THE FOURTH AMENDMENT ASPECTS OF COMPUTER SEARCHES AND SEIZURES: A PERSPECTIVE AND A PRIMER

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE FOURTH AMENDMENT ASPECTS OF COMPUTER SEARCHES AND SEIZURES: A PERSPECTIVE AND A PRIMER"

Transcription

1 FILE:C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\MYBRIE~1\CLANCY 12/13/05 Tue 12:57PM Dec THE FOURTH AMENDMENT ASPECTS OF COMPUTER SEARCHES AND SEIZURES: A PERSPECTIVE AND A PRIMER Thomas K. Clancy * I. Introduction II. The Nature of Computer Searches: Searches for Data A. Document Searches B. Views Whether Computer Data are Documents Data Are Forms of Records/Container Analogy Rejection of the Document Search and Container Analogy: A ASpecial 3. Discussion of the Premises of the ASpecial a. Should File Names or Types Limit the Scope of a Search? b. Do Technological Search Programs Make the File Cabinet Analogy Inadequate? c. Does the Nature or Amount of Material Make D ir e c to r, N a tio n a l C e n te r fo r J u s tic e a n d th e R u le o f L a w, a n d V is itin g P r o fe s s o r, U n iv e r s ity o f M is s is s ip p i S c h o o l o f L a w. I th a n k D o n M a s o n a n d M a r c H a r r o ld fo r th e ir c o m m e n ts o n a n e a r lie r d r a ft o f th is a r tic le. T h e N a tio n a l C e n te r fo r J u s tic e a n d th e R u le o f L a w is s u p p o r te d b y G r a n t N o D D - V X a w a r d e d b y th e B u r e a u o f J u s tic e A s s is ta n c e. T h e B u r e a u o f J u s tic e A s s is ta n c e is a c o m - p o n e n t o f th e O ffic e o f J u s tic e P rog r a m s, w h ic h in c lu d e s th e B u r e a u o f J u s tic e S ta tis tic s, th e N a tio n a l In s titu te o f J u s tic e, th e O ffic e o f J u v e n ile J u s tic e a n d D e lin q u e n c y P r e v e n tio n, a n d th e O ffic e o f V ic tim s o f C rim e. P o in ts o f vie w o r o p in io n s in th is a r tic le a r e th o s e o f th e a u th o r a n d d o n o t re p r e s e n t th e o ffic ia l p o s itio n o f th e U n ite d S ta te s D e p a r tm e n t o f J u s tic e. 193

2 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ C L A N C Y D e c 1 2 / 1 3 / 0 5 T u e 1 2 :5 7 P M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 5 Computers Different From Other Containers? d. Limitations Based on Search Execution Procedures in Warrants III. Selected Fourth Amendment Applicability Issues A. Expectation of Privacy Analysis In General The Location of the ComputerCIn General Data on Work ComputersCGovernmental Employer Data on Work ComputersCPrivate Employer Information Obtained from Third Parties Joint Users; Password Protected Files B. Private Searches and Seizures In General Government Agents Replication and Issues IV. Selected Satisfaction Issues A. Probable Cause B. Consent In General Scope of Consent Third Party Consent C. Particularity Claims In General Varieties of Computer Searches a. Searches for Computer Equipment b. Searches for Data D. Plain View E. Execution Issues On-site/Off-site Searches; Intermingled Documents Use of Experts Deleted Files V. Conclusion...271

3 FILE:C:\WP51\75-1\CLANCY Dec 12/13/05 Tue 12:57PM 2005] COMPUTER SEARCHES AND SEIZURES 195 I. INTRODUCTION This article is called a because it outlines the application of Fourth Amendment principles to the search and seizure of computers and the digital information that is stored in them. It does not purport to address every Fourth Amendment issue that may arise in the computer context because, for many issues, the mere fact that a computer is involved does not change the analysis. Instead, it focuses on situations that are influenced by the fact that the object to be searched and seized is a computer or the data stored on it. Like a traditional primer, this article reports how courts have addressed Fourth Amendment applicability and satisfaction issues in the computer context.

4 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ C L A N C Y D e c 1 2 / 1 3 / 0 5 T u e 1 2 :5 7 P M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 5 A primer is generally thought of as not espousing a point of view. This article, however, departs from that role in two important respects. First, in discussing the nature of computer and digital evidence searches and seizures, it rejects the view that those intrusions require a Aspecial that is, that unique Fourth Amendment rules are needed to regulate them; instead, this article adopts the view that computers are containers and the data they contain are mere forms of documents. This is to say that the principles applicable to document searches have equal application to electronic data searches. Second, it rejects expansion of the private search doctrine, used by some courts, which permits government agents to open data files that had not been opened during a preceding private party search and still not be a search within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment based on the theory that the in which the file was found negated any reasonable expectation of privacy. Underlying both of these points of view is the perspective that a computer is a container of containers of documents, that is, each individual file is a separate containerbjust like each manila file in a filing cabinet is a containerbthat requires a separate opening to determine what is inside. This is to say that the mere fact that an item to be searched or seized is electronic evidence does not fundamentally change the Fourth Amendment analytical structure that governs. II. THE NATURE OF COMPUTER SEARCHES: SEARCHES FOR DATA There are two principal approaches to searches involving electronic data stored on computers. One view asserts that a computer is a form of a container and that the data in electronic storage are mere forms of documents. A second view maintains that searches for data require a Aspecial requiring unique procedures and detailed justifications. This article concludes that the first view is correct: computers are containers. As with all containers, they have the ability to hold

5 w W FILE:C:\WP51\75-1\CLANCY Dec 12/13/05 Tue 12:57PM 2005] COMPUTER SEARCHES AND SEIZURES 197 physical evidence, including such items as wires, microchips, and hard drives. They also contain electronic evidence, that is, a series of digitally stored 0s and 1s that, when combined with a computer program, yield such items as images, words, and spreadsheets. Accordingly, the traditional standards of the Fourth Amendment regulate obtaining the evidence in containers that happen to be computers. A. Document Searches In Andresen v. Maryland, 1 the Supreme Court outlined the broad parameters of a permissible records search. In upholding the search of an office for documents that sought evidence of the crime of false pretenses by an attorney involved in real estate settlement activity, the Court asserted: U n d e r in ve s tig a tio n w a s a c o m p le x re a l e s ta te s c h e m e h o s e e xis te n c e c o u ld b e p ro ve d o n ly b y p ie c in g to g e th e r m a n y b its o f e vid e n c e. L ik e a jig s a w p u zzle, th e w h o le Ap ic tu o f p e titio n e r's fa ls e - p re te n s e s c h e m e... c o u ld b e s h o w n o n ly b y p la c in g in th e p ro p e r p la c e th e m a n y p ie c e s o f e vid e n c e th a t, ta k e n s in g ly, w o u ld s h o w c o m p a ra tive ly little. T h e c o m p le xity o f a n ille g a l s c h e m e m a y n o t b e u s e d a s a s h ie ld to a vo id d e te c t io n w h e n th e S ta te h a s d e m o n s tra te d p ro b a b le c a u s e to b e lie ve th a t a c rim e h a s b e e n c o m m itte d a n d p ro b a b le c a u s e to b e lie ve th a t e vid e n c e o f th is c r im e is in th e s u s p e c t's p o s s e s s io n. Although authorizing a broad document search, the Court observed: e re c o g n ize th a t th e re a re g ra ve d a n g e rs in h e re n t in e xe c u t in g a w a rra n t a u th o rizin g a s e a r c h a n d s e izu re o f a p e r s o n 's p a p e rs th a t a re n o t n e c e s s a rily p re s e n t in e xe c u t in g a w a r ra n t to s e a r c h fo r p h ys ic a l o b je c ts w h o s e re le va n c e is m o re e a s ily a s c e rta in a b le. In s e a r c h e s fo r U.S , ( ). 2. a t n.1 0.

6 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ C L A N C Y D e c 1 2 / 1 3 / 0 5 T u e 1 2 :5 7 P M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 5 p a p e rs, it is c e rta in th a t s o m e in n o c u o u s d o c u m e n ts w ill b e e xa m in e d, a t le a s t c u rsorily, in o rd e r to d e te rm in e w h e th e r th e y a re, in fa c t, a m o n g th o s e p a p e r s a u th o rize d to b e s e ize d. S im ila r d a n g e rs, o f c o u r s e, a re p re s e n t in e xec u tin g a w a rra n t fo r th e As e izu o f te le p h o n e c o n ve r s a tio n s. In b o th k in d s o f s e a r c h e s, re s p o n s ib le o ffic ia ls, in c lu d in g ju d ic ia l o ffic ia ls, m u s t ta k e c a r e to a s s u re th a t th e y a re c o n d u c te d in a m a n n e r th a t m in im ize s u n w a rra n te d in trus io n s u p o n p riva c 3 y. Several of the themes articulated by Andresen have been applied by lower courts to searches of computers for data. Those considerations include the complexity of the crime, whether innocuous files can be examined, and minimization procedures to reduce the intrusion upon the individual's protected interests. Antecedent to those themes, however, is the debate whether Andresen's framework for document searches is applicable to computer searches. 3. a t n.1 1.

7 FILE:C:\WP51\75-1\CLANCY Dec 12/13/05 Tue 12:57PM 2005] COMPUTER SEARCHES AND SEIZURES 199 B. Views Whether Computer Data Are Documents 1. Data are Forms of Records/Container Analogy Many courts view data in computer storage as a form of a document. Hence, a warrant that authorizes a search for or permits a search of computer files. 4 This is to say that the government need not know the exact Aform that records may 5 Indeed, this view asserts that there is Ano principled distinction between records kept electronically and those in paper 6 and, hence, there is Ano justification for favoring those who are capable of storing their records on computer over those who keep hard copies of their 7 In both instances, consistent with Andresen, Ainnocuous documents may be scanned to ascertain their 8 in Arecognition of `the reality that few people keep documents of their criminal transactions in a folder marked `[crime] 9 4 S e e U n ite d S ta te s v. H u n te r, 1 3 F. S u p p. 2 d 5 7 4, (D. V t ) (w a r - r a n t a u th o r izin g s e a r c h fo r Ar e c o r d p e r m itte d s e a r c h o f Ac o m p u t e r s, d is k s, a n d s im ila r p r o p e r ; U n ite d S ta te s v. M u s s o n, F. S u p p , (D. C o lo ) (s e iz u r e o f c o m p u te r d is k e tte s a p p r o v e d u n d e r a w a r r a n t a u th o riz in g th e s e iz u r e o f Aa n y re c o r d s o r w ritin g s o f w h a ts o e v e r n a tu r e s h o w in g a n y b u s in e s s o r fin a n c ia l tra n s a c tio n ; F r a s ier v. S ta te, N.E.2 d 4 4 9, 4 5 4, (In d. C t. A p p ) (w a r r a n t th a t a u th o r iz e d s e a r c h o f An o te s a n d o r r e c o r d o f m a r iju a n a s a le s p e r m itte d p o lic e to e x a m in e c o m p u te r file s ); P e o p le v. G a ll, 3 0 P.3 d 1 4 5, (C o lo ) (w h e n w a r r a n t a u th o riz e d s e iz u r e o f Aw ritte n a n d p r in te d m a teria in d ic a t in g a n in te n t to d o p h ysic a l h a r m to a p e r s o n o r b u ild in g p u r s u a n t to a n in v e s tig a tio n o f a c o n s p iracy to m u r d e r a n d u s e e x p lo s iv e s a g a in s t a fa c ility, s e iz u r e o f c o m p u te r s p e r m is s ib le b e c a u s e th e y w e r e Ar ea s o n a b ly lik e ly to s e r v e a s `c o n ta in e r s ' fo r w ritin g s, o r th e fu n c tio n a l e q u iv a le n t o f `w ritte n o r p r in t e d m a te r ia ; P e o p le v. L o o r ie, N.Y.S.2 d 4 8 3, (C o u n ty C t ) (w a r r a n t a u th o r izin g s e a r c h fo r Ar ec o r d p e r m itte d s e a r c h o f c o m p u te r file s ); c f. U n ite d S ta te s v. T r iu m p h C a p ita l G r o u p, In c., F.R.D. 3 1 (D. C o n n ) (w a r r a n t a u th o r izin g s e a r c h fo r Afile r e c o r d

