Intermediate Physics PHYS102


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1 Intermediate Physics PHYS102
2 Dr Richard H. Cyburt Assistant Professor of Physics My office: 402c in the Science Building My phone: (304) My My webpage: In person or is the best way to get a hold of me. PHYS102
3 My Office Hours TWR 9:3011:00am W 4:005:00pm Meetings may also be arranged at other times, by appointment PHYS102
4 Key Dates for Lab Mon, Jan 16, 2017: No Lab, because the following Monday is MLK Jr Day. Mon, Feb 13, 2017: Lab Make Up Day Mon, Mar 20, 2017: Lab Make Up Day Mon, Apr 24, 2017: Lab Make Up Day PHYS102
5 Midterm 1 Midterm 1: Thur. Feb 2 89:15am Review Session: Wed. Feb 1 79pm in S300 PHYS102
6 Intermediate Physics PHYS102
7 Douglas Adams Hitchhiker s Guide to the Galaxy PHYS102
8 In class!! PHYS102
9 This lecture will help you understand: Capacitance and Capacitors Energy and Capacitors Model of Current PHYS102
10 Section 21.7 Capacitance and Capacitors
11 Capacitance and Capacitors A capacitor is formed by two conductors with equal but opposite charge. The two conductors are the electrodes or plates. Capacitors can be used to store charge, making them invaluable in all kinds of electronic circuits. In a capacitor, the electric field strength E and the potential difference ΔV C increase as the charge on each electrode increases.
12 Capacitance and Capacitors
13 Capacitance and Capacitors The potential difference between the electrodes is directly proportional to their charge. Stated another way, the charge of a capacitor is directly proportional to the potential difference between its electrodes. The constant of proportionality, C, is the capacitance. The SI unit of capacitance is the farad. 1 farad = 1 F = 1 coulomb/volt = 1 C/V.
14 Capacitance and Capacitors Capacitance depends on the shape, size, and spacing of the two electrodes. A capacitor with a large capacitance holds more charge for a given potential difference than one with a small capacitance.
15 Charging a Capacitor To charge a capacitor, we need to move charge from one electrode to the other. The simplest way to do this is to use a source of potential difference such as a battery. A battery uses its internal chemistry to maintain a fixed potential difference between its terminals.
16 Charging a Capacitor
17 Charging a Capacitor
18 Charging a Capacitor A capacitor can be used to store charge.
19 QuickCheck What is the capacitance of these two electrodes? 8 nf 4 nf 2 nf 1 nf Some other value
20 QuickCheck What is the capacitance of these two electrodes? 8 nf 4 nf 2 nf 1 nf Some other value
21 Example Charging a capacitor A 1.3 µf capacitor is connected to a 1.5 V battery. What is the charge on the capacitor? PREPARE Charge flows through the battery from one capacitor electrode to the other until the potential difference V C between the electrodes equals that of the battery, or 1.5 V.
22 Example Charging a capacitor (cont.) SOLVE The charge on the capacitor is given by Equation 21.18: Q = C V C = ( F)(1.5 V) = C ASSESS This is the charge on the positive electrode; the other electrode has a charge of C.
23 The ParallelPlate Capacitor A parallelplate capacitor is important because it creates a uniform electric field between its flat electrodes. The electric field of a parallelplate capacitor is A is the surface area of the electrodes, and Q is the charge on the capacitor.
24 The ParallelPlate Capacitor The electric field strength of a parallelplate capacitor is related to the potential difference ΔV and plate spacing d by Comparing the different equations describing the electric field of a parallelplate capacitor we find Or equivalently,
25 The ParallelPlate Capacitor
26 QuickCheck A capacitor has a charge Q. The plates are then pulled apart so that the distance between them is larger. After the plates are pulled apart, The charge increases and the electric field decreases. The charge decreases and the electric field increases. Both the charge and the field increase. Both the charge and the field decrease. The charge and the field remain constant.
27 QuickCheck A capacitor has a charge Q. The plates are then pulled apart so that the distance between them is larger. After the plates are pulled apart, The charge increases and the electric field decreases. The charge decreases and the electric field increases. Both the charge and the field increase. Both the charge and the field decrease. The charge and the field remain constant.
28 QuickCheck A capacitor is attached to a battery. The plates are then pulled apart so that the distance between them is larger. After the plates are pulled apart, The charge increases and the electric field decreases. The charge decreases and the electric field increases. Both the charge and the field increase. Both the charge and the field decrease. The charge and the field remain constant.
29 QuickCheck A capacitor is attached to a battery. The plates are then pulled apart so that the distance between them is larger. After the plates are pulled apart, The charge increases and the electric field decreases. The charge decreases and the electric field increases. Both the charge and the field increase. Both the charge and the field decrease. The charge and the field remain constant.
