# Newton s Laws of Motion

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1 Chapter 4 Newton s Laws of Motion PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Thirteenth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by Wayne Anderson

2 Goals for Chapter 4 To understand the meaning of force in physics To view force as a vector and learn how to combine forces To understand the behavior of a body on which the forces balance: Newton s First Law of Motion To learn the relationship between mass, acceleration, and force: Newton s Second Law of Motion To relate mass and weight To see the effect of action-reaction pairs: Newton s Third Law of Motion To learn to make free-body diagrams

3 Introduction We ve studied motion in one, two, and three dimensions but what causes motion? This causality was first understood in the late 1600s by Sir Isaac Newton. Newton formulated three laws governing moving objects, which we call Newton s laws of motion. Newton s laws were deduced from huge amounts of experimental evidence. The laws are simple to state but intricate in their application.

4 What are some properties of a force?

5 There are four common types of forces The normal force: When an object pushes on a surface, the surface pushes back on the object perpendicular to the surface. This is a contact force. Friction force: This force occurs when a surface resists sliding of an object and is parallel to the surface. Friction is a contact force.

6 There are four common types of forces II Tension force: A pulling force exerted on an object by a rope or cord. This is a contact force. Weight: The pull of gravity on an object. This is a longrange force.

7 What are the magnitudes of common forces?

8 Drawing force vectors Figure 4.3 Use a vector arrow to indicate the magnitude and direction of the force.

9 Superposition of forces Figure 4.4 Several forces acting at a point on an object have the same effect as their vector sum acting at the same point.

10 Decomposing a force into its component vectors Choose perpendicular x and y axes. F x and F y are the components of a force along these axes. Use trigonometry to find these force components.

11 Notation for the vector sum Figure 4.7 The vector sum of all the forces on an object is called the resultant of the forces or the net forces. R=F +F +F + = F

12 Superposition of forces Example 4.1 Force vectors are most easily added using components: R x = F 1x + F 2x + F 3x +, R y = F 1y + F 2y + F 3y +. See Example 4.1 (which has three forces).

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16 Newton s First Law Figure 4.9 Simply stated An object at rest tends to stay at rest, an object in motion tends to stay in uniform motion. More properly, A body acted on by zero net force moves with constant velocity and zero acceleration.

17 Newton s First Law II Figure 4.10 In part (a) of Figure 4.10 a net force acts, causing acceleration. In part (b) the net force is zero, resulting in no acceleration. Follow Conceptual Examples 4.2 and 4.3.

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19 When is Newton s first law valid? In Figure 4.11 no net force acts on the rider, so the rider maintains a constant velocity. But as seen in the noninertial frame of the accelerating vehicle, it appears that the rider is being pushed. Newton s first law is valid only in non-accelerating inertial frames.

20 Newton s Second Law Figure 4.13 If the net force on an object is not zero, it causes the object to accelerate.

21 An object undergoing uniform circular motion As we have already seen, an object in uniform circular motion is accelerated toward the center of the circle. So the net force on the object must point toward the center of the circle. (Refer to Figure 4.14.)

22 Force and acceleration The acceleration a of an object is directly proportional to the net force Fon the object.

23 Mass and acceleration The acceleration of an object is inversely proportional to the object s mass if the net force remains fixed.

24 Newton s second law of motion The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. F m a The SI unit for force is the newton (N). 1 N = 1 kg m/s 2

25 Using Newton s Second Law Example 4.4 Refer to Example 4.4, using Figure 4.18.

26 Using Newton s Second Law II Example 4.5 Refer to Example 4.5, using Figure 4.19.

27 Systems of units (Table 4.2) We will use the SI system. In the British system, force is measured in pounds, distance in feet, and mass in slugs. In the cgs system, mass is in grams, distance in centimeters, and force in dynes.

28 Mass and weight The weight of an object (on the earth) is the gravitational force that the earth exerts on it. The weight W of an object of mass m is W = mg The value of g depends on altitude. On other planets, g will have an entirely different value than on the earth.

29 A euro in free fall

30 Don t confuse mass and weight! Keep in mind that the newton is a unit of force, not mass. [Follow Example 4.7: Mass and weight]

31 Newton s Third Law If you exert a force on a body, the body always exerts a force (the reaction ) back upon you. Figure 4.25 shows an action-reaction pair. A force and its reaction force have the same magnitude but opposite directions. These forces act on different bodies. [Follow Conceptual Example 4.8]

32 Applying Newton s Third Law: Objects at rest An apple rests on a table. Identify the forces that act on it and the action-reaction pairs. [Follow Conceptual Example 4.9]

33 Applying Newton s Third Law: Objects in motion A person pulls on a block across the floor. Identify the action-reaction pairs. [Follow Conceptual Example 4.10]

34 A paradox? If an object pulls back on you just as hard as you pull on it, how can it ever accelerate?

35 Free-body diagrams Figure 4.30 A free-body diagram is a sketch showing all the forces acting on an object.

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