# Module 1, Add on math lesson Simultaneous Equations. Teacher. 45 minutes

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1 Module 1, Add on math lesson Simultaneous Equations 45 minutes eacher Purpose of this lesson his lesson is designed to be incorporated into Module 1, core lesson 4, in which students learn about potential divider circuits. In this lesson, students will: Practice solving simultaneous equations. See how simultaneous equations are a useful tool for solving real world problems. Prove the potential divider equation used in Module 1, core lesson 4. Analyzing electric circuits Note to teacher: here are several ways to approach this which are all in the end equivalent. All approaches use Ohms Law (V=IR to write down two simultaneous equations which are solved for the two unknown quantities V out and I (voltage measured across the 10kΩ resistor and current flowing round the circuit. wo approaches are included below. Students may attempt problems using either approach or both. Electricity involves electrons flowing through the wires and components of a circuit. We can make analogy with water flowing through a system of pipes (see lesson 2 Introduction to electricity. Electric current (denoted I is equivalent to the amount of water flowing through a pipe (e.g. volume of water per second. Voltage (denoted V is equivalent to the pressure which forces the water through the pipe. Fig. 1. hermistor (bottom and Look at the simplified circuit diagram, fig. 1. Clearly resistor (top form a potential any current which passes through the 10kΩ resistor divider circuit. Due to the battery, there is 9V across the two must also pass through the thermistor (think about resistors. his total 9V is divided between the resistor and the thermistor. Some of it, V out, is applied across the resistor and the remainder V is applied Simultaneous Equations across the thermistor. 1 9V total I I I 10kΩ R V out V

2 water flowing through two pipes connected end-to-end. Note that: he same current, I, passes through both resistors. he total voltage across both resistors is 9V due to the battery. his voltage is divided between the 2KΩ resistor and the thermistor, whose resistance, R, varies with temperature. Using a multimeter, we can measure the portion of the voltage across the 2K Ω resistor. his will be our sensor s output signal, so we have labeled it V out. Note 10kΩ means ten thousand Ohms. his sensor circuit is designed to measure temperature. herefore, to analyze our sensor, we want to derive a formula which relates the sensor s output signal, V out, to the quantity which varies with temperature, R. We can analyze this circuit using Ohm s law, which states that for any resistor, R, the voltage, V, and current, I, are related by the equation V=IR. We will apply Ohm s law twice to form two simultaneous equations. Approach 1 1 he total battery voltage (9V acts across the combination of two resistors (the resistances add causing an unknown current, I, to flow through both. Hence, Ohm s law V = I R Gives 9 = I equation 1 2 he measured voltage, V out, acts across the 10kΩ resistor alone, causing the same current, I, to flow through it. Hence V = I R Gives V out = I equation 2 i Look at the temperature-resistance data that you collected in Lesson 3 emperature vs. resistance characteristics of a thermistor. For each temperature that you experimented with, substitute the value of thermistor resistance, R, into equation 1 Simultaneous Equations 2

3 above. Now solve the pair of simultaneous equations (equation 1 and equation 2 to find the corresponding value of output voltage, V out. Hint, use the method of substitution or another method to eliminate I. emperature / C etc R (look up from Lesson 3 V out (find by solving equations ii Plot a graph of emperature versus V out, with temperature on the vertical axis (y-axis and V out on the horizontal axis (x-axis. Compare this with similar data that you have measured or calculated in lessons 4 and 5. More advanced: iii In part i you solved the pair of simultaneous equations many times, using a different value for R each time, to find values of V out. Now see if you can find a general formula for V out in terms of R. Hint, keep R as a letter, but treat it the same way you did when you assigned it numerical values in part i above. Approach 2 Look at figure 1. he total voltage of 9Volts (from the battery must be equal to the voltage across the thermistor plus the voltage across the 10kΩ resistor (we can call these V and V out. i.e. V + V out = 9 rearrange to get V = 9 - V out Now we can apply Ohms law to the thermistor: Ohms law V = I R Gives V = I R Now combine the above two equations, by eliminating V (e.g. by method of substitution to get: Simultaneous Equations 3

