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1 Math III Unit 2: Polynomials Notes 2-1 Quadratic Equations Solving Quadratic Equations Review Name: Date: Period: Some quadratic equations can be solved by. Others can be solved just by using. ANY quadratic equation can be solved by using. Solving by Finding Square Roots a. 4x = 46 b. 3x 2 5 = 25 Determining Dimensions While designing a house, an architect used windows like the one shown here. What are the dimensions of the window if it has 2766 square inches of glass?

2 Notes 2-1 Solving a Perfect Square Trinomial Equation What is the solution of x 2 + 4x + 4 = 25? Quadratic Equations Factor the Perfect Square Trinomial Find Square Roots Rewrite as two equations Solve for x Completing the Square If x 2 + bx is not part of a perfect square trinomial, you can use the coefficient b to find a constant c so that x 2 + bx + c is a perfect square. When you do this, you are. The diagram models this process. You can form a perfect square trinomial from x 2 + bx by adding x 2 " + bx + b # 2 \$ % 2 " = x + b # 2 \$ % 2 " b\$ # 2% 2.

3 Notes 2-1 Example: What value completes the square for x 2 10x? Justify your answer. Quadratic Equations Solving an Equation by Completing the Square 1. Rewrite the equation in the form x 2 + bx = c. To do this, get all terms with the variable on one side of the equation and the constant on the other side. Divide all the terms of the equation by the coefficient of x 2 if it is not Complete the square by adding 3. Factor the trinomial. 4. Find square roots. 5. Solve for x. " b\$ # 2% Example 1 What is the solution of 3x 2 12x + 6 = 0? 2 to each side of the equation.

4 Notes 2-1 Example 2 What is the solution of 2x 2 x + 3 = x + 9? Quadratic Equations Writing in Vertex Form What is y = x 2 + 4x 6 in vertex form? Name the vertex and y-intercept.

5 Math III Unit 2: Polynomials Name: Notes 2-2 Real and Imaginary Numbers Date: Period: Deriving the Quadratic Formula ax 2 + bx + c = 0 Divide each side by a. Rewrite so all terms containing x are on one side. Complete the Square. Factor the perfect square trinomial. Also simplify. Find square roots. Solve for x. Also simplify the radical. Simplify. The Discriminant x = b ± b 2 4ac 2a If b 2 4ac is greater than zero, then is equal to zero, then is less than zero, then Non-real solutions to the quadratic formula are known as.

6 Notes 2-2 Real and Imaginary Numbers Essential Understanding The complex numbers are based on a number whose square is. The is the complex number whose square is -1. So,, and. Square Root of a Negative Real Number For any positive number a, a = 1 a = 1 a = i a. 5 = Note that (not5). Simplify a Number Using i How do you write 18 by using the imaginary unit i? Multiplication Property of Square Roots Definition of i Simplify. An is any number of the form numbers and b 0. a + bi, where a and b are real

7 Notes 2-2 Real and Imaginary Numbers

8 Notes 2-2 Real and Imaginary Numbers Complex Number Plane In the, the point (a, b) represents the complex number a + bi. To graph a complex number, locate the part on the axis and the part on the axis. The of a complex number is its distance from the origin in the complex plane. 2 a + bi = a + b 2 Graphing in the Complex Number Plane What are the graph and absolute value of each number? A i B. 6 i Adding and Subtracting Complex Numbers To add or subtract complex numbers, combine the real parts and the imaginary parts separately. The associative and commutative properties apply to complex numbers. What is each sum or difference? A. ( 4 3i) + ( 4 + 3i) B. ( 5 3i) ( 2 + 4i)

9 Notes 2-2 Real and Imaginary Numbers Multiplying Complex Numbers You multiply complex numbers parts bi and di, ( bi)( di) = bd ( i) = bd ( 1) = bd Example: What is each product? A. ( 3 i)( 5 + 2i) 2 a + bi and c + di as you would multiply binomials. For imaginary. B. ( 4 + 3i)( 1 2i) C. ( 6 + i)( 6 i) The solution to this problem is a real number. Number pairs of the form a + bi and a bi are. The product of these types of pairs is a real number ( a + bi)( a bi) = a ( bi) = a b i = a b ( 1) = a + b Dividing Complex Numbers You can use complex conjugates to simplify quotients of complex numbers. What is each quotient? A i 3i B i 1 4i

10 Notes 2-2 Real and Imaginary Numbers Finding Pure Imaginary Solutions What are the solutions of 2x = 0? Finding Imaginary Solutions What are the solutions of 2x 2 3x + 5 = 0?