8 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ C L A N C Y D e c 1 2 / 1 3 / 0 5 T u e 1 2 :5 7 P M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 5 Courts adopting this view have often analogized computers to filing cabinets or to containers: h e p o e ] m a y s e a r c h e c a n a u o d b y e w a r - n c d g a n y c o n e r s a t a t c a n a t a a - s o n a b e c o n m s d e s c r e d e w a r n... T h c o n e r n a e q u a a p p a b n o n d n - a c h n o g a l o n e a t a a s o n a b e h o a n s s n g s. S a w a n t c a n n o t b e e e c d a n a e a n m o r p o s o f a n m a y k e, a n d e c o u h a a e d e s e o f g s a t a s r, o r e u n c n a l e q u n o m s e n u m e d a w a r n a s w e a s c o n e w h h e y a a s o n a b e b e 1 0 u n d. [T lic th lo tio th rize th ra t, in lu in ta in th lo tio th re re ly lik ly to ta in ite ib in th ra t. is ta in ra tio le is lly lic le to tra itio l, te lo ic Ac ta in th re re ly lik ly to ld in fo rm tio in le ta ib le fo rm im ila rly rra xp te to tic ip te ve ry fo rm ite re- ito ry in fo rm tio ta th re fo re rts ve ffirm th izu re th in th re im ila to th Af tio iva le f, ite ra te in ra t, ll ta in rs in ic th re re ly lik ly to fo Following this view, computers have been said to be Areasonably likely to serve as `containers' for writings, or the functional in c lu d e d te x t, re m n a n ts, a n d fr a g m e n ts o f d e le te d file s ); U n ite d S ta te s v. H a r d in g, F. S u p p. 2 d 4 1 1, (S.D.N.Y ) (b e c a u s e p h o to g r a p h s m a y b e ta k e n b y d ig ita l o r film c a m e r a s a n d c a n b e s c a n n e d if in itia lly c a p tu r e d b y film, a w a r r a n t a u th o r izin g th e p o lic e to s e a r c h fo r Ap h o to g r a p h a llo w e d a g e n ts to o p e n a n d in s p e c t g r a p h ic a l im a g e file s o n a z ip d is k ). 5 U n ite d S ta te s v. G a w rysia k, F. S u p p , (D.N.J ) (a p p r o v in g o f w a r r a n t to s e a r c h b u s in e s s o ffic e fo r e v id e n c e o f fr a u d ), a ff'd, F.3 d (3 d C ir ); a c c o r d U n ite d S ta te s v. H e n s o n, F.2 d , (6 th C ir ). 6 U n ite d S ta te s v. L ie v e r tz, F. S u p p. 2 d , (S.D. In d ). 7 U n ite d S ta te s v. H u n te r, 1 3 F. S u p p. 2 d 5 7 4, (D. V t ). 8. a t ; a c c o r d U n ite d S ta te s v. G ray, 7 8 F. S u p p. 2 d 5 2 4, (E.D. V a ). 9 U n ite d S ta te s v. H u n te r, 1 3 F. S u p p. 2 d 5 7 4, (D. V t ) (q u o tin g U n ite d S ta te s v. R ile y, F.2 d 8 4 1, (2 d C ir )); a c c o r d U n ite d S ta te s v. M a a li M., F. S u p p. 2 d , (M.D. F la ). 1 0 P e o p le v. G a ll, 3 0 P.3 d 1 4 5, (C o lo ) (c ita tio n s o m itte d ); s e e a ls o U n ite d S ta te s v. A l- M arri, F. S u p p. 2 d 5 3 5, (S.D.N.Y ) (a c o m p u te r is a fo r m o f a c o n ta in e r ); P e o p le v. L o o r ie, N.Y.S.2 d 4 8 3, (C o u n - ty C t ) (s a m e ); U n ite d S ta te s v. B a rth, 2 6 F. S u p p. 2 d 9 2 9, (W.D. T e x ) (s a m e ).

9 FILE:C:\WP51\75-1\CLANCY Dec 12/13/05 Tue 12:57PM 2005] COMPUTER SEARCHES AND SEIZURES 201 equivalent of `written or printed 11 This is despite the recognition that computer file searches present Aa heightened of intermingling of relevant and irrelevant material: A[t]oday computers and computer disks store most of the records and data belonging to businesses and 12 Accepting this view does not mean that wholesale searches of data on computers are permitted. 13 Instead, the courts look to traditional means to limit the scope of document searches, such as the nature of the criminal activity alleged 14 or the nature of 1 1 P e o p v. G a 3 0 P d 1 4 5, o U n d S s v. H u n r, 1 3 F. S u p p. 2 d 5 7 4, 5 8 1, V T h e o n e r h o w e v e r, m u s t b e p r o p e r d e e d. S e e n o s a n d a c c o m p a n g x 1 4 S e e G u e s t L e, F d 3 2 5, C ) a r r a n s e e k g s u b s c r e r r m a n o b s c e n v e s a n r e q u g a t c o m m u n a n s a n d c o m p u r r e c o r d s p e r e d o n s e s w e r e a s p a r - u r a s c c u m s n c e s p e r m d U n d S s v. K o w, 5 8 F. 3 d 4 2 3, C ) n e w a y m a k e w a r r a n t p a r u r s p e c s u s p e c d c r a l c o n d u c t b e g v e s a d b u t w a r r a n t v a w h e n a u o r e d h e s e u r e o f a e v e r y d o c u m e n t a n d c o m p u t e r w o u t d a t g h o w m s r e d s u s p e c d c r e U n d S s v. G e o r g e, F d 7 2, 7 6 d C ) e r e r e r e n c e v e n c e ' o f a v n o f a b r o a d c r a l s o r g e n e r a l a l a c p r o v e s n o r e a d a s c e r a b g u e e s r e e x e c u g o e r s a s w h a t m s s e e ; L a A c a d e m c. U n d S s, F d 1, 5-6 C ) a r r a n t a t u d r e m o v a l o f u r o r e c k a d s o f d o c u - m e n a n d c o m p u r - r e d m a r d e p a r u r q u e m e n t w h e n, r a, d n o t s p e c e o f a u d u n d e r v e s a n U n d S s v. H u n r, 1 3 F. S u p p. 2 d 5 7 4, V ) c u s s g n s o n s c o p e o f s e a r c h v o g m o n e y u n d e r g s c h e m e S e a r c h W a r r a n t r K - S p o p o r, c F , C a ) a r r a n t r c o m p u r r e c o r d s a n d d a w o u t g c r e u n d e r v e s a n, d p a r u r r e q u e n S v. A s k h a m, 8 6 P d , a s h. A p p ) a r r a n t s u n p a r u r w h e n n a m e s c r e u n d e r v e s a n o r w h e n d e s c r e s o m e d e s u s p e c d c r a l a c h e n c e, w h e n a c c u s e d s u s p e c d o f u s g c o m p u r m a k e r e a a n d e a c c u s a n s a n d w a r r a n t d e e e o f x t s a n d w e b s s b e s e a r c h e d a t c o u h a v e b e e n u s e d c o n d u c t a t a c w a s s u n U n d S s v. L o n g o, 7 0 F. S u p p. 2 d 2 2 5, le ll,.3 (C lo ). ite ta te te (D t. ). Ac ta ly fin in fra te yin te t. v. is.3 (6 th ir. (w ts in ib in fo tio in ity in tig tio ir in th ic tio te ta in to th lis te ffe tic la ir ta itte ); ite ta te (9 th ir. (o to tic la is to ify te im in in in tig te in lid it th iz At iz virtu lly ith in ic in ite la te to te im ); ite ta te.2 (2 ir. (AM fe to `e id io la tio im in ta tu te crim in tivity id ily ta in le id lin fo th tin ffic to ite to fa ye tte y, In v. ite ta te.2 (5 th ir. (w th res lte in fo fiv tru lo ts te la te te ia ls vio la te th tic la ity re ir in te lia it id ify typ fr in tig tio ); ite ta te te (D t. (d is in lim ita tio in lvin la in ); In re fo rts Im ts In.,.R.D (C.D l. (w fo Aa ll te ith lim itin to im in tig tio vio la te tic la ity irem t); ta te.3 (W (w ffic ie tly tic la it im in tig tio it ib in As ta te im in tivity; te in te to th ts fa ls tio ta ils th typ te file ite to th ld to th tivity, it ffic ie t); ite ta te (W.D.N.Y