30 Example Problem A parallelplate capacitor is constructed of two square plates, 1 m on each side, separated by a 1.0 mm gap. What is the capacitance of this capacitor? If it were charged to 100 V, how much charge would be on the capacitor?
31 Example Charging a parallelplate capacitor The spacing between the plates of a 1.0 µf parallelplate capacitor is mm. a. What is the surface area of the plates? b. How much charge is on the plates if this capacitor is attached to a 1.5 V battery?
32 Example Charging a parallelplate capacitor (cont.) SOLVE a. From the definition of capacitance, b. The charge is Q = C V C = ( F)(1.5 V) = C = 1.5 µc.
33 Example Charging a parallelplate capacitor (cont.) ASSESS The surface area needed to construct a 1.0 µf capacitor (a fairly typical value) is enormous and hardly practical. We ll see in the next section that real capacitors can be reduced to a more manageable size by placing an insulator between the capacitor plates.
34 Dielectrics and Capacitors An insulator consists of vast numbers of atoms. When an insulator is placed in an electric field, each atom polarizes. Polarization occurs when an atom s negative electron cloud and positive nucleus shift very slightly in opposite directions in response to an applied electric field. An induced positive charge builds up on one surface of the insulator, and an induced negative charge builds up on the other surface.
35 Dielectrics and Capacitors
36 Dielectrics and Capacitors The induced charge on an insulator will create a uniform electric field, like in a parallelplate capacitor, but one that is directed opposite to the applied electric field. A dielectric is an insulator placed between the plates of a capacitor. A capacitor s electric field polarizes the dielectric; the dielectric creates an electric field of its own opposite the capacitor s field. The two fields add to give a net field in the same direction as the applied field, but smaller. Thus the electric field between the capacitor plates is smaller with a dielectric.
37 Dielectrics and Capacitors
38 Dielectrics and Capacitors When a dielectric is inserted, the electric field between the plates decreases, which implies the potential difference decreases as well. The charge remains the same. The capacitance C = Q/ΔV C increases. The presence of a dielectric results in an increased capacitance. The dielectric constant κ of the material determines the factor by which the capacitance is increased: C 0 is the capacitance without a dielectric present.
39 Dielectrics and Capacitors
40 Example Finding the dielectric constant A parallelplate capacitor is charged using a 100 V battery; then the battery is removed. If a dielectric slab is slid between the plates, filling the space inside, the capacitor voltage drops to 30 V. What is the dielectric constant of the dielectric?
41 Example Finding the dielectric constant (cont.) PREPARE The capacitor voltage remains ( V C ) 1 = 100 V when it is disconnected from the battery. Placing the dielectric between the plates reduces the voltage to ( V C ) 2 = 30 V. Because the plates are not connected when the dielectric is inserted, the charge on the plates remains constant.
42 Example Finding the dielectric constant (cont.) SOLVE Because the plates are not connected, the charge on the capacitor is constant, so we have Q 1 = C 1 ( V C ) 1 = Q 2 = C 2 ( V C ) 2 Inserting the dielectric increases the capacitance by a factor of κ, so that C 2 = κc 1.
43 Example Finding the dielectric constant (cont.) Thus C 1 ( V C ) 1 = κc 1 ( V C )2 or, canceling C 1, ( V C ) 1 = κ( V C ) 2. The dielectric constant is then ASSESS The dielectric constant is greater than 1, as must be the case.
44 Example Problem A parallelplate capacitor with a capacitance of 200 pf is charged to 100 V. Then the battery is removed. A sheet of teflon (κ = 2.0) is then slid between the plates. A. By what factor does the charge on the plates change? B. What is the final potential difference between the plates?
45 Section 21.8 Energy and Capacitors
46 Energy and Capacitors A charged capacitor stores energy as electric potential energy. The potential energy U C stored in a charged capacitor is Since, Q = CΔV C, the electric potential can be written
47 Example Problem The capacitor bank used to power a large electromagnet is charged to 23,500 V and stores 8.4 MJ of energy. What is the total capacitance of the capacitor bank?
48 Example Energy in a camera flash How much energy is stored in a 220 µf cameraflash capacitor that has been charged to 330 V? What is the average power delivered to the flash lamp if this capacitor is discharged in 1.0 ms?
49 Example Energy in a camera flash (cont.) SOLVE The energy stored in the capacitor is If this energy is released in 1.0 ms, the average power is
50 Example Energy in a camera flash (cont.) ASSESS The stored energy is equivalent to raising a 1 kg mass by 1.2 m. This is a rather large amount of energy; imagine the damage a 1 kg object could do after falling 1.2 m. When this energy is released very quickly, as is possible in an electronic circuit, the power is very high.
