# (RC3) Constructing the point which is the intersection of two existing, non-parallel lines.

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1 The mathematical theory of ruller and compass constructions consists on performing geometric operation with a ruler and a compass. Any construction starts with two given points, or equivalently a segment (the unit), and uses the ruler and compass to construct new points. The ruler has no markings on it, and it is thus used for tracing a line passing two any pair of given points. The compass is used for tracing a circle with center a given point and passing through another given point. All ruler and compass constructions thus start with two given points, and consist of repeated application of five basic constructions using the points, lines and circles that have already been constructed. These are: (RC1) Constructing the line through two existing points. (RC2) Constructing the circle through one point with center another point. (RC3) Constructing the point which is the intersection of two existing, non-parallel lines. (RC4) Constructing the one or two points in the intersection of a line and a circle (if they intersect). (RC5) Constructing the one or two points in the intersection of two circles (if they intersect). Notation We will use the following notation: for points A and B, let AB denote the line through A and B, let AB denote the ray with vertex A that passes through B, let AB denote the segment with endpoints A and B, and let AB denote the length of AB. Furthermore, let A B denote the circle through B with center A. A ruler and compass construction will ususally consist of several steps like the ones above, which must be performed in a precise order. At each step new points appear as intersection points of previously constructed circles and lines. However, it is usually impossible to deduce the spets and order just by looking at the final result, so we will need to write down the steps one by one, so that anyone may reproduce them at a latter time. We can record those steps in plain English, or we may use the following schematic notation: to denote the operation let A, B be the points of intersection of the figures (circles or lines) p and q. If there are more restrictions on the figures p and q or on the points A and B, these are written into the scheme. p, q A, B Constructions Many of the ruler and compass construction problems appear in Euclid s Elements. This is a work consisting of thirteen books, and constructions appear there as oppositions: a statement, which is followed by a solution and by a proof. We will explore some of them below. September 2,

2 1 (Euclid, Book I, Proposition 1). Problem. Given points A and B, construct a point C such that triangle ABC is equilateral. Construction. Draw the circles A B and B A. These circle intersect because the distance between their centers, AB, is smaller than the sum of their radii, 2AB. If C is one of their intersection points, then ABC is equilateral. Proof. We have AB = AC and BA = BC because radii of the same circle are congruent. Therefore AB = BC = CA. September 2,

3 2. Problem. Given two points A and B, construct the perpendicular bisector of the line segment AB. Solution. Construct the circles A B and B A. These two circles meet at two points, E and F, on opposite sides of the line AB. Therefore, the line EF and the line AB intersect at a point C, which is the midpoint of AB. Proof. Triangles AEF BEF because AE = AF = AB and BA = BE = BF, and therefore AEC = AEF = BEF = BEC. Thus AEC BEC, by SAS, and so ACE = BCE. Since they are complementary, each is 90. September 2,

4 3. [Euclid, Book I, Proposition 2] Problem. Construct a segment congruent to a given segment and with a given point as one of its end points. Solution. Let A be the given point and BC the given segment. We want to construct a point F such that AF BC. The following scheme A B, B A B C, DB D E, DA F D E F constructs such point F. The figure on the left illustrates this construction scheme. Next we prove that F has the advertised property. A D B C Proof. We have DF = DA + AF and DE = DB + BE. We also have BE = BC and DF = DE because radii of the same circle are equal. Therefore DA + AF = DA + BC and so AF = BC. F E September 2,

5 4 (Euclid, Book I, Proposition 3). Problem. Given ray AB and segment CD, construct a point H on AB such that AH CD. Hint. Use Problem 3 to construct a point G such that AG CD. Let H be the intersection of A G with AB. The construction scheme is: and the figure is: September 2,

6 5 (Euclid, Book I, Proposition 11). Problem. Given points A and B, construct the perpendicular to the segment AB at A. Solution. In symbols: A B, AB B C, C B DA C, B D September 2,

7 6 (Euclid, Book I, Proposition 12). Problem. Construct the perpendicular to a line through a point off that line. A C C A B D B C 7. This construction plays a key role in ruler and compass arithmetic. Given a line and a point off it, construct a line through this point parallel to that line. Solution. Let AB be the given line and C be a point off it. The construction scheme is September 2,

8 A C, B C C D, CD D E, E D FG D E F, G E F C G A B D September 2,

9 8. Given segments AB and CD, construct a segment of length AB + CD. Solution. Let E be the intersection of the line through D parallel to BC and the line through B parallel to CD. Let F be the point of intersection of the circle B E and the line AB that is not between A and B. Then BF = BE = CD and AF = AB + BF = AB + CD. September 2,

10 9. Given a segment AB and a whole number n, construct a segment of length AB/n. Solution. Construct a point C off the line AB. On the ray AC, construct points n 1 more points D, E,... such that AC = CD = DE =. If Z is the last point in the sequence A, C,, then construct the parallels to the line ZB. September 2,

11 10. You can now combine these two construction to obtain that given any fraction p, where p and q are whole q numbers, it is always possible to construct two points A and B such that the length of the segment AB is precisely p q. (a) Given a segment of unit lenght, construct a segment of lenght 2 3. (b) The segment AB has length 3. Use it to construct a segment of length 1 2. Bibliography [1] C. Kinsey and T. Moore, Symmetry, Shape, and Space, Key College Publishing, 2002 [2] Thomas. L. Heath, The Thirteen Books of Euclid s Elements, Dover, [3] George Martin, Geometric Constructions, Springer, September 2,

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