11 Math III Unit 2: Polynomials Name Date Period Notes 2-3 Graphing Polynomial Functions Each of these functions is a polynomial function: a) f(x) = x 3 b) f(x) = 7x 2-2x c) f(x) = 5x 3 + 2x - 12 d) f (x) = 3 4 x2 5x Each of these functions is NOT a polynomial function: e) f(x) = 23x 2/3 f) f(x) = 26*(.5) x g) f (x) = x h) 1 x 3 A polynomial function Definition of a Polynomial Function A polynomial function is whose exponents are. Standard Form of a Polynomial Function g(x) = 3x 2 + 4x 5 + x x is a function. (Recall that even 6 can be written as.) However, g(x) is not written in standard form. The standard (or general) form for g(x) is. For a polynomial to be in standard form, Polynomials have the following characteristics: a) Degree: b) # of Terms: c) Leading Term: d) Leading Coefficient: e) Constant Term:

12 Notes 2-3 Graphing Polynomial Functions Ex 1) Are the following functions polynomial functions? If so, put them in standard form and state a) the degree, b) # of terms, c) leading term, d) leading coefficient, and e) constant term. If not, then tell why not. a) y = 3x b) y = 4x 2 7 x c) y = 5 x 2 d) y = 7t 2 8t + 6 e) y = 3.1 8x 2 + 5x x 4 f) y = x 2 + 5x Large-Scale Behavior of Polynomial Functions Ex.2) Consider the polynomial f(x) = 3x 2 + x + 6. a) What is the value of f(x) when x=2? What is the value of just the leading term when x=2? Notice that when x=2, the value of the leading term makes up of the value of the whole polynomial. b) What is the value of f(x) when x=100? What is the value of just the leading term when x=100? Notice that when x=100, the value of the leading term makes up of the value of the whole polynomial. In general, if x is, we can estimate the value of a polynomial by calculating the value of. Thus, for the function f(x), for large values of x, the algebraic expression 3x 2 is approximately equal to 3x 2 + x + 6. If this is what happens numerically, what would you think would happen graphically?

13 Notes 2-3 Graphing Polynomial Functions Ex 1: Compare the graphs of the polynomial functions f, g, and h given by f(x) = x 4 4x 3 4x x g(x) = x 4 + x 3 8x 2 12x h(x) = x 4 4x x 16 On a large scale they all resemble the graph of On a smaller scale, the graphs look like Zeros of a Polynomial Function The zeros of a function are the values of that make equal zero (that is, the values of that make the equal zero). The zeros of a function are also sometimes referred to as: The total number of zeros that a polynomial function has is always equal to the of the polynomial. Also note that every corresponds to a. For example, if x = 2 is a then x-2 is a. Bumps/Turns Polynomial functions also have another characteristic that we refer to as bumps or turns. A corresponds to a change in direction for the graph of a function. Between any two consecutive, there must be a because the graph would have to change direction or turn in order to cross the x-axis again.

14 Notes 2-3 Graphing Polynomial Functions How does the number of bumps/turns compare to the number of zeros? Type of polynomial Typical graph shape # of zeros # of bumps 2 nd degree 3 rd degree 4 th degree Multiple Zeros Consider the functions f(x) = x 2 8x + 16 and g(x) = x 3 + 3x 2 + 3x +1. How many zeros should f(x) have? What about g(x)? Now look at the graphs on your calculator and determine what the actual zeros are. For f(x) we say that x= is a root and for g(x) we say that x = is a root. If the graph of a polynomial function off the x-axis, then the zero at that point will be repeated an number of times. If the graph of a polynomial function crosses the x-axis but looks there, then the zero at that point will be repeated an number of times. Ex 1) Identify the zeros (roots) and factors of the following polynomials y x y x y x

15 Notes 2-3 Graphing Polynomial Functions Polynomials in Factored Form If we know the zeros of a polynomial function then we can write the polynomial in factored form, and can use the factored form to come up with a formula for the polynomial. Factored Form for a polynomial is f(x) = (and so on depending on the number of factors) where a is and the r s are Ex. 2) Find a formula for this polynomial. 4 3 y x Maximum and Minimum Values of a Polynomial Function Another important characteristic of polynomial functions is their maximum or minimum y-values. Polynomials may have a maximum or a minimum, which means a maximum or minimum value within a particular range of x-values. They may also have an maximum or an minimum, which means a y-value that is a maximum or minimum over the entire domain of the polynomial. Ex 2) Sketch a graph of h(x) = x 4 + x 3 8x 2 12x and identify any maximum or minimum values.

