# Coherent Sheaves; Invertible Sheaves

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1 CHAPTER 13 Coherent Sheaves; Invertible Sheaves In this chapter, k is an arbitrary field. a Coherent sheaves Let V D SpmA be an affine variety over k, and let M be a finitely generated A-module. There is a unique sheaf of O V -modules M on V such that, for all f 2 A,.D.f /;M/ D M f.d A f A M /: Such an O V -module M is said to be coherent. A homomorphism M! N of A-modules defines a homomorphism M! N of O V -modules, and M 7! M is a fully faithful functor from the category of finitely generated A-modules to the category of coherent O V -modules, with quasi-inverse M 7!.V;M/. Now consider a variety V. An O V -module M is said to be coherent if, for every open affine subset U of V, MjU is coherent. It suffices to check this condition for the sets in an open affine covering of V. For example, OV n is a coherent O V -module. An O V -module M is said to be locally free of rank n if it is locally isomorphic to OV n, i.e., if every point P 2 V has an open neighbourhood such that MjU OV n. A locally free O V -module of rank n is coherent. Let v 2 V, and let M be a coherent O V -module. We define a.v/-module M.v/ as follows: after replacing V with an open neighbourhood of v, we can assume that it is affine; hence we may suppose that V D Spm.A/, that v corresponds to a maximal ideal m in A (so that.v/ D A=m/, and M corresponds to the A-module M ; we then define M.v/ D M A.v/ D M=mM: It is a finitely generated vector space over.v/. Don t confuse M.v/ with the stalk M v of M which, with the above notations, is M m D M A A m. Thus M.v/ D M v =mm v D.v/ Am M m : This is Chapter 13 of Algebraic Geometry by J.S. Milne. July 8, 2015 Copyright c2015 J.S. Milne. Single paper copies for noncommercial personal use may be made without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 1

2 2 13. COHERENT SHEAVES; INVERTIBLE SHEAVES Nakayama s lemma (AG 1.3) shows that The support of a coherent sheaf M is M.v/ D 0 ) M v D 0: Supp.M/ D fv 2 V j M.v/ 0g D fv 2 V j M v 0g: Suppose V is affine, and that M corresponds to the A-module M. Let a be the annihilator of M : a D ff 2 A j f M D 0g: Then M=mM 0 m a (for otherwise A=mA contains a nonzero element annihilating M=mM ), and so Supp.M/ D V.a/: Thus the support of a coherent module is a closed subset of V. Note that if M is locally free of rank n, then M.v/ is a vector space of dimension n for all v. There is a converse of this. PROPOSITION If M is a coherent O V -module such that M.v/ has constant dimension n for all v 2 V, then M is a locally free of rank n. PROOF. We may assume that V is affine, and that M corresponds to the finitely generated A-module M. Fix a maximal ideal m of A, and let x 1 ;:::;x n be elements of M whose images in M=mM form a basis for it over.v/. Consider the map WA n! M;.a 1 ;:::;a n / 7! X a i x i : Its cokernel is a finitely generated A-module whose support does not contain v. Therefore there is an element f 2 A, f m, such that defines a surjection A n f! M f. After replacing A with A f we may assume that itself is surjective. For every maximal ideal n of A, the map.a=n/ n! M=nM is surjective, and hence (because of the condition on the dimension of M.v/) bijective. Therefore, the kernel of is contained in n n (meaning n n) for all maximal ideals n in A, and the next lemma shows that this implies that the kernel is zero. LEMMA Let A be an affine k-algebra. Then \ m D 0 (intersection of all maximal ideals in A). PROOF. When k is algebraically closed, we showed (AG, 2.18) that this follows from the strong Nullstellensatz. In the general case, consider a maximal ideal m of A k k al. Then A=.m \ A/,!.A k k al /=m D k al ; and so A=m \ A is an integral domain. Since it is finite-dimensional over k, it is a field, and so m \ A is a maximal ideal in A. Thus if f 2 A is in all maximal ideals of A, then its image in A k al is in all maximal ideals of A, and so is zero.