10 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ C L A N C Y D e c 1 2 / 1 3 / 0 5 T u e 1 2 :5 7 P M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 5 the objects sought. 15 For example, searches of computers for evidence of child pornography and other sexual exploitation of children make up a shockingly large percentage of the decided cases; in response to particularity challenges in these cases, courts focus on the sufficiency of the allegations of criminal conduct 16 or the description of the objects 17 sought ) a r r a n t a t a u o r e d s e a r c h o f h a r d d r e a n d a n y d a d k s r w o d o c u m e n, o n e a p r o m s o r y n o, e n d T G L , c o n e d w e d e c b e d M C, a n d a p u r c h a s e a g r e e m e n t e n d 9 1 1, c o n e d e d e c e n d s p e c a d e s c r e d a r e a b e s e a r c h e d S v. N u c k o, S o. 2 d 7 2 4, A p p ) a r r a n t s e e k g r e c o r d s o f u s e d c a r b u s e s s c h a r g e d w r g e r y, o d o m e r m p e r g, a n d o e r c r a l v n s s u n t w h e n a u o r e d s e u r e o f d s r e d o n c o m p u r, c d g, b u t n o t d, m a g n e m e d o r a n y o e r e c n r m, h a r d d k s, c a s s e s, d k e s, p h o o p a l d e v e s a n d s e r v e r m a g n e t b a c k u p p e b e c a u s e n o g d c r e n o f o e r s e x e c u g w a r r a n 1 5 S e e U n d S s v. T h o r n, F d 6 7 9, C ) a r r a n t a t a u o e d s e a r c h a n d s e u r e o f e c n s r a g e m e d c o n g a g e s o f m o r s e n g a g e d s e x u a l a c a w e d e x a m a n o f c o n n o f v a r u s c o m p u r - r e d m e d U n d S s v. W o n g, F d 8 3 1, C ) a r r a n t a u o r g s e a r c h o f c o m p u r b d a a s s c a s s u n p a r u r w h e n c o m b e d w w a r r a n t o f m s s o u g h t h o u s e S v. O n e P n e e r C D - R O M C h a n g e P d 6 0 0, C A p p ) e u r e o f c o m p u r s y s m p e r m s u n d e r w a r r a n t a u o g s e u r e o f q u m e n t... p e r g e d u n o r d p y o f p o r n o g r a p h m a l n o f s o b s c e n w ; S c h a S, S d 6 3 3, e x. C ) e o f d e s e c r e p r o s e c u n, a g n e p e s a t c o n e d o r w e r e r e a s o n a b b e v e d c o n s n d a a n d / o r s s u n d e s c r e d m s b e s e e d 1 6 S e e U n d S s v. M e e k, F d 7 0 5, C ) a r r a n t s u n t s e a r c h r c r e v o g u s e o f r n e t w h e n d n u m e r o u s m s g s e d u c n a n d s e x u a l e x p n o f c h r e n : s e x u a e x p m a r l o r p a r a p h e r n a u s e d w e r h n o f c h r e n, s e x p h o g r a p h y e q u m e n c h p o r n o g r a p h a s w e a s m a r l d p a s t m o s n s u c h a s p h o g r a p h s, a d d r e s s d g e r s c d g n a m e s o f o e r p e d o p h s, u r n a o f s e x u a l e n c o u n r s w c h r e n, c o m p u r e q u m e n - r m a n o n d l a n d m a g n e s r a g e d e v e s, c o m p u r p r u, c o m p u r s o a r e a n d m a n u a, a n d d o c u m e n n r e g a r d g c o m p u r u s e U n d S s H a F d 6 3 0, C ) p h o g v a o f s e a r c h o f c o m p u r e q u m e n t a n d s b e c a u s e w a r r a n t d s e a r c h e v i d e n c e o f e s v o g (w th th iz iv ta is fo At ts is te title ta in ith in th ir tory la le IS title ta in in th ir tory title IM ific lly ib to ); ta te lls (F la (w in in ith fo te ta in th im in io la tio ffic ie it th iz iz A[ ]a ta to te in lu in lim ite to tic ia th le tro ic fo is tte is tte to tic ic file ic ta it le ft th in to is tio ffic tin t). ite ta te.3 (8 th ir. (w th th riz iz le tro ic to ia ta in in im in in ts llo in tio te ts io te la te ia ); ite ta te.3 (9 th ir. (w th izin te to Ao ta in ta it re la te to th is ffic ie tly tic la in ith t's lis ite in ); ta te io r,.2 (O kla t. (s iz te te is ib le th rizin iz Ae ip ta in in to th is trib tio is la ic teria in vio la tio ta te ity la lk v. ta te.w.2 (T rim (in th ft tra ts tio Am tic th ta in ly lie to ta in to le ta file ffic ie tly ib ite to iz ). ite ta te.3 (9 th ir. (w ffic ie to fo im in lv in In te it lis te ite rela tin to tio lo ita tio ild lly lic it te ia lia to lo in ib itio ild to ys, to ip t, ild y, ll te ia rela te to le ta tio to le in lu in th ile jo ls te ith ild te ip t, in fo tio ig ita tic to ic te in to ts te ftw ls ta tio in te ); ite ta te v. y,.3 (9 th ir. (u ld in lid ity te ip file lim ite to crim in lvin

11 FILE:C:\WP51\75-1\CLANCY Dec 12/13/05 Tue 12:57PM 2005] COMPUTER SEARCHES AND SEIZURES 203 s e x u a l e x p lo ita tio n o f c h ild r e n ); U n ite d S ta te s v. G le ic h, F. S u p p. 2 d , (D.N.D ) (w a r r a n t a u th o r izin g s e a r c h o f c o m p u te r fo r p h o to g r a p h s, p ic tu r e s, vis u a l r e p r e s e n ta tio n s, or vid e o s th a t in c lu d e d s e x u a l c o n d u c t b y m in o r, a s d e fin e d b y N o r th D a k o ta s ta tu te, m e t p a r tic u la r ity re q u ir e m e n t), a ff'd, F.3 d (8 th C ir ); U n ite d S ta te s v. H a ll, F.3 d 9 8 8, (7 th C ir ) (w h e n ite m s lis te d in w a r r a n t q u a lifie d b y p h r a s e s th a t ite m s s o u g h t w e r e r e la te d to c h ild p o r n o g r a p h y, p a r tic u la r ity req u ir e m e n t s a tis fie d ); U n ite d S ta te s v. C lo u g h, F. S u p p. 2 d 8 4, (D. M e ) (w a r r a n t in c h ild p o r n o g r a p h y c a s e a u - th o r izin g s e a r c h o f At e x t d o c u m e n a n d Ad ig ita l im a g e vio la te d p a r tic u la r ity req u ir e m e n t w h e n th e r e w e r e An o r e s tric tio n s o n th e s e a r c h, n o r e fe r e n c e s to s ta t - u te s, a n d n o r e f e r e n c e s to c r im e s o r ille g a ; S ta te v. W ib le, 5 1 P.3 d 8 3 0, (W a s h A p p ) (w a r r a n t p a r tic u la r w h e n it lim ite d s e a r c h to im a g e s o f c h ild r e n e n g a g e d in s e x u a lly e x p lic it a c tivity a s d e fin e d b y c h ild p o r n o g r a p h y statu te ); c f. U n ite d S ta te s v. M a x w e ll, 4 5 M.J , (C.A.A.F ) (reje c tin g c h a lle n g e to w a r r a n t th a t in c lu d e d p e r s o n s w h o c o u ld h a v e u n k n o w in g ly r e c e iv e d c h ild p o r n o g - r a p h y in th e ir e m a il m a ilb o x e s b e c a u s e to n a r r o w th e fie ld to o n ly th o s e w h o h a d k n o w in g ly re c e iv e d im a g e s w o u ld h a v e r e q u ir e d a d v a n c e s e a r c h o f m a ilb o x e s to a s c e r ta in if file s h a d b e e n o p e n e d ). 1 7 S e e U n ite d S ta te s v. G le ic h, F.3 d 6 0 8, (8 th C ir ) (w a r r a n t a u th o r izin g s e a r c h o f h o m e a n d p e r s o n a l c o m p u te r fo r Ap h o to g r a p h s, p ic - tu r e s, vis u a l r e p r e s e n ta tio n s o r v id e o s in a n y fo r m th a t in c lu d e s e x u a l c o n d u c t b y a m in o p e r m itte d s e a r c h o f a ll th r e e c o m p u te r s in h o u s e ); T h o r n, F.3 d a t (w a r r a n t th a t a u th o r iz e d s e a r c h a n d s e iz u r e o f e le c tro n ic s to r a g e m e d ia c o n ta in in g im a g e s o f m in o r s e n g a g e d in s e x u a l a c ts s u f fic e d to p r o v id e a u th o r ity to e x a m in e c o n te n ts o f vario u s c o m p u te r - r e la te d m e d ia ); U n ite d S ta te s v. C a m p o s, F.3 d , (1 0 th C ir ) (w a r r a n t p a r tic u la r w h e n it a u th o r iz e d, in te r a lia, s e iz u r e o f c o m p u te r e q u ip m e n t th a t m a y b e u s e d to d e p ic t o r d is trib u te c h ild p o r n o g r a p h y); U n ite d S ta te s v. U p h a m, F.3 d 5 3 2, (1 s t C ir ), c e r t. d e n ie d, U.S ( ) (u p h o ld in g w a r r a n t is s u e d fo r A[ a ]n y a n d a ll c o m p u te r s o ftw a r e a n d h a r d w a r e,... c o m p u te r d is k s, d is k d r iv e in h o u s e o f w o m a n s u s - p e c te d o f s e n d in g a n d r e c e ivin g c h ild p o r n o g r a p h y o v e r In te r n e t); D a v is v. G r a c e y, F.3 d , (1 0 th C ir ) (Ae q u ip m e n t... p e r ta in in g to th e d is trib u tio n o r d is p la y o f p o r n o g r a p h ic m a te r ia w a s s u ffic ie n tly p r e c is e to lim it s e a r c h to c o m p u te r e q u ip m e n t c o n n e c te d w ith th a t crim in a l a c tivity); U n ite d S ta te s v. A lb e r t, F. S u p p. 2 d 2 6 7, (D. M a s s ) (w a r r a n t p a r tic u la r w h e n it a u th o r iz e d s e a r c h a n d s e iz u r e o f c o m p u te r, d is k s, s o ftw a r e, a n d s to r a g e d e v ic e s w h e n th e r e w a s p r o b a b le c a u s e to b e lie v e th a t th e c o m p u te r c o n ta in e d m o r e th a n im a g e s o f c h ild p o r n o g r a p h y, g iv e n th a t th e As e a r c h a n d s e iz u r e o f th e c o m p u te r a n d its r e la te d s to r a g e e q u ip m e n t w a s th e o n ly p r a c tic a l w a y to o b ta in th e

12 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ C L A N C Y D e c 1 2 / 1 3 / 0 5 T u e 1 2 :5 7 P M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l Rejection of the Document Search and Container Analogy: A ASpecial Some authorities reject the container analogy and view searches for data on a computer much differently than paper document searches. 18 The leading case, United States v. Carey, 19 espouses the view that law enforcement officers must take a Aspecial 20 to the search of data contained on computers and that the Afile cabinet analogy may be 21 This position is premised on the fact that Aelectronic storage is likely to contain a greater quantity and variety of information than any previous storage 22 As one judge has argued: im a g e ; U n ite d S ta te s v. A lle n, 5 3 M.J , (C.A.A.F ) (w a r r a n t p a r tic u la r w h e n it a u th o r iz e d s e a r c h fo r c o m p u te r file s r e la tin g to n u d e p h o to g r a p h s o f ju v e n ile s, In te r n e t lo c a tio n s o f s u c h m a te ria l, o r lis ts o f s u c h file s ); S ta te v. W ib le, 5 1 P.3 d 8 3 0, (W a s h. A p p ) (w a r r a n t fo r c h ild p o r n o g r a p h y s a tis fie s p a r tic u la r ity re q u ir e m e n t if it lim its s e iz a b le ite m s b y s p e c ifyin g typ e o f m a te r ia l th a t q u a lifie s a s c h ild p o r n o g r a p h y); S ta te v. M a x w e ll, A.2 d , (N.J. S u p e r ) (in c a s e in v o lvin g u s e o f te le p h o n e to c a ll c h ild v ic tim s o f s e x u a l a s s a u lt, w a r r a n t th a t a u th o r iz e d s e a r c h o f c o m p u te r fo r Ac o m p u t e r a d d r e s s b o o k v a lid ); S ta te v. P a ts c h e c k, 6 P.3 d 4 9 8, (N.M. A p p ) (in p r o s e c u tio n fo r s e x u a l o ffe n s e s a g a in s t c h ild r e n, w a r r a n t th a t s p e c ifie d c o m p u t e r to b e s e a r c h e d fo r Ap o r n o g r a p h ic m o v ie v a lid ); S ta te v. L e h m a n, A.2 d 2 5 6, (M e ) (w a r r a n t n o t o v e r b r o a d w h e n it a u th o riz e d s e iz u r e o f a ll c o m p u te r - r e la te d e q u ip m e n t in s u s p e c t's h o u s e w h e n p o lic e k n e w o n ly th a t th e im a g e s o f s e x u a lly e x p lo ite d g irls w e r e ta k e n b y a d ig ita l c a m e r a a n d d o w n lo a d e d to a c o m p u t e r ); c f. U n ite d S ta te s v. L a m b, F. S u p p , (N.D.N.Y ) (w a r r a n t s a tis - fie d p a r tic u la r ity re q u ir e m e n t in c h ild p o r n o g r a p h y c a s e s e e k in g s u b s c r ib e r in fo r m a tio n a n d e le c tro n ic m a il m e s s a g e s s e n t to a n d r e c e iv e d b y 7 8 in d ivid u a ls fr o m In te r n e t s e r v ic e p r o v id e r w h e n m e s s a g e s w e r e in s trum e n ta litie s o f crim e u s e d b y c h ild p o r n o g r a p h y tra f fic k e r s to lo c a te a n d c o m m u n ic a te w ith p e r s o n s o f lik e m in d ). 1 8 S e e R a p h a e l W in ic k, S e a r c h e s a n d S e iz u r e s o f C o m p u te r s a n d C o m p u te r D a ta, 8 H. J.L. & T E C H. 7 5, ( ) ( A n a n a lo g y b e tw e e n a c o m p u te r a n d a c o n ta in e r o v e r s im p lifie s a c o m p le x a r e a o f F o u r th A m e n d m e n t d o c trin e a n d ig n o r e s th e rea litie s o f m a s s iv e m o d e r n c o m p u te r s to r a g ; s e e a ls o S u s a n W. B r e n n e r & B a r b a r a A. F r e d e r ik s e n, C o m p u te r S e a r c h e s a n d S e iz u r e s :

