# Topological String Theory

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1 Topological String Theory Hirosi Ooguri (Caltech) Strings 2005, Toronto, Canada

2 If String Theory is an answer, what is the question?

3 What is String Theory?

4 If Topological String Theory is an answer, what is the question?

5 What is Topological String Theory?

6 1. Formal Theory

7 Topological String Theory (1) Start with a Calabi-Yau 3-fold. Witten; DVV 1990 (2) Topologically twist the sigma-model. (3) Couple it to the topological gravity on This is an asymptotic expansion.

8 Methods to compute F_g Holomorphic Anomaly Equation BCOV 1993 Topological Vertex Aganagic, Klemm, Marino, Vafa 2003 for noncompact toric CY3, to all order in perturbation Iqbal, Kashani-Poor, Dijkgraaf,... Quantum Foams Okounkov, Reshetikhin, Vafa 2003 Iqbal, Nekrasov,... Maurik, Pandharipande,... more recent mathematical developments...

9 Open String Field Theory A-model => Chern-Simons gauge theory Witten 1992 Computation of knot invariants Vafa, H.O. 1999; Gukov, A.Schwarz, Vafa 2005 B-model => Matrix Model Dijkgraav, Vafa 2002

10 Laboratory for Large N Dualities Gopakumar,Vafa 1998 For the B-model: Dijkgraav, Vafa 2002

11 The topological string large N duality is amenable to worldsheet derivation: Vafa, H.O The large N duality is a statement that is perturbative in closed string. That is why the worldsheet derivation is possible. A similar derivation may be possible for the AdS/CFT correspondence.

12 Topological String Partition Function = Wave Function Consider the topological B-model For a given background, we can define the B-model. is a holomorphic function of

13 The holomorphic anomaly equations derived in BCOV; interpreted by Witten; refined by D-V-Vonk. Interptetation: (1) On each tangent space, there is a Hilbert space. (2) The holomorphic anomaly equation is describing the paralell transport between tangent spaces at different points. More on (1): has a symplectic structure. Topological string uses a holomorphic polarization. More on (2): The polarization depends on Wave-functions are related by Fourier transformation.

14 The topological string wave function may have an interpretation from 7 dimensional pointe of view. Dijkgraaf, Gukov, Neitzke, Vafa; Nekrasov; Gerasimov, Shatashvili 2004

15 2. Superpotentials

16 It was known that the Yukawa coupling in four dimensions is given by the g=0 topological string amplitude. Dine, Seiberg, Witten, Wen, Martinec, Distler, Greene, Lerche, Vafa, Warner,... This was generalized for g > 0 in type II superstring compactified on CY3 BCOV; Antoniadis, Gava, Narain, Tayor 1993

17

18 Analogously, open topological string theory can be used to compute superpotentials for type II string on CY3 with D branes. BCOV 1993 Vafa, H.O Vafa 2000 When topological open string field theory is a matrix model, the superpotential of the 4d gauge theory on the branes is given by the partition function of the matrix model. Dijkgraaf, Vafa 2002

19 If Topological String Theory is an answer, what is the question?

20 3. Black Holes

21 What are questions for which graviphoton field strength is important? Type II superstring complactified on CY3 has many charged extremal black holes constructed as D branes wrapping cycles in CY3. The number of ground states of the black hole is computable using the gauge theory on the branes. When the charges are large, the classical gravity descrpition is good, and the number of states is given by the Bekenstein-Hawking formula: This has been successfully tested. Can we make this more precise, by incorporating quantum corrections to the right-hand side?

22 Extremal Black Hole in String Theory Consider type IIB superstring on Choose a symplectic basis of 3-cycles on D3 branes wrapping on 3 cycles = BPS black hole in four dimensions with electric charges, magnetic charges

23 Conjecture (Strominger, Vafa + H.O.) (1) Calabi-Yau moduli are determined by the magnetic charges and the electric potentials. (2) This identity is supposed to hold to all order in the string perturbation theory. There are important non-perturbative corrections to the formula.

