is complementary to n-type when Gate has positive voltage, open circuit between #1 and #2 (switch open) when Gate has zero voltage, short circuit between #1 and #2 (switch closed) Gate = 1 Gate = 0 Terminal #1 must be connected to +2.9V. 7

8 Logic Gates Use switch behavior of MOS transistors to implement logical functions: AND, OR, NOT. Digital symbols: recall that we assign a range of analog voltages to each digital (logic) symbol assignment of voltage ranges depends on electrical properties of transistors being used Øtypical values for "1": +5V, +3.3V, +2.9V Øfrom now on we'll use +2.9V 8

9 CMOS Circuit Complementary MOS uses both n-type and p-type MOS transistors p-type ØAttached to + voltage (2.9v) ØPulls output voltage UP when input is zero n-type ØAttached to GND (0v) ØPulls output voltage DOWN when input is one For all inputs, output is either connected to GND or to +, but not both! No direct connection between + and GND, except switching. Low power consumption. 9

10 Inverter (NOT Gate) Symbol In Out 0 V 2.9 V 2.9 V 0 V In Out Truth table 10

11 Logical Operation: OR and NOR Truth tables A B OR A B NOR Output=A+B Inputs: 2 or more Logic symbols Boolean algebra notation 11 Output=A+B

12 AND and NAND A B AND A B NAND Inputs: 2 or more Output = A.B Output = A.B 12

13 NOR Gate (OR-NOT) Logic symbol Note: Serial structure on top, parallel on bottom. A B C Truth table 13

14 OR Gate A B C Truth table Add inverter to NOR. 14

15 Basic Logic Gates 3-15

16 Boolean Algebra x 0 0 x 1 x x x 0 x.0 = 0 x.1 = x x.x = 0 x 0 x x 1 1 x x 1 X+0 = x x+1 = x+x = 16

17 Boolean Algebra Laws (2) Commutative A+B = B+A Associative A+(B+C)=(A+B)+C = A+B+C A.(B.C)=(A.B).C = ABC Distributive A.(B+C)=A.B+A.C A+(B.C)=(A+B).(A+C) A.B = B.A 17

18 Some Useful Identities for simplification AB+AB = A Proof: AB+AB =A(B+B) =A A+AB = A Proof: A+AB =A(1+B) =A 18

19 DeMorgan's Law Converting AND to OR (with some help from NOT) Consider the following gate: A B A B A B A B To convert AND to OR (or vice versa), invert inputs and output. Same as A OR B! 19

20 More than 2 Inputs? AND/OR can take any number of inputs. AND = 1 if all inputs are 1. OR = 1 if any input is 1. Similar for NAND/NOR. Can implement with multiple two-input gates, or with single CMOS circuit. 20

21 Propagation Delay Each gate has a propagation delay, typically fraction of a nanosecond (10-9 sec). Delays add depending on the chain of gates the signals have to go trough. Clock frequency is determined by the delay of the longest combinational path between storage elements. Measured in GHz (10 9 cycles per sec). 21

22 Summary MOS transistors are used as switches to implement logic functions. n-type: connect to GND, turn on (1) to pull down to 0 p-type: connect to +2.9V, turn on (0) to pull up to 1 Basic gates: NOT, NOR, NAND Boolean Algebra: Logic functions are usually expressed with AND, OR, and NOT DeMorgan's Law Convert AND to OR (and vice versa) by inverting inputs and output 22

23 Building Functions from Logic Gates Combinational Logic Circuit output depends only on the current inputs stateless Sequential Logic Circuit output depends on the sequence of inputs (past and present) stores information (state) from past inputs We'll first look at some useful combinational circuits, then show how to use sequential circuits to store information. 23

24 Combinatorial Logic Cascading set of logic gates A B C W X Y Z Digital circuit Truth table 24

25 Logisim Simulator Logic simulator: allows interactive design and layout of circuits with AND, OR, and NOT gates Simulator web page (linked on class web page) Overview, tutorial, downloads, etc. Windows or Linux operating systems Logisim demonstration 25

26 Functional Blocks Decoder Multiplexer Full Adder Any general function 26

27 Decoder n inputs, 2 n outputs exactly one output is 1 for each possible input pattern 2-bit decoder 27

28 Multiplexer (MUX) n-bit selector and 2 n inputs, one output output equals one of the inputs, depending on selector Functional representation 4-to-1 MUX 28

29 Full Adder Add two bits and carry-in, produce one-bit sum and carry-out. A B C in S C out

30 Four-bit Adder (ripple carry) 2 levels of delay per stage 30

31 Logical Completeness Can implement ANY truth table with combo of AND, OR, NOT gates. A B C D AND combinations that yield a "1" in the truth table. 2. OR the results of the AND gates. 31

32 Truth Table (to circuit) How do we design a circuit for this? A B C X Y

33 Programmable Logic Array Front end is decoder for inputs Back end defines the outputs Any truth table can be built Not necessarily minimal circuit! Requires (at least) ten gates. 33

34 Circuit Minimization using Boolean Algebra Boolean logic lets us reduce the circuit X = A B C + A BC + ABC + ABC = = A C + AB Y = A B C + A BC + AB C + ABC = A C+AC = C A B C X Y Only three gates! Try with Logisim! 34

35 Karnaugh maps to minimize literals Based on set-theory Visual representation of algebraic functions Allow algorithmic minimization of boolean functions in sum-of-products form adjacent terms can be combined. Adjacent: differ in one variable, complemented in one, not complemented in the other. Example: ABC+ABC = AB(C+C )=AB Thus ABC and ABC are two pieces of AB. Combining Minterms For n-variables, there are 2 n minterms, corresponding to each row of truth table. Some of them can be combined into groups of 2, (or 4 or 8..) to simplify the function. Discrete math YKM 35 11/2/17

36 Karnaugh maps Visual representation of algebraic functions to make it easy to spot adjacent minterms Columns arranged so that adjacent terms are visually adjacent. Identify groups of 2, 4, 8 etc. terms that can be combined. All 1 s must be covered. A 1 can be used more than once, if needed. Sometimes the solution is not unique Next: maps for X(A,B,C) and Y(A,B,C) A B C X Y Discrete math YKM 36 11/2/17

37 Karnaugh Maps: Visualization of algebra B A\BC A A B C X Y B A\BC A C C 37

38 Karnaugh Maps: Visualization of algebra B A\BC A B A\BC A C C A B C +A BC = A C ; ABC+ABC = AB A B C+A BC+AB C+ABC= A C+AC = C Thus minimized function is X = A C +AB Y = C 38

39 4-variable Kmaps / Design C A D F(A,B,C,D)=ABC +A C D+ A BC+ACD+? Try them with Logisim B F(A,B,C,D)=B D + C A D B 39

40 4-variable Kmaps / Design C A D F(A,B,C,D)=ABC +A C D+ A BC+ACD +? Try them with Logisim B F(A,B,C,D)=B D +A BC D C A D B 40

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