13 FILE:C:\WP51\75-1\CLANCY Dec 12/13/05 Tue 12:57PM 2005] COMPUTER SEARCHES AND SEIZURES 205 A c o m p u te r is fu n d a m e n ta lly d iffe re n t fro m a w ritin g, o r a c o n ta in e r o f w rit in g s, b e c a u s e o f its c a p a c ity to h o ld a va s t a rra y o f in fo rm a tio n in m a n y d iffe re n t fo rm s, to s o rt, p ro c e s s, a n d tra n s fe r in fo rm a tio n in a d a ta b a s e, to p ro vid e a m e a n s fo r c o m m u n ic a tio n via e - m a il, a n d to c o n n e c t a n y g ive n u s e r to th e in te rn e t. A c o m p u te r m a y b e c o m p ris e d o f a w id e va rie ty o f p e r s o n a l in fo rm a tio n, in c lu d in g b u t n o t lim ite d to w o rd p ro c e s s in g d o c u m e n ts, fin a n c ia l re c o rd s, b u s in e s s rec o rd s, e le c tro n ic m a il, in te rn e t a c c e s s p a th s, a n d p re vio u s ly d e le te d m a te ria ls. B e c a u s e o f th e s e d iffe re n c e s, th e s e izu re o f a c o m p u te r ra is e s m a n y is s u e s b e yo n d th o s e th a t m ig h t p e rta in to m e re w rit in g s.... A Aw ritin is s im p ly n o t p a rtic u la r e n o u g h to w a rra n t a re a - s o n a b le p e r s o n to c o n c lu d e th a t it in c lu d e s a c o m p u te r b e - c a u s e a w ritin g a n d a c o m p u te r a re tw o fu n d a m e n ta lly d iffe r e n t th in g s, b o th in d e g re e a n d in k in d.... M o re o ve r, F o u rth A m e n d m e n t a n a lys is r e g a r d in g th e s e a r c h a n d s e izu re o f c o m p u te rs m u s t b e a p p ro a c h e d c a u tio u s ly a n d n a rro w ly b e c a u s e o f th e im p o rta n t p riva c y c o n c e rn s in h e re n t in th e n a tu re o f c o m p u te rs, a n d b e c a u s e th e 2 3 te c h n o lo g y in th is a re a is r a p id ly g ro w in g a n d c h a n g in g. S o m e U o e d s u e s, 8 M H. T E L E C O M M. T E C H. L. R E 3 9, , ) e g r s o m e o f e d r e n c e s b e e e n s e a r c h e s o f a p e r d o c u m e n a n d c o m p u r - g e n e r a d e v i d e n c a n d m a g a t c o u r s h o u p o s e r e - s n s o n c o m p u r s e a r c h e s s u c h a s g e s e a r c h b y e s, b y r e q u g a s e c o n d w a r r a n t r r m g d s, a n d b y p o s g e a m e s r c o n d u c g e s e a r c h F d C a t n ; s e e a o P e o p v. G a 3 0 P d 1 4 5, o ) a r e z, J d s e n g ) e c a u s e c o m p u r s p r o c e s s p e r s o n a l r m a n a n d e c, e y u e h e h n e d p r o c n u n d e r e F o u r A m e n d m e n t a g a s t u n r e a s o n a b s e a r c h e s o r s e u r e s. 2 1 C a r e y, F d a t W k, s u p r a n o 1 8, a t ; s e e a o S e a r c h o f W. W e s t E n d, F. S u p p. 2 d 9 5 3, ) s s e r g a t s e a r c h e s o f c o m p u u e a r e l s c r u y o f e p a r u r q u e n b e c a u s e, r a, o f e x o r d a r y v o m e o f r m a n a t m a y b e s r e. 2 3 P e o p v. G a 3 0 P d 1 4 5, o ) a r e z, J nres lv Is IC V. (2 (s ttin fo th th iffe tw Ap ts te te in ta in in th ts ld im tric tio te lim itin th file typ irin fo in te in le file im in tim fr fo tin th )..3 (1 th ir. )..7 ls le ll,.3 (C lo (M tin., is tin (AB te in fo tio ffe ts th req ir ig te te tio th th in le in ic te ls In re (N.D Ill. (a tin th ters req ir Ac fu tin th tic la ity re irem in te lia th Ae tra in lu in fo tio th to le ll,.3 (C lo (M tin.,

14 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ C L A N C Y D e c 1 2 / 1 3 / 0 5 T u e 1 2 :5 7 P M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 5 Other arguments that searches of computers are different include the assertion that computers Apresent the tools to refine searches in ways that cannot be done with hard copy files. When confronting a file cabinet full of papers, there may be no way to determine what to seize without doing some level of review of everything in the in contrast, computer technology affords a variety of methods by which the government may tailor a search to focus on documents that evidence the alleged criminal activity. 24 Those methods, it has been asserted, include limiting searches by date range, doing key word searches, limiting searches by file type, and Afocusing on certain software 25 Under this Aspecial courts have imposed several unique requirements: a search warrant seeking to seize computers or computer equipment must specify that it covers such items and the warrant must Ainclude measures to direct the subsequent search of a 26 Police officers may also have to limit the search by Aobserving files types and titles listed on the directory, doing a key word search for relevant terms, or reading portions of each file stored in the 27 d s e n g 2 4 S e a r c h o f W. W e s t E n d, F. S u p p. 2 d a t P e o p v. G a 3 0 P d 1 4 5, o ) a r e z, J d s e n g s e e a o S e a r c h o f W. W e s t E n d, F. S u p p. 2 d a t a g a t a n s u g m a g h a d a u o r r e q u e g o v e r n m e n t w e a r c h p r o c o l a t a t m p e n s u r e a t e s e a r c h w n o t e x c e e d c o n s - n a l b o u n d. 2 7 U n d S s v. C a F d , C s e e a o P e o p v. C a r r a, N d 8 0 0, S u p. C ) g a t p o e d o r d n o t h a v e r h t u n d e r w a r r a n t o p e n c o m p u r e r s b a s e d o n n a m e a s s o c d w a t e r r e G r a n d J u r y S u b p o e n a D u - c e s T e c u m D a t e d N o v e m b e r 1 5, , F. S u p p. 1 1, ) a s e d o n g o v e r n m e n c o n c e s s n, a s s e r g a t y w o r d s e a r c h o f r m a n s r e d o n c o m p u t e r w o u e a l r m a n e b e r e v a n t g r a n d v e s a n P e o p v. G a 3 0 P d 1 4 5, o ) a r e z, J d - s e n g ) S a r c h e s m a y b e d a v o s e a r c h g s n o t c d e d e is tin ). In re le ll,.3 (C lo (M tin., is tin ); ls In re (m in ta in in th is in is tra te th ity to ir to fo llo As to th te ts to th th ill titu tio ite ta te rey,.3 (1 th ir. ); ls le tu.y.s.2 (N.Y t. (s ta tin th lic id id ig to te file fo ld ia te ith th fo ld ); In (S.D.N.Y (b t's io tin th ke in fo tio to ld rev in fo tio lik ly to le to jury in tig tio ); le ll,.3 (C lo (M tin., is tin (A[ ]e lim ite to id in file in lu in th

15 FILE:C:\WP51\75-1\CLANCY Dec 12/13/05 Tue 12:57PM 2005] COMPUTER SEARCHES AND SEIZURES 207 To restrict the scope of a search of a computer that contains intermingled documents, those rejecting the premise that computer searches are just another form of a document search maintain that merely obtaining a warrant to search for specified items is insufficient. 28 Instead, w e n r c e m e n t m u s t e n g a g e e r m e d s p o f s o g u s e s o f d o c u m e n a n d e n o n s e a r c h e o n e s s p e c d a w a n W h e o e r s c o m e a c s s n t d o c u m e n s o g d w n t d o c u m e n a t e y c a n n o t a s b e s o d a t e s, e o e m a y s e a l o r h o e d o c u m e n p e n d g a p p l b y a m a g o f e c o n d n s a n d n s o n a e r s e a r c h u g h e d o c u m e n. T h e m a g s h o u e n q u o e s p e c a w a n t w h h 2 9 e o f s a s o u g h [L ]a fo in th in te ia te te rtin va rio typ ts th ly th ifie in rra t. re ffic ro re le va ts in te rm in le ith ir re le va ts th th fe ib ly rte th ite th ffic rs ld th ts in ro va is tra te th itio lim ita tio fu rth th ro th ts is tra te ld th re ire ffic rs to ify in rra ic typ file re t. w a r r a n t b y `o b s e r v in g file s typ e s a n d title s lis t e d in th e d ir e c tory, d o in g a k e y w o r d s e a r c h fo r r e le v a n t te r m s, o r r e a d in g p o r tio n s o f e a c h file s to r e d in th e m e m ; W in ic k, s u p r a n o te 1 8, a t (AO n c e o ffic e r s s e iz e la r g e q u a n titie s o f c o m p u te r m e m ory, th e y h a v e th r e e m e th o d s o f d is tin g u is h in g r e le v a n t fro m irrele v a n t in fo r m a - tio n. O ffic e r s c a n e ith e r r e a d th r o u g h p o r tio n s o f e a c h file s to r e d in th e m e m o ry, c o n d u c t a k e y w o r d s e a r c h o f th e d a ta s to r e d o n th e d is k s, o r p r in t o u t a d ir e c to r y o f th e title a n d file typ e fo r e a c h file o n th e d is 2 8 T h e o r ig in o f th e in te r m in g le d d o c u m e n t d o c trin e c a n b e tra c e d to a n o n - c o m p u te r c a s e, w h ic h in v o lv e d a la r g e v o lu m e o f m a te ria l. S e e U n ite d S ta te s v. T a m u r a, F.2 d 5 9 1, (9 th C ir ) (g o v e r n m e n t c a n a v o id v io la tin g F o u r th A m e n d m e n t rig h ts b y s e a lin g d o c u m e n ts p e n d in g is s u a n c e o f s e a r c h w a r r a n t d e ta ilin g fu r th e r s e a r c h ); s e e a ls o U n it e d S ta te s v. S h illin g, F.2 d , (4 th C ir ) (r e g a r d in g file c a b in e ts, g o v e r n m e n t s h o u ld a d o p t p r o c e d u r e o u t lin e d in T a m ura a n d r e q u ir e s u b s e q u e n t s e a r c h w a r r a n t). B u t s e e U n ite d S ta te s v. H ill, F. S u p p. 2 d , (C.D. C a l ) (reje c tin g T a m ura a s a p p lic a b le p r e c e d e n t b e c a u s e w a r r a n t p e r m it te d se iz u r e o f a ll s to r a g e m e d ia ); D a v id J.S. Z iff, N o te, F o u r th A m e n d m e n t L im ita tio n s o n th e E x e c u tio n o f C o m p u t e r S e a r c h e s C o n - d u c te d P u r s u a n t to a W a r r a n t, C O L U M. L. R E V , ( ) (a r g u in g in a p p lic a b ility o f T a m ura to c o m p u te r s e a r c h e s ). 2 9 C a r e y, F.3 d a t (fo o t n o te o m it te d ); a c c o r d U n ite d S ta te s v. W a ls e r, F.3 d 9 8 1, (1 0 th C ir ); U n ite d S ta te s v. C a m p o s, F.3 d , (1 0 th C ir ); W in ic k, s u p r a n o te 1 8, a t