4 (9 - V out = I R equation 1 Now apply Ohms law to the 10kΩ resistor: Ohms law V = I R Gives V out = I equation 2 i Look at the temperature-resistance data that you collected in Lesson 3 emperature vs. resistance characteristics of a thermistor. For each temperature that you experimented with, substitute the value of thermistor resistance, R, into equation 1 above. Now solve the pair of simultaneous equations (equation 1 and equation 2 to find the corresponding value of output voltage, V out. Hint, use the method of substitution or another method to eliminate I. emperature / C etc R (look up from Lesson 3 V out (find by solving equations ii Plot a graph of emperature versus V out, with temperature on the vertical axis (y-axis and V out on the horizontal axis (x-axis. Compare this with similar data that you have measured or calculated in lessons 4 and 5. Optional: iii In part i you solved the pair of simultaneous equations many times, using a different value for R each time, to find values of V out. Now see if you can find a general formula for V out in terms of R. Hint, keep R as a letter, but treat it the same way you did when you assigned it numerical values in part i above. Answers example analysis From approach 1 above: Part i For example, at = 0, R = 27200Ω. Substitute these values into equations 1 and 3: 9 = I ( equation 1 V out = I equation 2 Simultaneous Equations 4

5 From eqn 1: I = 9/( = Substitute into eqn. 2, gives: V out = Hence V out = 2.42V Part iii We can solve this pair of simultaneous equations using substitution, eliminating I and leaving us with a useful formula relating V out to R. Rearrange equation 1 to give: I = 9 Now substitute this expression for I into equation 2, giving: V out = Hence V out = equation 3 (final formula V out is the output of your sensor system. R is the resistance of your thermistor, which varies with temperature. emperature is the quantity you are trying to measure with your sensor. Problem for more advanced students with knowledge of logarithms In Lesson 3 emperature vs. resistance characteristics of a thermistor, you observed that the resistance of your thermistor decreases with temperature according to a curved relationship. i What kind of relationship is this? ii Find an equation or formula that mathematically describes this decrease in resistance with temperature. iii Use the data you gathered in Lesson 3 to find values for any constants in your equation. Simultaneous Equations 5

6 iv Substitute this formula into equation 3 above, to find a mathematical expression which relates the output of your temperature sensor (V out to temperature,. Answers: i Exponential decay. ii R = Ae -k iii emperature C 0 80 Resistance KΩ Hence: 27.2 = Ae -k 0 = Ae 0 = A 1 = A i.e. A = 27.2 And 1.7 = Ae -k 80 = 27.2e -k 80 herefore e -k 80 = 1.7/27.2 = ake logs of both sides: ln e -k 80 = ln herefore -80k ln e = ln herefore -80k = ln herefore k = iv V out = = ( Ae -k = ( e Simultaneous Equations 6

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A circuit is defined to be a collection of energy-givers (active elements) and energy-takers (passive elements) that form a closed path (or complete path) through which electrical current can flow. The

### first name (print) last name (print) brock id (ab17cd) (lab date)

(ta initials) first name (print) last name (print) brock id (ab17cd) (lab date) Experiment 1 Capacitance In this Experiment you will learn the relationship between the voltage and charge stored on a capacitor;

### Experiment 4. RC Circuits. Observe and qualitatively describe the charging and discharging (decay) of the voltage on a capacitor.

Experiment 4 RC Circuits 4.1 Objectives Observe and qualitatively describe the charging and discharging (decay) of the voltage on a capacitor. Graphically determine the time constant τ for the decay. 4.2

### Experiment Guide for RC Circuits

Guide-P1 Experiment Guide for RC Circuits I. Introduction 1. Capacitors A capacitor is a passive electronic component that stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field. The unit of capacitance is