51 Energy and Capacitors A capacitor can charge very slowly and then can release the energy very quickly. A medical application of this ability to rapidly deliver energy is the defibrillator. Fibrillation is the state in which the heart muscles twitch and cannot pump blood. A defibrillator is a large capacitor that can store up to 360 J of energy and release it in 2 milliseconds. The large shock can sometimes stop fibrillation.
52 The Energy in the Electric Field The energy stored in the capacitor is The energy is stored in the capacitor s electric field.
53 The Energy in the Electric Field
54 The Energy in the Electric Field Because the quantity Ad, the volume inside the capacitor, is the volume in which the energy is stored, we can define the energy density u E of the electric field: The energy density has units J/m 3.
55 QuickCheck A capacitor charged to 1.5 V stores 2.0 mj of energy. If the capacitor is charged to 3.0 V, it will store 1.0 mj 2.0 mj 4.0 mj 6.0 mj 8.0 mj
56 QuickCheck A capacitor charged to 1.5 V stores 2.0 mj of energy. If the capacitor is charged to 3.0 V, it will store 1.0 mj 2.0 mj 4.0 mj 6.0 mj 8.0 mj U C µ (DV) 2
57 Example Finding the energy density for a defibrillator A defibrillator unit contains a 150 µf capacitor that is charged to 2000 V. The capacitor plates are separated by a mmthick dielectric with κ = 300. a. What is the total area of the capacitor plates? b. What is the energy density stored in the electric field when the capacitor is charged? PREPARE Assume the capacitor can be modeled as a parallelplate capacitor with a dielectric.
58 Example Finding the energy density for a defibrillator (cont.) SOLVE a. The surface area of the electrodes is b. The electric field strength is
59 Example Finding the energy density for a defibrillator (cont.) Consequently, the energy density in the electric field is
60 Example Finding the energy density for a defibrillator (cont.) ASSESS For comparison, the energy density of gasoline is about J/m 3, about 60 times higher than this capacitor. Capacitors store less energy than some other devices, but they can deliver this energy very rapidly.
61 Section 22.1 A Model of Current
62 A Model of a Current If we connect the two capacitor plates of a parallelplate capacitor with a metal wire, the plates become neutral. The capacitor has been discharged.
63 A Model of a Current The motion of charges through a material is called a current. If we observe a capacitor discharge, we see other effects. As the capacitor discharges, the connecting wire gets warmer.
64 A Model of a Current As the capacitor discharges, if the wire is very thin in places like the filament of a lightbulb, the wire gets hot enough to glow. More current means a brighter bulb.
65 Charge Carriers The charges that move in a current are called charge carriers. In a metal, the charge carriers are electrons. It is the motion of the conduction electrons, which are free to move around, that forms a current in the metal.
66 Charge Carriers An insulator does not have free charges and cannot carry a current. Other materials may have different charge carriers. Both positive and negative ions carry charge in ionic solutions such as seawater, blood, and intercellular fluids.
67 Creating a Current When we apply an electric field to a metal, the field exerts a force on the electrons and they begin to accelerate. Collisions between the electrons and the atoms of the metal slow them down, transforming the electron s kinetic energy into thermal energy, making the metal warmer. The motion of the electrons will cease unless you continue pushing by maintaining an electric field. In a constant field, an electron s average motion will be opposite the field. The motion is the electron s drift velocity.
68 Creating a Current
69 Creating a Current In a parallelplate capacitor, the initial separation of charges creates a potential difference between the plates. Connecting a wire between the plates establishes an electric field in the wire, which causes electrons to flow from the negative plate (which has an excess of electrons) toward the positive plate. The potential difference creates the electric field that drives the current in the wire. Eventually the plates will be completely discharged, meaning no more potential difference, no more field, and no more current.
70 Creating a Current
71 Creating a Current The current at point B is exactly equal to the current at point A. The current leaving a lightbulb is exactly the same as the current entering the lightbulb.
72 Creating a Current The lightbulb cannot destroy electrons without violating the law of conservation of mass and the law of conservation of charge. Thus, the number of electrons is not changed by the lightbulb. The lightbulb cannot store electrons, or it would become increasingly negative until its repulsive force would stop the flow of new electrons and the bulb would go out. Every electron entering the lightbulb is matched by an electron leaving the lightbulb, and thus the currents on either side of a lightbulb are equal.
Intermediate Physics PHYS102
Intermediate Physics PHYS102 Dr Richard H. Cyburt Assistant Professor of Physics My office: 402c in the Science Building My phone: (304) 3846006 My email: rcyburt@concord.edu My webpage: www.concord.edu/rcyburt
More informationIntermediate Physics PHYS102
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