16 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ C L A N C Y D e c 1 2 / 1 3 / 0 5 T u e 1 2 :5 7 P M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l Discussion of the Premises of the ASpecial As this section explains, I believe the Aspecial is misguided. It has no foundation in Fourth Amendment jurisprudence, even by analogy, given its essential postulate that computer technology is so fundamentally different from anything in the past. This postulate has been articulated to include several premises. First, technology not only creates a vastly different system of storage, information, and privacy concerns, it also affords ways to minimize intrusions. Because such methods are available, so the reasoning goes, they must be used. Second, computer abilities are fundamentally different than anything previously known to humankind, mandating rejection of the document and container doctrines that the Supreme Court has articulated to regulate those other types of searches. Third, because of the other premises, computer searches and seizures require the courts to create special search execution rules. Each of these premises and the underlying postulate, I believe, are flawed. Instead, the proper view is that computer and electronic data searches are properly governed by traditional Fourth Amendment rules regulating containers and document searches. a. Should File Names or Types Limit the Scope of a Search? An essential premise of the Aspecial is that file name labels or suffixes accurately indicate what the file contains. 30 As one commentator has asserted: 3 0 S e e C a r e y, F.3 d a t (AT h is is n o t a c a s e in w h ic h a m b ig u - o u s ly la b e le d file s w e r e c o n ta in e d in th e h a r d d r iv e d ir e c tory. It is n o t a c a s e in w h ic h th e o ffic e r s h a d to o p e n e a c h file d r a w e r b e fo r e d is c o v e r in g its c o n te n ; P e o p le v. C a rratu, N.Y.S.2 d 8 0 0, (N.Y. S u p. C t ) (A[ A ] w a r r a n t a u th o rizin g a s e a r c h o f th e te x t file s o f a c o m p u te r fo r d o c u m e n tary evid e n c e p e r ta in in g to a s p e c ific c r im e w ill n o t a u th o r iz e a s e a r c h o f im a g e file s c o n ta in in g e v i d e n c e o f o th e r crim in a l a c ; A m y B a r o n - E v a n s, W h e n th e G o v e r n m e n t S e iz e s a n d S e a r c h e s Y o u r C lie n t's C o m p u te r, 2 7 C H A M P IO N 1 8 ( ) (AF o r tu n a te ly, th e te c h n ic a l m e a n s

17 FILE:C:\WP51\75-1\CLANCY Dec 12/13/05 Tue 12:57PM 2005] COMPUTER SEARCHES AND SEIZURES 209 C o m p u te r p ro g ra m s s to re in fo rm a tio n in a w id e va rie ty o f fo rm a ts. F o r e xa m p le, m o s t fin a n c ia l s p re a d s h e e ts s to re in fo r m a tio n in a c o m p le te ly d iffe re n t fo rm a t th a n d o w o rd p roc e s s in g p ro g ra m s. S im ila rly, a n in ve s tig a to r re a s o n a b ly fa m ilia r w ith c o m p u te r s s h o u ld b e a b le to d is tin g u is h d a ta b a s e p ro g ra m s, e le c tro n ic m a il file s, te le p h o n e lis ts a n d s to re d vis u a l o r a u d io file s fro m e a c h o th e r. W h e re a s e a r c h w a rra n t s e e k s o n ly fin a n c ia l rec o rd s, la w e n fo r c e m e n t o ffic e r s s h o u ld n o t b e a llo w e d to s e a r c h th ro u g h te le p h o n e lis ts o r w o rd p roc e s s in g file s a b s e n t a s h o w in g o f s o m e re a s o n to b e lie ve th a t th e s e file s c o n ta in 3 1 th e fin a n c ia l re c o rd s s o u g h t. In Carey, the principal case espousing this Aspecial the police had a warrant allowing them to search computer files for Anames, telephone numbers, ledger receipts, addresses, and other documentary evidence pertaining to the sale and distribution of controlled 32 During the course of the search, Detective Lewis came across files with sexually suggestive titles and the suffix 33 Upon opening one of those files, Lewis observed child pornography. He subsequently downloaded numerous other files and opened some of them, revealing additional child pornography. The files featured sexually suggestive or obscene names, many including the word or 34 Lewis testified that, until he e x t s e a r c h c o m p u t e r s r p a r u r r m a n w o u t m m a g g r o u g h p r a r m a n n o t d e s c r e d a w a r r a n F o r e x a m p, a a l w h c o r c a s e, v a n t s c a n b e o d a n d v a n t o n e s a v o e d r o u g h k e o r d s e a r c h e s. a c h p o r n o g r a p h y c a s e, e g o v e r n m e n t c a n s e a r c h r p r e s w o u t e n e e d o k a t a n y x t. C C o m m o n w e a v. H d s, N d , a s s ) u g g e s e n a m e s c a n c r e a p r o b a b c a u s e s e a r c h c o m p u r r c h p o r n o g r a p h 3 1 S e e W k, s u p r a n o 1 8, a t C a r e y, F d a t a t n. is to fo tic la in fo tio ith ru in th iv te in fo tio ib in t. le in typ ic ite lla re le file is la te irrele id th yw In ild th fo ic tu file ith th to lo te f. lth in.e.2 (M (s tiv file te le to te fo ild y). in ic te.3.3

18 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ C L A N C Y D e c 1 2 / 1 3 / 0 5 T u e 1 2 :5 7 P M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 5 opened each file, he really did not know its contents. 35 He claimed: AI wasn't conducting a search for child pornography, that happened to be what these turned out to 36 Although the trial court denied the motion without making any findings of fact, the appellate court reversed, imposing its own view of the evidence: [T ]h e c a s e tu rn s u p o n th e fa c t th a t e a c h o f th e file s c o n ta in - in g p o rn o g ra p h ic m a te ria l w a s la b e le d AJ P a n d m o s t fe a - tu re d a s e xu a lly s u g g e s tive title. C e r ta in ly a fte r o p e n in g th e first file a n d s e e in g a n im a g e o f c h ild p o rn o g ra p h y, th e s e a r c h in g o ffic e r w a s a w a recin a d va n c e o f o p e n in g th e rem a in in g file scw h a t th e la b e l m e a n t. W h e n h e o p e n e d th e s u b s e q u e n t file s, h e k n e w h e w a s n o t g o in g to fin d ite m s 3 7 re la te d to d ru g a c tivity a s s p e c ifie d in th e w a r ra n t[.] Putting aside the appellate court's disregard of its limited role in fact-finding, there are significant reasons to reject its position that a search be restricted by file names or file types. Professional investigators recognize that computer users attempt to conceal criminal evidence by storing it Ain random order with deceptive file thus requiring a search of all the stored data to determine whether it is included in the warrant. 38 Indeed, others have asserted that Ait is impossible to tell 3 5. a t L e w s d, h o w e v e r, a t a g e s c o u c o n e v e n c e p e r e n t a d r u g v e s a n s u c h a s p r e s o f h r o p o n g r o w s y s m a n d h o w s e t u p o p e r a a n d a t d r u g d e a r s o n o b s c u r e o r d g u e e v i d e n c e o f e d r u g a c. a t n a t a t U n d S s v. C a m p o s, F d , C ) u o g a a v s e e a o U n d S s v. M a a M F. S u p p. 2 d , F ) x p e r t e x p e d a t h e c o u n o t o n n a m e s d e r m e w h a t w a s r e s p o n s e w a r r a n E O G H A N C A S E D A L E V E N C E A N D C O M P U T E R C R E d e d ) e s c r g a m e o d a l d a r g p r o c e s s a t c d e s s e v e r a l d r e n t o,. a t , a n d o b s e r v g a t d l e v e n c e a n a r e q u e s e x a m e r s e m p y r g p r o c e d u r e s d p o n u s e l d a a n d a t s s m e o d a l d a r e d u c n c h n u e s, s u c h a s s e a r c h g r s p e c o r d s o r e x c t g o n c e r e s, m a y n o t o n m s p o r n t c e s b u t is ta te th im file ld ta in id tin to in tig tio ic tu Aa yd ic th te it's to th le fte is is th ir tivity..2 ite ta te.3 (1 th ir. (q tin ffid it); ls ite ta te li., (M.D la (e la in th ld re ly file to te in iv to t); Y, IG IT ID IM (2 (d ib in th ic ta filte in th in lu iffe to ls id in th ig ita id lysis ir in to lo filte in to fin te tia lly fu ta th A[ l]e th ic ta tio te iq in fo ific keyw tra in ly ta in file typ ly is im ta lu

LU N C H IN C LU D E D

LU N C H IN C LU D E D Week 1 M o n d a y J a n u a ry 7 - C o lo u rs o f th e R a in b o w W e w ill b e k ic k in g o ff th e h o lid a y s w ith a d a y fu ll o f c o lo u r! J o in u s fo r a ra n g e o f a rt, s p o rt

More information

THE NATIONAL JUDICIAL COLLEGE

THE NATIONAL JUDICIAL COLLEGE THE NATIONAL JUDICIAL COLLEGE E DUCATION I NNOVATION A DVANCING J USTICE COMPUTERS & DIGITAL EVIDENCE DIVIDER 17 Professor Thomas K. Clancy OBJECTIVES: After this session, you will be able to: 1. Define

More information

c. What is the average rate of change of f on the interval [, ]? Answer: d. What is a local minimum value of f? Answer: 5 e. On what interval(s) is f

c. What is the average rate of change of f on the interval [, ]? Answer: d. What is a local minimum value of f? Answer: 5 e. On what interval(s) is f Essential Skills Chapter f ( x + h) f ( x ). Simplifying the difference quotient Section. h f ( x + h) f ( x ) Example: For f ( x) = 4x 4 x, find and simplify completely. h Answer: 4 8x 4 h. Finding the

More information

Class Diagrams. CSC 440/540: Software Engineering Slide #1

Class Diagrams. CSC 440/540: Software Engineering Slide #1 Class Diagrams CSC 440/540: Software Engineering Slide # Topics. Design class diagrams (DCDs) 2. DCD development process 3. Associations and Attributes 4. Dependencies 5. Composition and Constraints 6.