3 b. Invertible sheaves. 3 For two coherent O V -modules M and N, there is a unique coherent O V -module M OV N such that.u;m OV N / D.U;M/.U;OV /.U;N / for all open affines U V. The reader should be careful not to assume that this formula holds for nonaffine open subsets U (see example 13.4 below). For a such a U, one writes U D S U i with the U i open affines, and defines.u;m OV N / to be the kernel of Y i.u i ;M OV N / Y i;j Define Hom.M;N / to be the sheaf on V such that.u ij ;M OV N /:.U;Hom.M;N // D Hom OU.M;N / (homomorphisms of O U -modules) for all open U in V. It is easy to see that this is a sheaf. If the restrictions of M and N to some open affine U correspond to A-modules M and N, then.u;hom.m;n // D Hom A.M;N /; and so Hom.M;N / is again a coherent O V -module. b Invertible sheaves. An invertible sheaf on V is a locally free O V -module L of rank 1. The tensor product of two invertible sheaves is again an invertible sheaf. In this way, we get a product structure on the set of isomorphism classes of invertible sheaves: ŒL ŒL 0 def D ŒL L 0 : The product structure is associative and commutative (because tensor products are associative and commutative, up to isomorphism), and ŒO V is an identity element. Define L _ D Hom.L;O V /: Clearly, L _ is free of rank 1 over any open set where L is free of rank 1, and so L _ is again an invertible sheaf. Moreover, the canonical map L _ L! O V ;.f;x/ 7! f.x/ is an isomorphism (because it is an isomorphism over any open subset where L is free). Thus ŒL _ ŒL D ŒO V : For this reason, we often write L 1 for L _. From these remarks, we see that the set of isomorphism classes of invertible sheaves on V is a group it is called the Picard group, Pic.V /, of V. We say that an invertible sheaf L is trivial if it is isomorphic to O V then L represents the zero element in Pic.V /.

4 4 13. COHERENT SHEAVES; INVERTIBLE SHEAVES PROPOSITION An invertible sheaf L on a complete variety V is trivial if and only if both it and its dual have nonzero global sections, i.e.,.v;l/ 0.V;L _ /: PROOF. We may assume that V is irreducible. Note first that, for any O V -module M on any variety V, the map Hom.O V ;M/!.V;M/; 7!.1/ is an isomorphism. Next recall that the only regular functions on a complete variety are the constant functions (see AG, 7.9, in the case that k is algebraically closed), i.e.,.v;o V / D k 0 where k 0 is the algebraic closure of k in k.v /. Hence Hom.O V ;O V / D k 0, and so a homomorphism O V! O V is either 0 or an isomorphism. We now prove the proposition. The sections define nonzero homomorphisms s 1 WO V! L; s 2 WO V! L _ : We can take the dual of the second homomorphism, and so obtain nonzero homomorphisms s 1 O V! L s_ 2! O V : The composite is nonzero, and hence an isomorphism, which shows that s 2 _ is surjective, and this implies that it is an isomorphism (for any ring A, a surjective homomorphism of A-modules A! A is bijective because 1 must map to a unit). c Invertible sheaves and divisors. Now assume that V is nonsingular and irreducible. For a divisor D on V, the vector space L.D/ is defined to be L.D/ D ff 2 k.v / j div.f / C D 0g: We make this definition local: define L.D/ to be the sheaf on V such that, for any open set U,.U;L.D// D ff 2 k.v / j div.f / C D 0 on U g [ f0g: The condition div.f /CD 0 on U means that, if D D P n Z Z, then ord Z.f /Cn Z 0 for all Z with Z \ U ;. Thus,.U;L.D// is a.u;o V /-module, and if U U 0, then.u 0 ;L.D//.U;L.D//: We define the restriction map to be this inclusion. In this way, L.D/ becomes a sheaf of O V -modules. Suppose D is principal on an open subset U, say DjU D div.g/, g 2 k.v /. Then Therefore,.U;L.D// D ff 2 k.v / j div.fg/ 0 on U g [ f0g:.u;l.d//!.u;o V /; f 7! fg; is an isomorphism. These isomorphisms clearly commute with the restriction maps for U 0 U, and so we obtain an isomorphism L.D/jU! O U. Since every D is locally

