If we have a function f(x) which is welldefined for some a x b, its integral over those two values is defined as


 Louisa Willis
 4 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Y. D. Chong (26) MH28: Complex Methos for the Sciences 2. Integrls If we hve function f(x) which is wellefine for some x, its integrl over those two vlues is efine s N ( ) f(x) = lim x f(x n ) where x n = + n x, x. () N N n= This is clle efinite integrl, n it represents the re uner the grph of f(x) in the region etween x = n x =, s shown in the figure elow: The intervl etween two fixe points, n, is ivie into N segments, of length ( )/N ech. Ech term in the sum represents the re of rectngle. As N, the sum converges to the re uner the curve. For the purposes of imensionl nlysis, n integrl hs the units of the integrn times the units of x. This is esy to rememer if you think of s multiplictive fctor with units of x. From the efintion of the erivtive, we cn show tht f(x) = f(), f(x) = f(). (2) Hence, n integrl is the inverse of erivtive opertion. Notice tht the righthnsie of the first eqution oes not involve, the opposite integrl limit. Bse on this, we cn efine n inefinite integrl, or ntierivtive: x f(x ) F (x) such tht F (x) = f(x). (3) Unlike efinite integrl, n ntierivtive is not unique, ut is only efine up to n itive constnt, clle n integrtion constnt. As you my recll from previous mth clsses, integrtion is much hrer thn ifferentition. Once you know how to ifferentite few specil functions, ifferentiting some comintion of those functions just involves strightforwr (though possily teious) ppliction of composition rules. By contrst, there is no generl systemtic proceure for oing n integrl symoliclly. This is clle the ntierivtive prolem. Integrtion often involves mking series of inspire choices, like guessing solution n checking if its erivtive gives the esire integrl expression. Some of the more commonlyuse tricks re summrize elow. 2. Integrtion y prts If the integrn consists of two fctors, n you know the ntierivtive of one of the fctors, you cn integrte y prts to shift the erivtive onto the other fctor. Specificlly, f(x) g [ = f(x) g(x) f g(x). (4) 3
2 Y. D. Chong (26) MH28: Complex Methos for the Sciences The first term on the right hn sie is constnt enoting [f()g() f()g(). The secon term is n integrl, which might e esier to o thn the originl integrl. Juicious use of integrtion y prts is key step for solving mny integrls. For exmple, consier x e x. (5) The integrn consists of two fctors, x n e x ; we hppen to know the ntierivtive of oth fctors. Integrting y prts lets us replce one of these fctors with its ntierivtive, while pplying n itionl erivtive on the other fctor. The smrt thing to o is to pply the erivtive on the x fctor, n the ntierivtive on the e x. Then the first fctor turns into unity: x e x = = [ x ex [ x ex ex 2 ex (6). (7) Whenever we finish oing n integrl, it is goo prctice to oulecheck the result y mking sure the imensions mtch up. Note tht hs units of inverse x, so the integrl on the lefthn sie hs units of x 2. The solution on the right hn sie hs two terms, with units x/ n / 2 ; oth of these re equivlent to units of x 2, which is wht we nee! 2.2 Chnge of vriles Another useful technique for solving integrls is to chnge vriles. Consier the integrl x 2 +. (8) We cn solve this y mking chnge of vriles x = tn(u). This involves (i) replcing ll occurences of x in the integrn with tn(u), (ii) replcing the integrl limits, n (iii) replcing with (/u) u = /[cos(u) 2 u: π/2 x 2 + = = π/2 [tn(u) 2 + Due to the Pythgoren theorem, the integrn reuces to, so x 2 + = u (9) [cos(u) 2 [sin(u) 2 u. () + [cos(u) 2 π/2 u = π 2. () Clerly, this technique often requires some cleverness n/or trilnerror in choosing the right chnge of vriles. 2.3 The Gussin integrl Here s fmous integrl: e x2. (2) The integrn is clle Gussin n is plotte elow for the cse of = : 4
3 Y. D. Chong (26) MH28: Complex Methos for the Sciences The lrger the vlue of, the more nrrowlypeke the curve. Hence, the vlue of the efinite integrl epens on. The integrl ws solve y Crl Frierich Guss in prticulrly rillint wy. If I() enote the vlue of the integrl, [I() 2 is just two inepenent copies of the integrl, multiplie together: [ I 2 () = e x2 [ e y2 y. (3) Note tht in the secon integrl, we hve chnge the ummy lel x (the integrtion vrile) into y, to voi miguity. Now, this ecomes twoimensionl integrl, tken over the entire 2D plne: I 2 () = Next, we chnge from Crtesin to polr coorintes: 2π [ I 2 () = r r φ e r2 = r r e r2 Now, y tking the squre root we rrive t the result e x2 = y e (x2 +y 2). (4) [ 2π φ = 2π. 2 (5) π. (6) One very interesting thing to notice out this result is tht it reltes the two trnscenentl constnts e = n π = , y mens of n integrl. The ppernce of π cn e trce ck to the use of polr coorintes to solve the integrl. (As n sie, when stuying the gmm function, we will come cross the fct tht Γ(/2) = π. This is very closely relte result which likewise reltes e which is incorporte into the efinition of the gmm function n π.) 2.4 Differentiting uner the integrl sign In the previous section, we note tht if n integrn contins prmeter (enote ) which is inepenent of the integrtion vrile (enote x), then the efinite integrl cn itself e regre s function of. It cn then e shown tht tking the erivtive of the efinite integrl with respect to is equivlent to tking the prtil erivtive of the integrn: f(x, ) = f (x, ). (7) 5