More information

600 Billy Smith Road, Athens, VT

600 Billy Smith Road, Athens, VT 600 Billy Smith Road, Athens, VT Curtis Trousdale, Owner, Broker, Realtor Cell: 802-233-5589 curtis@preferredpropertiesvt.com 2004 Williston Road, South Burlington VT 05403 www.preferredpropertiesvt.com

More information

Grain Reserves, Volatility and the WTO

Grain Reserves, Volatility and the WTO Grain Reserves, Volatility and the WTO Sophia Murphy Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy www.iatp.org Is v o la tility a b a d th in g? De pe n d s o n w h e re yo u s it (pro d uc e r, tra d e

More information

AGRICULTURE SYLLABUS

AGRICULTURE SYLLABUS Agriculture Forms 1-4.qxp_Layout 1 26/10/2016 12:29 PM Page 1 ZIMBABWE MInISTRY OF PRIMARY AnD SECOnDARY EDUCATIOn AGRICULTURE SYLLABUS FORM 1-4 2015-2022 Curriculum Development and Technical Services,

More information

MOLINA HEALTHCARE, INC. (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

MOLINA HEALTHCARE, INC. (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20549 FORM 8-K Current Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Date of Report (Date of earliest event

More information

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C Form 8-K/A (Amendment No. 2)

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C Form 8-K/A (Amendment No. 2) UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20549 Form 8-K/A (Amendment No. 2) Current Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Date of Report

More information

gender mains treaming in Polis h practice

gender mains treaming in Polis h practice gender mains treaming in Polis h practice B E R L IN, 1 9-2 1 T H A P R IL, 2 O O 7 Gender mains treaming at national level Parliament 25 % of women in S ejm (Lower Chamber) 16 % of women in S enat (Upper

More information

THE BANK OF NEW YORK MELLON CORPORATION (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

THE BANK OF NEW YORK MELLON CORPORATION (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20549 FORM 8-K CURRENT REPORT Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Date of Report (Date of earliest event

More information

Functional pottery [slide]

Functional pottery [slide] Functional pottery [slide] by Frank Bevis Fabens A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Arts Montana State University Copyright by Frank Bevis Fabens

More information

B ooks Expans ion on S ciencedirect: 2007:

B ooks Expans ion on S ciencedirect: 2007: B ooks Expans ion on S ciencedirect: 2007: 1 INFORUM, 22-24 May, Prague Piotr Golkiewicz Account Manager Elsevier B.V. Email: p.golkiewicz@elsevier.com Mobile: +48 695 30 60 17 2 Pres entation Overview

More information

TTM TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

TTM TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter) Table of Contents UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION WASHINGTON, DC 20549 FORM 8-K CURRENT REPORT Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 November 15, 2006

More information

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C FORM 8-K

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C FORM 8-K UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20549 FORM 8-K CURRENT REPORT Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Date of Report (Date of earliest event

More information

ANNUAL MONITORING REPORT 2000

ANNUAL MONITORING REPORT 2000 ANNUAL MONITORING REPORT 2000 NUCLEAR MANAGEMENT COMPANY, LLC POINT BEACH NUCLEAR PLANT January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2000 April 2001 TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary 1 Part A: Effluent Monitoring

More information

STEEL PIPE NIPPLE BLACK AND GALVANIZED

STEEL PIPE NIPPLE BLACK AND GALVANIZED Price Sheet Effective August 09, 2018 Supersedes CWN-218 A Member of The Phoenix Forge Group CapProducts LTD. Phone: 519-482-5000 Fax: 519-482-7728 Toll Free: 800-265-5586 www.capproducts.com www.capitolcamco.com

More information

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORM 8-K. Farmer Bros. Co.

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORM 8-K. Farmer Bros. Co. UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20549 FORM 8-K CURRENT REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Date of Report (Date of earliest event

More information

Form and content. Iowa Research Online. University of Iowa. Ann A Rahim Khan University of Iowa. Theses and Dissertations

Form and content. Iowa Research Online. University of Iowa. Ann A Rahim Khan University of Iowa. Theses and Dissertations University of Iowa Iowa Research Online Theses and Dissertations 1979 Form and content Ann A Rahim Khan University of Iowa Posted with permission of the author. This thesis is available at Iowa Research

More information

A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W

A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W Volume 52 Fall 2000 Number 1 B E F O R E D I S A B I L I T Y C I V I L R I G HT S : C I V I L W A R P E N S I O N S A N D TH E P O L I T I C S O F D I S A B I L I T Y I N

More information

TECHNICAL MANUAL OPTIMA PT/ST/VS

TECHNICAL MANUAL OPTIMA PT/ST/VS TECHNICAL MANUAL OPTIMA PT/ST/VS Page 2 NT1789 Rév.A0 TABLE OF CHANGES The information contained in this document only concerns : OPTIMA PT/ST/VS type, MCM 440 PT/OT type, MCM550 ST type. Technical Manual

More information

Distributive Justice, Injustice and Beyond Justice: The Difference from Principle to Reality between Karl Marx and John Rawls

Distributive Justice, Injustice and Beyond Justice: The Difference from Principle to Reality between Karl Marx and John Rawls W CP 2 0 0 8 P ro c e e d in g s V o l.5 0 S o cia l a n d P o litic a l P h ilo s o p h y Distributive Justice, Injustice and Beyond Justice: The Difference from Principle to Reality between Karl Marx

More information

1980 Annual Report / FEDERAL R ESER V E BA N K OF RICHMOND. Digitized for FRASER Federal Reserve Bank of St.

1980 Annual Report / FEDERAL R ESER V E BA N K OF RICHMOND. Digitized for FRASER   Federal Reserve Bank of St. 1980 Annual Report / FEDERAL R ESER V E BA N K OF RICHMOND IS S N 0164-0798 L IB R A R Y OK C O N G R E SS C A T A L O G C A R D N U M B E R : 16-72o4 Additional <

More information

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C FORM 8-K

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C FORM 8-K Table of Contents UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549 FORM 8-K CURRENT REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 DATE OF REPORT (DATE

More information

NORWEGIAN MARITIME DIRECTORATE

NORWEGIAN MARITIME DIRECTORATE PAME Snap shot Analysis NORWEGIAN MARITIME DIRECTORATE PAME Snap Shot Analysis of Maritime Activities in the Arctic Revision No. 01 REPORT NO. 2000-3220 Page 1 PAME Snap shot Analysis Table of Contents

More information

Joh n L a w r e n c e, w ho is on sta ff at S ain t H ill, w r ite s :

Joh n L a w r e n c e, w ho is on sta ff at S ain t H ill, w r ite s : Minor Issue 168 S C I E N T O L O G Y A N D C H I L D R E N T h e r e a r e at p r e s e n t no b o o k s a v a ila b le on th e su b je c t of te a c h in g S c ie n to lo g y to c h ild r e n. A s th

More information

The Effects of Apprehension, Conviction and Incarceration on Crime in New York State

The Effects of Apprehension, Conviction and Incarceration on Crime in New York State City University of New York (CUNY) CUNY Academic Works Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects Graduate Center 1978 The Effects of Apprehension, Conviction and Incarceration on Crime in New York State

More information

Vlaamse Overheid Departement Mobiliteit en Openbare Werken

Vlaamse Overheid Departement Mobiliteit en Openbare Werken Vlaamse Overheid Departement Mobiliteit en Openbare Werken Waterbouwkundig Laboratorium Langdurige metingen Deurganckdok: Opvolging en analyse aanslibbing Bestek 16EB/05/04 Colofon Ph o to c o ve r s h

More information

Report Documentation Page

Report Documentation Page % &('()*! "$# +-,/. 0214365*798;:@:(021BAC3ED=1FG1H3@D=1H3?IJ86KL3=1M!KON$:IPKOQ?3SR3@0?KO3@1 TVUXWY Z[VY \

More information

M a n a g e m e n t o f H y d ra u lic F ra c tu rin g D a ta

M a n a g e m e n t o f H y d ra u lic F ra c tu rin g D a ta M a n a g e m e n t o f H y d ra u lic F ra c tu rin g D a ta M a rc h 2 0 1 5, A n n a F ilip p o v a a n d J e re m y E a d e 1 W h a t is H y d ra u lic F ra c tu rin g? Im a g e : h ttp ://w w w.h

More information

The Ability C ongress held at the Shoreham Hotel Decem ber 29 to 31, was a reco rd breaker for winter C ongresses.

The Ability C ongress held at the Shoreham Hotel Decem ber 29 to 31, was a reco rd breaker for winter C ongresses. The Ability C ongress held at the Shoreham Hotel Decem ber 29 to 31, was a reco rd breaker for winter C ongresses. Attended by m ore than 3 00 people, all seem ed delighted, with the lectu res and sem

More information

EKOLOGIE EN SYSTEMATIEK. T h is p a p e r n o t to be c i t e d w ith o u t p r i o r r e f e r e n c e to th e a u th o r. PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY.

EKOLOGIE EN SYSTEMATIEK. T h is p a p e r n o t to be c i t e d w ith o u t p r i o r r e f e r e n c e to th e a u th o r. PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY. EKOLOGIE EN SYSTEMATIEK Ç.I.P.S. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE POLLUTION IN NORT H SEA. TECHNICAL REPORT 1971/O : B i o l. I T h is p a p e r n o t to be c i t e d w ith o u t p r i o r r e f e r e n c e to

More information

University Microfilms

University Microfilms University Microfilms International * i---------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------- MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART N ATIO NAL HI IH l A l l o t ST AN PAR P S II A

More information

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, DC FORM 8-K. Current Report

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, DC FORM 8-K. Current Report UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, DC 20549 FORM 8-K Current Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Date of Report (Date of earliest event

More information

Texas Student Assessment Program. Student Data File Format for Student Registration and Precoding

Texas Student Assessment Program. Student Data File Format for Student Registration and Precoding Texas Student Assessment Program 2018 Student Data File Format for Student Registration and Precoding 2 2018 Student Data File Format for Student Registration and Precoding Submission Schedule of Student

More information

Operation Manual for Automatic Leveling Systems

Operation Manual for Automatic Leveling Systems Operation Manual for Automatic Leveling Systems 11/12 Power Gear #82-L0379 Rev. 0E Operation Manual for Automatic Leveling Systems with Touch Pad # 140-1226 and Control Box # 140-1229 Contents Before You

More information

MySQL 5.1. Past, Present and Future. Jan Kneschke MySQL AB

MySQL 5.1. Past, Present and Future. Jan Kneschke MySQL AB MySQL 5.1 Past, Present and Future Jan Kneschke MySQL AB Agenda Past S Q L T re e s m e e ts D y n a m ic S Q L P re s e n t E v e n ts P a rtitio n in g F u tu re V e rtic a l P a rtitio n in g About

More information

ST 602 ST 606 ST 7100

ST 602 ST 606 ST 7100 R e s to n Preserve Ct P r e s e rve Seneca Rd S h e r m a n ST 193 B2 Georgetown Pike B6 B8 Aiden Run Ct B9 Autumn Mist Ln B12 B11 B16 B15 B13 B17 Shain Ct B19 B21 B26 B24 B23 N o r th fa lls B28 B27

More information

BIRLA ERICSSON OPTICAL LIMITED

BIRLA ERICSSON OPTICAL LIMITED OPTICAL LIMITED ANNUAL REPORT 2012-13 BOARD OF DIRECTORS MR.HARSH V. LODHA MR.D.R.BANSAL MR.MAGNUS KREUGER [ALTERNATE MR.DINESH CHANDA] MR.MATS O.HANSSON [ALTERNATE MR.S.K.DAGA] MR.R.C.TAPURIAH DR.ARAVIND

More information

McCormick & Company, Incorporated (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

McCormick & Company, Incorporated (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20549 FORM 8-K CURRENT REPORT Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Date of Report (Date of earliest event

More information

CHAPTER 6 SUMMARV, m a in FINDIN6S AND C0NCUL5I0NS

CHAPTER 6 SUMMARV, m a in FINDIN6S AND C0NCUL5I0NS CHAPTER 6 SUMMARV, m a in FINDIN6S AND C0NCUL5I0NS 6.1; AFRICA AND SOUTHERN AFRICA Africa was the world's first continent where not only man evolved but also the human civilization. It is the largest continent

More information

Matador Resources Company (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Matador Resources Company (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20549 FORM 8-K CURRENT REPORT Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Date of Report (Date of Earliest Event

More information

S U E K E AY S S H A R O N T IM B E R W IN D M A R T Z -PA U L L IN. Carlisle Franklin Springboro. Clearcreek TWP. Middletown. Turtlecreek TWP.