24 Quantum corrections to the formula can be evaluated using the topological string amplitudes. Cardoso, de Wit, Mohaupt 1998 The quantum corrections modify the entropy formula. CdWM computed the modified formula. OSV noticed that their formula can be re-expressed as: Quantum corrections can also change the nature of solutions. For example, when a classical solution has a naked singularity, the one-loop correction may generate a horizon to cloak the singularity. Dabholkar; Dabholkar, Kallosh, Maloney; Sen 2004

25 The OSV conjecture as AdS/CFT correspondence (1) AdS story: The near horizon geometry of the black hole is Partition function of type II string in this geometry (2) CFT story: Number of BPS states on the D brane worldvolume Gauge theory computation on the D branes. This may help us understand the (still mysterious) AdS2/CFT1 correspondence.

26 This formula has been examined in various examples: Vafa; Dabholkar; Sen; Aganagic, Saulina, Vafa + H.O.; Dabholkar, Denef, Moore, Pioline;... When the effective string coupling is parametrically small and the CY geometry is smooth, all the results are consistent with the OSV conjecture. When there is a heterotic dual, the OSV formula has been used to clarify the correspondence between elementary strings states and black holes. The formula is supposed to hold to all order in the perturbative expansion. I will discuss non-perturbative corrections in the following example.

27 An example: Type IIA theory on the following noncompact CY. The total space is a Calabi-Yau manifold. g=0; Vafa g>0; Aganagic, Saulina, Vafa, H.O Topological string amplitudes on this CY was recently computed to all order in the perturbative expansion. Bryan, Pandharipande 2004 N D4 branes on U(N) gauge theory on the worldvolume

28 What does it mean to compute the entropy of the 4d black hole when the CY is non-compact? Potential problem: 4d black hole entropy ~ One can think of our computation as a smooth limit of a well-defined compact case, where both the black hole mass and the 4d Planck mass go to infinity but their ratio remains finite.

29 The gauge theory partition function

30 The large N gauge theory partition function is factorized: is the topological string wave-function for with extra D3 branes inserted at (2g-2) points on the Riemann surface on the base. are holonomies on the D3 branes.

31 can be interpreted as Kahler moduli associated to non-renormalizable deformation of the Calabi-Yau toward the asymptotic infinity. (Or, these parameters remember how the local model is embedded in a compact Calabi-Yau.) Aganagic, Neitzke, and Vafa 2005

32 When g=1, the U(N) YM partition function can be expressed in terms of N non-relativistic free fermions on a circle. p N/2 - N/2 When N is large, the two fermi surfaces are decoupled.

33 p N/2 - N/2 In the large N limit, the two fermi surfaces are decoupled. Fluctuations of each fermi surface are described by free relativistic fermions. The 1/N expansion of the non-relativistic free fermion partition function correctly reproduces the absolute value square of the perturbative string amplitude.

34 For finite N, the two fermi surfaces are entangled by excitations that are non-perturbative in 1/N. These non-perturbative states would be over-counted if we ignore the entanglement of the two fermi surfaces. Dijkgraaf, Gopakumar, Vafa + H.O. 2005

35 Configurations with 2n fermi surfaces p 1 2 n is dual to n disjoint universes AdS_2 AdS_2 AdS_2 AdS_2 1 2 n weighted by the Catalan number of planar binary trees with n branches (remembering how baby universe have been created from the parent universe).

36 If Topological String Theory is an answer, what is the question? Topological string theory can be used to derive superpotential terms for the superstring theory compactified on CY3. In particular, string loop corrections to entropies of extremal black holes in four dimensions can be computed to all order in the string perturbation theory. In examples, quantum corrected entropies obtained in this way agree with independent computation using gauge theories on branes. There are important non-perturbative corrections, suggesting that unitarity of quantum gravity can be maintained after we sum over topologies.

37 What is Topological String Theory? There are powerful mathematical methods to compute topological string ampliutdes to all order in the string perturbation theory. For a given CY3, a non-perturbative defintion of topological string theory can be given in terms of the gauge theory on branes wrapping cycles of the CY3. A background independent formulation is desired. Perhaps a better understanding of the topological M theory in 7 dimensions will help.

38 Y Ç 完 おわり End

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