16 Math III Unit 2: Polynomials Name Notes 2-4 Linear Factors, Zeros, x-intercept Date Period Finding the of a polynomial function will help you: Writing a Polynomial in Factored Form What is the factored form of x 3 2x 2 15x? Factor out the GCF, x. Factor x 2 2x 15 Check: Multiply ( x 5) ( x + 3) Distributive Property Roots, Zeros, and x-intercepts The following are equivalent statements about a real number b and a polynomial P x ( ) = a n x n + a n 1 x n a 1 x + a 0.

17 Notes 2-4 Linear Factors, Zeros, x-intercept Finding Zeros of a Polynomial Function What are the zeros of y = ( x + 2) ( x 1) ( x 3)? Use the Zero-Product Property to find the zeros. Factor Theorem The Factor Theorem describes the relationship between the of a polynomial and the of a polynomial. Factor Theorem The expression x a is a factor of a polynomial if and only if the value a is a zero of the related polynomial function. Writing a Polynomial Function From Its Zeros A. What is a cubic polynomial function in standard form with zeros 2, 2, and 3?

18 Notes 2-4 Linear Factors, Zeros, x-intercept B. What is a quartic polynomial function in standard form with zeros 2, 2, 2, and 3? Graph both functions. 1. How do the graphs differ? 2. How are they similar?

19 Notes 2-4 Linear Factors, Zeros, x-intercept Multiple Zeros Zero of multiplicity How Multiple Zeros Affect a Graph If a is a zero of multiplicity n in the polynomial function, then the of the graph at the x-intercept a will be: Finding the Multiplicity of a Zero What are the zeros of f (x) = x 4 2x 3 8x 2? What are their multiplicities? How does the graph behave at these zeros?

20 Math III Unit 2: Polynomials Name Notes 2-5 Solving Polynomials Equations Date Period To solve a polynomial equation by factoring: 1. Write the equation in the form for some polynomial function P. 2. Factor. Use the Zero Product Property to find the. Solving Polynomial Equations Using Factors What are the real or imaginary solutions of each polynomial equation? 3 2 A. 2x 5x = 3x Rewrite in the form P(x) = 0. Factor out the GCF, x. 3 2 Factor 2x 5x = 3x Zero Product Property Solve each equation for x. B x + 12x = 6x Rewrite in the form P(x) = 0. Multiply by 3 1 to simplify Factor out the GCF, x 2 Zero Product Property Use the Quadratic Formula

21 Notes 2-5 Solving Polynomial Equations Polynomial Factoring Techniques Techniques Examples Factoring out the GCF Quadratic Trinomials Perfect Square Trinomials Difference of Squares Factor by Grouping Sum of Difference of Cubes

22 Notes 2-5 Solving Polynomial Equations The sum and difference of cubes is a new factoring technique. Why it Works ( ) a 3 + b 3 = ( a + b) a 2 ab + b 2 Add 0. Factor out a 2, ab, and b 2. Factor out ( a + b). Solving Polynomial Equations by factoring What are the real and imaginary solutions of each polynomial equation? A. x 4 3x 2 = 4 Rewrite in the form P(x) = 0. Let a = x 2. Factor. Replace a with x 2. Factor x 2 4 as a difference of squares B. x 3 = 1 Rewrite in the form P(x) = 0. Factor the difference of cubes.