S U E K E AY S S H A R O N T IM B E R W IN D M A R T Z -PA U L L IN. Carlisle Franklin Springboro. Clearcreek TWP. Middletown. Turtlecreek TWP. F R A N K L IN M A D IS O N S U E R O B E R T LE IC H T Y A LY C E C H A M B E R L A IN T W IN C R E E K M A R T Z -PA U L L IN C O R A O W E N M E A D O W L A R K W R E N N LA N T IS R E D R O B IN F

More information

Country Report Government (Part I) Due: November 14, 2017

Country Report Government (Part I) Due: November 14, 2017 Country Report Government (Part I) Due: November 14, 2017 o The government has a total of three sections: government, flag, and national anthem. You will start by researching your government. o Step 1:

More information

TECH DATA CORPORATION (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

TECH DATA CORPORATION (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549 FORM 8-K CURRENT REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15 (d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Date of Report (Date of earliest

More information

Sub: Filing of Reconciliation of share capital for the quarter ended September 30, 2018

Sub: Filing of Reconciliation of share capital for the quarter ended September 30, 2018 I N D I A Tl F in an c ial H o ld in g s L im ite d (F o rm e rly k n o w n as T u b e In v e s tm e n ts o f In d ia L im ite d ) Dare House, 234, N.S.C. Bose Road, Chennai 600 001, India Tel: 91.44.4217

More information

NATO and Canada, : The Tight-Lipped Ally

NATO and Canada, : The Tight-Lipped Ally Canadian Military History Volume 24 Issue 2 Article 9 11-23-2015 NATO and Canada, 1990-1993: The Tight-Lipped Ally Ian Weatherall Recommended Citation Ian Weatherall (2015) "NATO and Canada, 1990-1993:

More information

REFUGEE AND FORCED MIGRATION STUDIES

REFUGEE AND FORCED MIGRATION STUDIES THE OXFORD HANDBOOK OF REFUGEE AND FORCED MIGRATION STUDIES Edited by ELENA FIDDIAN-QASMIYEH GIL LOESCHER KATY LONG NANDO SIGONA OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS C o n t e n t s List o f Abbreviations List o f

More information

WSFS Financial Corporation (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

WSFS Financial Corporation (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20549 FORM 8-K CURRENT REPORT Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 September 18, 2018 Date of Report

More information

Form 8-K. Piedmont Office Realty Trust, Inc. (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Form 8-K. Piedmont Office Realty Trust, Inc. (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20549 Form 8-K CURRENT REPORT Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Date of Report (Date of earliest event

More information

A BEGRIFFSSCHRIFT FOR SENTENTIAL LOGIC. John EVENDEN 1. INTRODUCTION

A BEGRIFFSSCHRIFT FOR SENTENTIAL LOGIC. John EVENDEN 1. INTRODUCTION A BEGRIFFSSCHRIFT FOR SENTENTIAL LOGIC John EVENDEN 1. INTRODUCTION The title of this essay is probably a misnomer, but the aim is to achieve f o r sentential lo g ic something v e ry simila r t o Frege's

More information

Information System Desig

Information System Desig n IT60105 Lecture 7 Unified Modeling Language Lecture #07 Unified Modeling Language Introduction to UML Applications of UML UML Definition Learning UML Things in UML Structural Things Behavioral Things

More information

M. H. DALAL & ASSOCIATES C H ARTERED ACCOUNTANTS

M. H. DALAL & ASSOCIATES C H ARTERED ACCOUNTANTS M. H. DALAL & ASSOCIATES C H ARTERED ACCOUNTANTS 301/308, Balaji D arshan, Tilak R oad, Santacruz (W ), M um bai - 400 054. Phone : 26494807 : 26490862 E-m ail: m hdalal@ gm ail.com W ebsite: w w w.dalalgroup.in

More information

High Capacity Double Pillar Fully Automatic Bandsaw. p h a r o s 2 8 0

High Capacity Double Pillar Fully Automatic Bandsaw. p h a r o s 2 8 0 High Capacity Double Pillar Fully Automatic Bandsaw p h a r o s 2 8 0 A high-quality product from German mechanical engineering pharos - a beacon amongst automatic bandsaws Klaeger has been a leading manufacturer

More information

THE FOURTH AMENDMENT IN AN ERA OF UBIQUITOUS TECHNOLOGY

THE FOURTH AMENDMENT IN AN ERA OF UBIQUITOUS TECHNOLOGY FILE:C:\ Dec 12/13/05 Tue 12:49PM THE FOURTH AMENDMENT IN AN ERA OF UBIQUITOUS TECHNOLOGY Susan W. Brenner * I. PRIVACY We must think through the way technology changes what is private, and develop new

More information

LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses

LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses Louisiana State University LSU Digital Commons LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses Graduate School 1976 Infestation of Root Nodules of Soybean by Larvae of the Bean Leaf Beetle, Cerotoma Trifurcata

More information

INCOME TAXES IN ALONG-TERMMACROECONOMETRIC FORECASTING MODEL. Stephen H. Pollock

INCOME TAXES IN ALONG-TERMMACROECONOMETRIC FORECASTING MODEL. Stephen H. Pollock INCOME TAXES IN ALONG-TERMMACROECONOMETRIC FORECASTING MODEL. by Stephen H. Pollock Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland in partial fulfillment of

More information

Model Checking. Automated Verification of Computational Systems

Model Checking. Automated Verification of Computational Systems Model Checking Automated Verification of Computational Systems Madhavan Mukund T h e A C M T u r in g A w a r d fo r 2 0 0 7 w a s a w a r d e d t o C la r k e, E m e r s o n a n d S ifa k is fo r t h

More information

MOTC: An Interactive Aid for Multidimensional Hypothesis Generatio

MOTC: An Interactive Aid for Multidimensional Hypothesis Generatio University of Pennsylvania ScholarlyCommons Operations, Information and Decisions Papers Wharton Faculty Research 1999 MOTC: An Interactive Aid for Multidimensional Hypothesis Generatio Krishnamohan Balachandran

More information

MONTHLY REVIEW. f C r e d i t a n d B u s i n e s s C o n d i t i o n s F E D E R A L R E S E R V E B A N K O F N E W Y O R K MONEY MARKET IN JUNE

MONTHLY REVIEW. f C r e d i t a n d B u s i n e s s C o n d i t i o n s F E D E R A L R E S E R V E B A N K O F N E W Y O R K MONEY MARKET IN JUNE MONTHLY REVIEW O f C r e d i t a n d B u s i n e s s C o n d i t i o n s F E D E R A L R E S E R V E B A N K O F N E W Y O R K V o l u m e 38 J U L Y 1956 No. 7 P re s su re s o n m e m b e r b a n k re

More information

Houston Division of Kroger Food Stores and Retail Clerks Union, AFL-CIO, Local 455 (1971)

Houston Division of Kroger Food Stores and Retail Clerks Union, AFL-CIO, Local 455 (1971) Cornell University ILR School DigitalCommons@ILR Retail and Education Collective Bargaining Agreements - U.S. Department of Labor Collective Bargaining Agreements 9-9-1971 Houston Division of Kroger Food

More information

SCHOOLS DIVISION OFFICE OF KABANKALAN CITY

SCHOOLS DIVISION OFFICE OF KABANKALAN CITY D e fje D DEPARTMENT \ g OF EDUCATION Republic of the Philippines Department o f Education Negros Island Region SCHOOLS DIVISION OFFICE OF KABANKALAN CITY City o f Kabankalan Tel.No (034) 471-2003 Fax

More information

Computer Games as a Pedagogical Tool in Education. Ken Maher B.Sc. School of Computer Applications, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9.

Computer Games as a Pedagogical Tool in Education. Ken Maher B.Sc. School of Computer Applications, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9. Computer Games as a Pedagogical Tool in Education By Ken Maher B.Sc. School of Computer Applications, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9. / / Supervisor: Dr Micheál O heigeartaigh A Dissertation

More information

C o v. R o c k e f e l l e r W i l l S e e k S o m e S t a t e A g e n c y R e o r g a n i z a t i o n

C o v. R o c k e f e l l e r W i l l S e e k S o m e S t a t e A g e n c y R e o r g a n i z a t i o n ? 7 f/.l - C ^ f y 2 ^ l i ^ A T ^ l E R America*M Largest Weekly for Public tmpioyeea V ol. X X X, N o. 1 7 T u e s d a y, J a n u a r y 2, 1 9 6 8 ' P r ic # T e a C e n t* E l i g i b l e L i s t s

More information

THE FOURTH AMENDMENT AND THE FALLACY OF COMPOSITION: DETERMINACY VERSUS LEGITIMACY IN A REGIME OF BRIGHT-LINE RULES

THE FOURTH AMENDMENT AND THE FALLACY OF COMPOSITION: DETERMINACY VERSUS LEGITIMACY IN A REGIME OF BRIGHT-LINE RULES FILE:C:WP51\74-2\DRIPP.DTP Jul 07/21/05 Thu 10:09AM THE FOURTH AMENDMENT AND THE FALLACY OF COMPOSITION: DETERMINACY VERSUS LEGITIMACY IN A REGIME OF BRIGHT-LINE RULES Donald A. Dripps * The language of

More information

heliozoan Zoo flagellated holotrichs peritrichs hypotrichs Euplots, Aspidisca Amoeba Thecamoeba Pleuromonas Bodo, Monosiga

heliozoan Zoo flagellated holotrichs peritrichs hypotrichs Euplots, Aspidisca Amoeba Thecamoeba Pleuromonas Bodo, Monosiga Figures 7 to 16 : brief phenetic classification of microfauna in activated sludge The considered taxonomic hierarchy is : Kingdom: animal Sub kingdom Branch Class Sub class Order Family Genus Sub kingdom

More information

Photo. EPRI s Power System and Railroad Electromagnetic Compatibility Handbook

Photo. EPRI s Power System and Railroad Electromagnetic Compatibility Handbook Photo EPRI s Power System and Railroad Electromagnetic Compatibility Handbook Brian Cramer Project Manager Transmission and Substations bcramer@epri.com 815/478-5344 Problem Periodic false activation of

More information

Privacy Laws. B usiness. j2, i. in this issue. data protection and privacy worldwide. No. 35 Jitme 1996

Privacy Laws. B usiness. j2, i. in this issue. data protection and privacy worldwide. No. 35 Jitme 1996 Privacy Laws B usiness data protection and privacy worldwide No. 35 Jitme 1996 For many years, Italy and Greece have lagged behind other European Union Member States in terms of adopting a comprehensive

More information

O p e r a t in g R a t i o s o f S i x t h D i s t r i c t M e m b e r B a n k s f o r

O p e r a t in g R a t i o s o f S i x t h D i s t r i c t M e m b e r B a n k s f o r V o l u m e X X V I A t l a n t a, G e o r g i a, M a r c h 3 1, 1 9 4 1 N u m b e r 3 O p e r a t g R a t i o s o f S i x t h D i s t r i c t M e m b e r B a n k s f o r 1 9 4 0 O n th e c e n t e r p

More information

STUDIA ORIGIN ALIA 2 UNISA 1988

STUDIA ORIGIN ALIA 2 UNISA 1988 STUDIA ORIGIN ALIA 2 UNISA 1988 Power and beliefs in South Africa Economic potency structures in South Africa and their interaction with patterns of conviction in the light of a Christian ethic Klaus Niirnberger

