# Lecture 17 - The Bipolar Junction Transistor (I) Forward Active Regime. April 10, 2003

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1 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture 17-1 Lecture 17 - The Bipolar Junction Transistor (I) Contents: Forward Active Regime April 10, BJT: structure and basic operation 2. I-V characteristics in forward active regime Reading assignment: Howe and Sodini, Ch. 7, 7.1, 7.2 Announcements: Quiz 2: 4/16, 7:30-9:30 PM, Walker (lectures #10-17) open book, must bring calculator Quiz 2 Review Session: 4/14, 7:30-9:30pm, Extra Office Hours: 4/15, 2-4pm, ; 4/16, 9am-12 & 1-4pm,

2 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture 17-2 Key questions What does a bipolar junction transistor look like? How does a bipolar junction transistor operate? What are the leading dependencies of the terminal currents of a BJT in the forward active regime?

3 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture BJT: structure and basic operation base contact emitter contact base contact collector contact n+ emitter n collector p base n+ plug "intrinsic" BJT n+ buried layer p substrate base-collector junction base-emitter junction (area A E ) collector-substrate junction emitter-stripe length emitter-stripe width Uniqueness of BJT: high-current drivability per input capacitance fast excellent for analog and front-end communications applications.

4 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture 17-4 Simplified one-dimensional model of intrinsic device: Emitter Base Collector I E n p n I C - N de N ab N dc - V BE + I B + V BC -W E -X BE -X BE 0 W B W B +X BC W B +X BC +W C x BJT = two neighbouring pn junctions back-to-back: close enough for minority carriers to interact (can diffuse quickly through base) far apart enough for depletion regions not to interact (prevent punchthrough ) Regimes of operation: collector I C V BE I B base V BC V CE forward active saturation V BC V BE - - cut-off reverse I E emitter

5 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture 17-5 Basic operation in forward-active regime: n-emitter p-base n-collector I E <0 I C >0 I B >0 V BE > 0 V BC < 0 V BE > 0 injection of electrons from E to B injection of holes from B to E V BC < 0 extraction of electrons from B to C extraction of holes from C to B Transistor effect: electrons injected from E to B, extracted by C!

6 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture 17-6 Carrier profiles in thermal equilibrium: log p o, n o NdE NaB p o n o NdC ni 2 NdE n o ni 2 NaB x -W E -X BE W B +X BC +W C p o -X BE 0 W B W B +X BC ni 2 NdC Carrier profiles in forward-active regime: log p, n NdE NaB NdC n ni 2 NdE -W E -X BE p ni 2 NaB -X BE 0 W B W B +X BC ni 2 NdC W B +X BC +W C x

7 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture 17-7 Dominant current paths in forward active regime: n-emitter p-base n-collector I E <0 I C >0 I B >0 V BE > 0 V BC < 0 I C : electron injection from E to B and collection into C I B : hole injection from B to E I E = I C I B Key dependencies (choose one): I C on V BE : e qv BE/kT,1/ V BE, none, other I C on V BC : e qv BC/kT,1/ V BC, none, other I B on V BE : e qv BE/kT,1/ V BE, none, other I B on V BC : e qv BC/kT,1/ V BC, none, other I C on I B : exponential, quadratic, none, other

8 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture 17-8 In forward-active regime: V BE controls I C ( transistor effect ) I C independent of V BC ( isolation ) price to pay for control: I B Comparison with MOSFET: ideal MOSFET ideal BJT feature in saturation in FAR controlling terminal gate base common terminal source emitter controlled terminal drain collector functional dependence of controlled current quadratic exponential DC current in controlling terminal 0 exponential Figure of merit for BJT: -common-emitter current gain: β F = I C IB (want big)

9 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture I-V characteristics in forward active regime Collector current: focus on electron diffusion in base n n pb (0) n pb (x) J nb n i 2 N ab 0 W B n pb (W B )=0 x Boundary conditions: n pb (0) = n pbo exp qv BE kt, n pb(w B )=0 Electron profile: n pb (x) =n pb (0)(1 x W B )

10 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture Electron current density: J nb = qd n dn pb dx = qd n pb (0) n W B Collector current scales with area of base-emitter junction A E : B E B I C A E C Collector terminal current: or D n I C = J nb A E = qa E n pbo exp qv BE W B kt I C = I S exp qv BE kt I S collector saturation current [A]

11 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture Base current: focus on hole injection and recombination in emitter p ne (-x BE ) p p ne (x) p ne (-W E -x BE )= n i 2 N de n i 2 N de -W E -x BE -x BE x Boundary conditions: p ne ( x BE )=p neo exp qv BE kt, p ne( W E x BE )=p neo Hole profile: p ne (x) =[p ne ( x BE ) p neo ](1 + x + x BE )+p neo W E

12 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture Hole current density: J pe = qd p dp ne dx = qd p ne ( x BE ) p neo p W E Base current scales with area of base-emitter junction A E : B E B I B A E Base terminal current: C I B = J pe A E = qa E D p W E p neo (exp qv BE kt 1) Then: I B = I S β F (exp qv BE kt 1) For V BE kt q : I B I C β F

13 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture Gummel plot: semilog plot of I C and I B vs. V BE : log I C, I B I C I B 60 mv/dec at 300 K I S I S β F V BC <0 V BE

14 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture Current gain: D n W B D p p neo β F = I C = n pbo I B W E = N ded n W E N ab D p W B To maximize β F : N de N ab W E W B want npn, rather than pnp design because D n >D p State-of-the-art IC BJT s today: I C ma, β F β F hard to control in manufacturing environment need circuit techniques that are insensitive to variations in β F

15 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture β F dependence on I C : β F log I C

16 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture Gummel plot of BJT (V CE =3V ):

17 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture Key conclusions npn BJT in forward active regime: n-emitter p-base n-collector I E <0 I C >0 I B >0 V BE > 0 V BC < 0 Emitter injects electrons into Base, Collector collects electrons from Base. I C controlled by V BE, independent of V BC (transistor effect) I C exp qv BE kt Base injects holes into Emitter I B I B I C

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