5 c. Invertible sheaves and divisors. 5 principal, this shows that L.D/ is locally isomorphic to O V, i.e., that it is an invertible sheaf. If D itself is principal, then L.D/ is trivial. Next we note that the canonical map L.D/ L.D 0 /! L.D C D 0 /; f g 7! fg is an isomorphism on any open set where D and D 0 are principal, and hence it is an isomorphism globally. Therefore, we have a homomorphism Div.V /! Pic.V /; D 7! ŒL.D/ ; which is zero on the principal divisors. EXAMPLE Let V be an elliptic curve, and let P be the point at infinity. Let D be the divisor D D P. Then.V; L.D// D k, the ring of constant functions, but.v; L.2D// contains a nonconstant function x. Therefore,.V; L.2D//.V; L.D//.V; L.D//; in other words,.v; L.D/ L.D//.V; L.D//.V; L.D//. PROPOSITION For an irreducible nonsingular variety, the map D 7! ŒL.D/ defines an isomorphism Div.V /=PrinDiv.V /! Pic.V /: PROOF. (Injectivity). If s is an isomorphism O V! L.D/, then g D s.1/ is an element of k.v / such that (a) div.g/ C D 0 (on the whole of V ); (b) if div.f / C D 0 on U, that is, if f 2 h 2.U;O V /..U;L.D//, then f D h.gju / for some Statement (a) says that D div. g/ (on the whole of V ). Suppose U is such that DjU admits a local equation f D 0. When we apply (b) to f, then we see that div. f / div.g/ on U, so that DjU C div.g/ 0. Since the U s cover V, together with (a) this implies that D D div. g/: (Surjectivity). Define k.v /.U;K/ D if U is open and nonempty 0 if U is empty. Because V is irreducible, K becomes a sheaf with the obvious restriction maps. On any open subset U where LjU O U, we have LjU K K. Since these open sets form a covering of V, V is irreducible, and the restriction maps are all the identity map, this implies that L K K on the whole of V. Choose such an isomorphism, and identify L with a subsheaf of K. On any U where L O U, LjU D go U as a subsheaf of K, where g is the image of 1 2.U;O V /: Define D to be the divisor such that, on a U, g 1 is a local equation for D. EXAMPLE Suppose V is affine, say V D SpmA. We know that coherent O V -modules correspond to finitely generated A-modules, but what do the locally free sheaves of rank n correspond to? They correspond to finitely generated projective A-modules (CA 12.5). The invertible sheaves correspond to finitely generated projective A-modules of rank 1.

6 6 13. COHERENT SHEAVES; INVERTIBLE SHEAVES Suppose for example that V is a curve, so that A is a Dedekind domain. This gives a new interpretation of the ideal class group: it is the group of isomorphism classes of finitely generated projective A-modules of rank one (i.e., such that M A K is a vector space of dimension one). This can be proved directly. First show that every (fractional) ideal is a projective A-module it is obviously finitely generated of rank one; then show that two ideals are isomorphic as A-modules if and only if they differ by a principal divisor; finally, show that every finitely generated projective A-module of rank 1 is isomorphic to a fractional ideal (by assumption M A K K; when we choose an identification M A K D K, then M M A K becomes identified with a fractional ideal). [Exercise: Prove the statements in this last paragraph.] REMARK Quite a lot is known about Pic.V /, the group of divisors modulo linear equivalence, or of invertible sheaves up to isomorphism. For example, for any complete nonsingular variety V, there is an abelian variety P canonically attached to V, called the Picard variety of V, and an exact sequence 0! P.k/! Pic.V /! NS.V /! 0 where NS.V / is a finitely generated group called the Néron-Severi group. Much less is known about algebraic cycles of codimension > 1, and about locally free sheaves of rank > 1 (and the two don t correspond exactly, although the Chern classes of locally free sheaves are algebraic cycles). d Direct images and inverse images of coherent sheaves. Consider a homomorphism A! B of rings. From an A-module M, we get an B-module B A M, which is finitely generated if M is finitely generated. Conversely, an B-module M can also be considered an A-module, but it usually won t be finitely generated (unless B is finitely generated as an A-module). Both these operations extend to maps of varieties. Consider a regular map WW! V, and let F be a coherent sheaf of O V -modules. There is a unique coherent sheaf of O W -modules F with the following property: for any open affine subsets U 0 and U of W and V respectively such that.u 0 / U, FjU 0 is the sheaf corresponding to the.u 0 ;O W /-module.u 0 ;O W /.U;OV /.U;F/. Let F be a sheaf of O V -modules. For any open subset U of V, we define.u; F/ D. 1U;F/, regarded as a.u;o V /-module via the map.u;o V /!. 1U;O W /. Then U 7!.U; F/ is a sheaf of O V -modules. In general, F will not be coherent, even when F is. (a) For any regular maps U! V ˇ! W and coherent O W -module F on W, there is a canonical isomorphism LEMMA ˇ / F!.ˇF/: (b) For any regular map WV! W, maps locally free sheaves of rank n to locally free sheaves of rank n (hence also invertible sheaves to invertible sheaves). It preserves tensor products, and, for an invertible sheaf L,.L 1 / '. L/ 1.

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