More information

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION WASHINGTON, DC FORM 8-K CURRENT REPORT

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION WASHINGTON, DC FORM 8-K CURRENT REPORT UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION WASHINGTON, DC 20549 FORM 8-K CURRENT REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Date of report (Date of earliest event

More information

7.2 P rodu c t L oad/u nload Sy stem s

7.2 P rodu c t L oad/u nload Sy stem s 7.2 P rodu c t L oad/u nload Sy stem s The 10" or 12" augers, or the 10" conveyor are high capacity load/unload systems with hydraulic controls to manoeuvre and operate. The hydraulic assist allows the

More information

A new ThermicSol product

A new ThermicSol product A new ThermicSol product Double-Faced Thermo-Electric Solar-Panel TD/PV & Solar Tracker & Rotation Device An EU-patent protected product TP4-referens.pdf D o y o u w a n t to c o n v e rt it i n to G re

More information

SINTERING AND CHARACTERISATION OF NANO SIZED YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA. P r e p a r e d b y. Muhammad Hasanuzzaman, B.Sc. (Eng)

SINTERING AND CHARACTERISATION OF NANO SIZED YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA. P r e p a r e d b y. Muhammad Hasanuzzaman, B.Sc. (Eng) SINTERING AND CHARACTERISATION OF NANO SIZED YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA P r e p a r e d b y Muhammad Hasanuzzaman, B.Sc. (Eng) A T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d f o r t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h

More information

Beechwood Music Department Staff

Beechwood Music Department Staff Beechwood Music Department Staff MRS SARAH KERSHAW - HEAD OF MUSIC S a ra h K e rs h a w t r a i n e d a t t h e R oy a l We ls h C o l le g e of M u s i c a n d D ra m a w h e re s h e ob t a i n e d

More information

Totals Calendar Year 2017, Northern Lights College Measure :cope 1 (Direct) Emissions Mobile Litres Combustion (Fleet) Quantity 49,735.23 112.40 Greenhouse Gases in Tonnes BioC02 3.93 0.01 0.03 124.49

More information

Capacitor Discharge called CD welding

Capacitor Discharge called CD welding TROUBLE SHOOTING OF STUD WELDING (EQUPMENT) We see several time, that the two main principles of Studwelding are mixed up therefor I will start to repeat short the welding methods. Capacitor Discharge

More information

GAOMEI AUTO FLOOR SLUBBER SERIES ^ CREATIVE FOR YOU

GAOMEI AUTO FLOOR SLUBBER SERIES ^ CREATIVE FOR YOU GAOMEI AUTO FLOOR SLUBBER SERIES ^ CREATIVE FOR YOU WE ARE DEDICATED TO PRODUCTION OF THE OPTIMAL COST-EFFECTIVE CLEANING EQUIPMENT CREATIVE FOR YOU H e fe i G A O M E I C le a n in g E q u ip m e n t

More information

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MHD-PROBLEMS ON THE BASIS OF VARIATIONAL APPROACH

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MHD-PROBLEMS ON THE BASIS OF VARIATIONAL APPROACH NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MHD-PROBLEMS ON THE BASIS OF VARIATIONAL APPROACH V.M. G o lo v izn in, A.A. Sam arskii, A.P. Favor s k i i, T.K. K orshia In s t it u t e o f A p p lie d M athem atics,academy

More information

R e p u b lic o f th e P h ilip p in e s. R e g io n V II, C e n tra l V isa y a s. C ity o f T a g b ila ran

R e p u b lic o f th e P h ilip p in e s. R e g io n V II, C e n tra l V isa y a s. C ity o f T a g b ila ran R e p u b lic o f th e P h ilip p in e s D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T IO N R e g io n V II, C e n tra l V isa y a s D IV IS IO N O F B O H O L C ity o f T a g b ila ran S e p te m b e r 2 8, 2 0

More information

Taiwan Radio Occultation Process System (TROPS)

Taiwan Radio Occultation Process System (TROPS) Taiwan Radio Occultation Process System (TROPS) Cheng-Yung Huang, Wen-Hao Yeh, Kun-Lin Chen National Space Organization, National Applied Research Laboratories Shu-Ya Chen, Jing-Mei Wu, Hsiu-Wen Li, Kuo-Hsin

More information

@ *?? ^ % ^ J*

@ *?? ^ % ^ J* M A R IN E & O F F S H O R E C A B L E S m m @ B O g g B @ *?? @-@ ^ % ^ - @* J* M a r in e a n d o ffs h o re s ta n d a rd s a n d te s ts IE C 6 0 0 9 2-3 50 \ le ctrica l in sta llatio n s in s h ip

More information

Woolley Retires as Township Official Honored in Resolution for Service Querns Likely Successor,

Woolley Retires as Township Official Honored in Resolution for Service Querns Likely Successor, T h e Co a st Ad v e r t ise r Mon Co Hist. Assoc 7 0 Court St Freehold, N.J. (Established 1892) Fifty-First Year, No. BELMAR, NEW JERSEY, FRIDAY, JULY 30, 1943 Single Copy Four Cents Here and There...

More information

Dentists incomes, fees, practice costs, and the Economic Stabilization Act: to 1976

Dentists incomes, fees, practice costs, and the Economic Stabilization Act: to 1976 HE A S S O C IA T IO N Dentists incomes, fees, practice costs, and the Economic Stabilization Act: 19 52 to 1976 B u r e a u o f E c o n o m ic a n d B e h a v io r a l R e s e a r c h D a r i n g th e

More information

Software Architecture. CSC 440: Software Engineering Slide #1

Software Architecture. CSC 440: Software Engineering Slide #1 Software Architecture CSC 440: Software Engineering Slide #1 Topics 1. What is software architecture? 2. Why do we need software architecture? 3. Architectural principles 4. UML package diagrams 5. Software

More information

APPLICATION INSTRUC TIONS FOR THE

APPLICATION INSTRUC TIONS FOR THE APPLICATION INSTRUC TIONS FOR THE CHESS/ CHECKERBOARD Using the Che ss, Che c ke rs a nd Bo rd e rs: (SMALL), Pro duc t Numb e r: 11-1W-009 SIZE: a p p ro xima te ly 10 fe e t e a c h sid e ESTIMATED PAINT

More information

Memorial to William Taylor Thom, Jr.

Memorial to William Taylor Thom, Jr. Memorial to William Taylor Thom, Jr. 1891-1979 S H E L D O N J U D S O N Department o f Geological and Geophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 W illia m T a y lo r T h o

More information

Comparative Analyses of Teacher Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior in a Traditional and an Openspace

Comparative Analyses of Teacher Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior in a Traditional and an Openspace East Tennessee State University Digital Commons @ East Tennessee State University Electronic Theses and Dissertations June 1975 Comparative Analyses of Teacher Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior in a Traditional

More information

S o b re o T e rm o. Am b ie n te s d e Mid d le w a re , % - n s c in.u fp e.b r ! " " # $ % & ' " #

S o b re o T e rm o. Am b ie n te s d e Mid d le w a re , % - n s c in.u fp e.b r !   # $ % & '  # S o b re o T e rm o Am b ie n te s d e Mid d le w a re N e ls o n S R o s a n s r@ c in u fp e b r C o n c e ito s B á s ic o s - R e d e s C o n c e ito s B á s ic o s - S D! %! % ' * * * * * & C o n

More information

FULL REQUIREMENTS; JOBS SECURE, PERMANENT

FULL REQUIREMENTS; JOBS SECURE, PERMANENT I n I...C U r o r c e s See Page 2 Y^rk, September 14, 1943 Price Five Cents s FULL REQUIREMENTS; JOBS SECURE, PERMANENT R A D IO W R I T E R S - S T E N O S - B O O K K E E P E R S - O T H E R S A l s

More information

Olivet College Fifteenth Annual Catalog

Olivet College Fifteenth Annual Catalog Olivet Nazarene University Digital Commons @ Olivet Catalog Academic Affairs Office 1923 Olivet College Fifteenth Annual Catalog 1923-1924 Olivet Nazarene University Olivet Nazarene University Follow this

More information

A Comparison of Two Methods of Teaching Computer Programming to Secondary Mathematics Students.

A Comparison of Two Methods of Teaching Computer Programming to Secondary Mathematics Students. Louisiana State University LSU Digital Commons LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses Graduate School 1983 A Comparison of Two Methods of Teaching Computer Programming to Secondary Mathematics Students.

More information

Section 1: 8 K (AMJ Q4 FY15 POWERPOINT)

Section 1: 8 K (AMJ Q4 FY15 POWERPOINT) Go to... Toggle SGML Header (+) Section 1: 8 K (AMJ Q4 FY15 POWERPOINT) UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20549 FORM 8 K CURRENT REPORT Pursuant to Section 13 OR 15(d) of

More information

THE EFFECT Of SUSPENSION CASTING ON THE HOT WORKABILITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF A IS I TYPE STAINLESS STEEL

THE EFFECT Of SUSPENSION CASTING ON THE HOT WORKABILITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF A IS I TYPE STAINLESS STEEL THE EFFECT Of SUSPENSION CASTING ON THE HOT WORKABILITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF A IS I TYPE 3 1 0 STAINLESS STEEL A LISTAIR GEORGE SANGSTER FORBES A D i s s e r t a t i o n s u b m i tte d t o th

More information

Breakup of weakly bound nuclei and its influence on fusion. Paulo R. S. Gomes Univ. Fed. Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, Brazil

Breakup of weakly bound nuclei and its influence on fusion. Paulo R. S. Gomes Univ. Fed. Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, Brazil Breakup of weakly bound nuclei and its influence on fusion Paulo R. S. Gomes Univ. Fed. Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, Brazil Forum Brasil-JINR Dubna, June, 2015 For a comprehensive review of this subject

More information

O In Chapter 2, you graphed and analyzed power, polynomial, and rational functions.

O In Chapter 2, you graphed and analyzed power, polynomial, and rational functions. O In Chapter 2, you graphed and analyzed power, polynomial, and rational functions. O In Chapter 3, you will: Evaluate, analyze, and graph exponential and logarithmic functions. Apply properties of logarithms.

More information

Dangote Flour Mills Plc

Dangote Flour Mills Plc SUMMARY OF OFFER Opening Date 6 th September 27 Closing Date 27 th September 27 Shares on Offer 1.25bn Ord. Shares of 5k each Offer Price Offer Size Market Cap (Post Offer) Minimum Offer N15. per share

More information

A Study of Attitude Changes of Selected Student- Teachers During the Student-Teaching Experience.

A Study of Attitude Changes of Selected Student- Teachers During the Student-Teaching Experience. Louisiana State University LSU Digital Commons LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses Graduate School 1973 A Study of Attitude Changes of Selected Student- Teachers During the Student-Teaching Experience.

More information

An Improved Fission Product Pressure Model for Use in the Venus-II Disassembly Code

An Improved Fission Product Pressure Model for Use in the Venus-II Disassembly Code Brigham Young University BYU ScholarsArchive All Theses and Dissertations 1976-4 An Improved Fission Product Pressure Model for Use in the Venus-II Disassembly Code Ray Leland Jensen Brigham Young University

More information

Software Process Models there are many process model s in th e li t e ra t u re, s om e a r e prescriptions and some are descriptions you need to mode

Software Process Models there are many process model s in th e li t e ra t u re, s om e a r e prescriptions and some are descriptions you need to mode Unit 2 : Software Process O b j ec t i ve This unit introduces software systems engineering through a discussion of software processes and their principal characteristics. In order to achieve the desireable

More information