23 Notes 2-5 Solving Polynomial Equations Your Turn 1. x 4 = x 3 = 8x 2x 2 3. x( x 2 + 8) = 8( x +1) Finding Real Roots by Graphing What are the real solutions of the equation x = 4x 2 + x? Use INTERSECT feature Use ZERO feature

24 Math III Unit 2: Polynomials Name Notes 2-6 Power Functions Date Period The degree of a Power Function is. The leading coefficient is. The end behavior of a power function. Constant: Linear: Quadratic: Cubic: Quartic: Quintic: Radical:

25 Notes 2-6 Power Functions Power Functions Each of these functions is a power function: a) f(x) = x -3 b) f(x) = -7x 2 c) 2 3 f (x)=23x d) f (x)= 3 x e) f (x) = x 4 Each of these functions is NOT a power function: f) f(x) = 5x 3 + 2x g) f(x) = 26(.5) x A power function A power function Definition of a Power Function a power function has the form, where k & p are and k & p can be,, or. Ex 1: Which of the following are power functions? If it is a power function, state the value of k and p. If it is not a power function, explain why. 3 a) f (x) =13 x b) g(x) = 2(x+5) 2 c) h(x) = (x+3)(x-3) + 9 d) u(x) = 25 3 x e) v(x) = 6 3 x

26 Notes 2-6 Power Functions Ex 2. Below are the graphs of two power functions. 1 2 y a) Which graph would match the power function f(x) = 3x 4 and which would match the power function g(x) = -2x 7? x b) Name two other power functions which would also match the shape of these two graphs. Ex. 3) Below are the graphs of two power functions. y 1 a) Which graph would match the power function 2 x f(x) = x!! and which would match the power function g(x) = x!!? b) Name two other power functions which would also match the shape of these two graphs.

27 Math III Unit 2: Polynomial Notes 2-7, Dividing Polynomials Name Date Period Dividing Polynomials Using Long Division We will be doing a quick review of long division since we need to know this when working with rational functions. To divide using long division we do the same steps as if we are working with numbers. EXAMPLE: Divide by using long division: 3453 / 13. EXAMPLE: Divide by using long division: (2x 2 +3x 35) (x+5) EXAMPLE: Divide by using long division: (3x 3 +x+5) (x+1) EXAMPLE: Divide by using long division: (x+3x 3 x 2 2) (x 2 +2)

28 Notes 2-7 Dividing Polynomials EXAMPLE: Divide by using long division: ( 3x 4 2x 1) (x 1) Synthetic Division - The Shortcut for Dividing by (x c) When dividing a polynomial f(x) by a linear factor (x-c), we can use a shorthand notation. saving steps and space. Here is the procedure:

29 Math III Unit 2: Polynomials Notes 2-8 Polynomial Theorems Name Date Period There are theorems to know about : Consider the following: Example 1: x 3 5x 2 2x + 24 = 0 This equation factors to: The roots therefore are:,, What do you notice? Example 2: 24x 3 22x 2 5x + 6 = 0 This equation factors to: The roots therefore are:,, What do you notice?

30 Notes 2-8 Polynomial Theorems Both the and the of a polynomial can play a key role in identifying the or the related polynomial equation. This role is expressed in the If is in simplest form and is a rational root of the polynomial equation a n x n + a n-1 x n a 1 x 1 + a 0 x 0 = 0, with, then must be a factor of and must be a factor of. So for any polynomial: If, then, and. Example 3: Finding Rational Roots Find the rational roots of x 3 + x 2 3x 3 = 0 Step 1: List the possible rational roots. The leading coefficient is. The constant term is. By the Rational Root Theorem, the only possible roots of the equation have the form. The factors of are and. The factors of are. The only possible rational roots are and. Step 2: Test each possible rational root. Test : Test :

31 Notes 2-8 Polynomial Theorems Test : Test : YOU TRY: Find the rational root s of x 3 4x 2 2x + 8 = 0 Example 4: Using the Rational Root Theorem Find the roots of 2x 3 x 2 + 2x 1 = 0. Step 1: List the possible rational roots. Step 2: Test each possible rational root until you find the root. Test : Test :

32 Notes 2-8 Polynomial Theorems Step 3: Use synthetic division with the root you found in Step 2 to find the quotient. Step 4: Find the roots of 2x = 0

33 Notes 2-8 Polynomial Theorems Conjugates: Irrational Root Theorem: Let and be rational numbers and let be an number. If is a root of a polynomial equation with then the conjugate is also a root. Example 5: Finding Irrational Roots A polynomial equation with integer coefficients has the roots and. Find two additional roots. By the, if is a root then, its conjugate is also a root. If is a root, then its conjugate also is a root. YOU TRY: Find the Irrational Roots A polynomial equation with rational coefficients has the roots 2-7 and 5. Find two additional roots.

34 Notes 2-8 Polynomial Theorems Imaginary Root Theorem If the number is a root of a polynomial with, then the conjugate also is a root. What theorem have we already studied that sounds like the Imaginary Root Theorem? If a P can be written as a product of its linear factors, then are roots of P(x) = 0. If we were to FOIL out a polynomial with real coefficients with imaginary roots, it would be a polynomial with not imaginary numbers. Example: If a polynomial with real coefficients has roots, name at least two other roots. among its

35 Notes 2-8 Polynomial Theorems Descartes Rule of Signs Let P(x) be a polynomial with real written in form. The number of real roots of P(x)=0 is either equal to the number of sign changes between consecutive coefficients of P(x) or less than that by an even number. The number of real roots of P(x) = 0 is either equal to the number of sign changes between consecutive coefficients of P(-x) or less than that by an even number. A possible number of positive real roots for Example Possible Positive Real Roots: Possible Negative Real Roots:

36 Math III Unit 2: Polynomials Name Notes 2-9 Function Notation/Function Operations Date Period Function Operations You can,,, and functions based on how you perform these operations for real numbers. One difference is that you must consider the of each function. Addition Function Operations Subtraction Multiplication Division The domains of the sum, difference, product, and quotient functions consist of the x- values that are in the domains of both f and g. The domain of the quotient does not contain any x-value for which g(x) = 0. Adding and Subtracting Functions Let f (x) = 4x + 7 and g(x) = x + x. What are f + g and f g? What are their domains?

37 Math III Notes 2-9 Function Notation/Function Operations Multiplying and Dividing Functions Let f (x) = x 2 9 and g(x) = x + 3. What are f g and g f and their domains? Composite Function The diagram shows what happens when you apply one function g(x) after another function f(x). The from the first function becomes the for the second function. When you combine two functions as in the diagram, you form a. Composition of Functions The composition of function g with function f is written as f o g and is defined as ( g o f )( x) = g f ( x) ( ). The domain of of g. g! f consists of the x-values in the domain of f for which f(x) is in the domain g! f = g ( f ( x )

38 Math III Notes 2-9 Function Notation/Function Operations Composing Functions Let f ( x) = x 5 and 2 g ( x) = x. What is ( f )( 3) g!? Method 1 Method 2 Additional Examples: f ( x) = 2x + 5 g( x) = x 2 3x g ( x) + f ( x) 2. 4 f ( x) + 2g( x) 3. 5 f g ( x) ( x)

39 Math III Notes 2-9 Function Notation/Function Operations Find the following: 1. ( g! f )( 1) f g ( x) = 2x ( x) = x 2 = 4 2. ( g! f )( 5) 3. ( g! g)( a) 4. ( f! f )( a)

40 Math III Unit 2:Polynomials Name Notes 2-10 Inverse Functions Date Period If a pairs elements of its domain to element of its range, the pairs b with a. So, (a,b) is an ordered pair of a relation, then (b,a) is an ordered pair of an inverse. The diagram shoes a relation r and its inverse. Relation r Inverse of r The range of the relation is the domain of the inverse, and the domain of the relation is the range of the inverse. Example 1: Finding the Inverse of a Relation a. Find the inverse of relation s. Relation s Inverse of Relation s x y x y the x and y values to get the. b. Graph s and its inverse. Relation s Reversing the Ordered Pairs Inverse of s

41 Notes 2-10 Inverse Functions YOU TRY: Find the Inverse! Graph the relation and it s inverse. x y Example 2: Interchanging x and y Find the inverse of a. Does define a function? Is its inverse a function? Explain. b. Find the inverse of. Is the inverse a function? Explain. Example 3: Finding an Inverse Function Let s take a look at the function, a. Find the domain and the range of f(x). b. Find f -1.

42 Notes 2-10 Inverse Functions c. Find the domain and range of f -1. d. If f -1 a function? Explain. Example 4: Real-World Connection The function is a model for the distance d in feet that car with locked brake skids in coming to a complete stop from a sped of r mi/h. Find the inverse pf the function. What is the best estimate of the speed of a car that made a skid mark 114 feet long?

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