4 Y. D. Chong (26) MH28: Complex Methos for the Sciences This is clle ifferentiting uner the integrl sign, n ws originlly invente y Gottfrie Wilhelm Leiniz, one of the inventors of clculus. It cn e pplie s technique for solving integrls, which ws populrize y Richr Feynmn in his ook Surely You re Joking, Mr. Feynmn!. Given efinite integrl I, the technique procees s follows: (i) come up with wy to generlize the integrn, y introucing prmeter, such tht the generlize integrl ecomes function I() which reuces to the originl integrl I for prticulr prmeter vlue, sy =. Then, (ii) ifferentite uner the integrl sign. If you hve chosen the generliztion right, the resulting integrl will e esier to solve, so (iii) solve the integrl to otin I (). Finlly, (iv) integrte this over to otin the esire integrl I(), n evlute it t to otin the esire integrl I. An exmple will mke the ove proceure clerer. Consier the integrl First, (i) we generlize the integrl s follows (we ll soon see why): sin(x) x. (8) sin(x) x e x. (9) The esire integrl is I(). Next, (ii) ifferentiting uner the integrl gives I () = sin(x) e x. (2) Tking the prtil erivtive of the integrn with respect to rought own fctor of x, cncelling out the troulesome enomintor. Now, (iii) we solve the new integrl, which cn e one y integrting y prts twice: Hence, I () = [ cos(x) e x + cos(x) e x (2) = + [ sin(x) e x + 2 sin(x) e x (22) = 2 I (). (23) I () = + 2. (24) Finlly, (iv) we nee to integrte this over. But we lrey know how to o this prticulr integrl in Section 2.2, n the result is A tn (), (25) where A is constnt of integrtion. When, the integrl must vnish, which implies tht A = tn (+ ) = π/2. Finlly, we rrive t the result sin(x) x = I() = π 2. (26) It my seem to you tht figuring out this sequence of steps woul tke n lrge mount of ingenuity. However, when we iscuss contour integrtion, we will see more strightforwr wy to o this prticulr integrl. 6
5 Y. D. Chong (26) MH28: Complex Methos for the Sciences 2.5 Exercises. Consier the step function Θ(x) = {, for x, otherwise. (27) Write own n expression for the ntierivtive of Θ(x), n sketch its grph. 2. Show tht 2π [sin(x) 2 = 3. Clculte the following efinite integrls: π x 2 sin(2x) α x ln(x) e x cos(x) e x x cos(x) e x 2π 4. By ifferentiting uner the integrl sign, solve [cos(x) 2 = π. (28) x2 ln(x). (29) Hint: to generlize the integrl, replce x 2 in the numertor with x. 7
( x) ( ) takes at the right end of each interval to approximate its value on that
III. INTEGRATION Economists seem much more intereste in mrginl effects n ifferentition thn in integrtion. Integrtion is importnt for fining the expecte vlue n vrince of rnom vriles, which is use in econometrics
More information5.4, 6.1, 6.2 Handout. As we ve discussed, the integral is in some way the opposite of taking a derivative. The exact relationship
5.4, 6.1, 6.2 Hnout As we ve iscusse, the integrl is in some wy the opposite of tking erivtive. The exct reltionship is given by the Funmentl Theorem of Clculus: The Funmentl Theorem of Clculus: If f is
More informationIntroduction and Review
Chpter 6A Notes Pge of Introuction n Review Derivtives y = f(x) y x = f (x) Evlute erivtive t x = : y = x x= f f(+h) f() () = lim h h Geometric Interprettion: see figure slope of the line tngent to f t
More informationf a L Most reasonable functions are continuous, as seen in the following theorem:
Limits Suppose f : R R. To sy lim f(x) = L x mens tht s x gets closer n closer to, then f(x) gets closer n closer to L. This suggests tht the grph of f looks like one of the following three pictures: f
More informationFinal Exam Review. Exam 1 Material
Lessons 24: Limits Limit Solving Strtegy for Finl Exm Review Exm 1 Mteril For piecewise functions, you lwys nee to look t the left n right its! If f(x) is not piecewise function, plug c into f(x), i.e.,
More informationx dx does exist, what does the answer look like? What does the answer to
Review Guie or MAT Finl Em Prt II. Mony Decemer th 8:.m. 9:5.m. (or the 8:3.m. clss) :.m. :5.m. (or the :3.m. clss) Prt is worth 5% o your Finl Em gre. NO CALCULATORS re llowe on this portion o the Finl
More informationINTEGRALS. Chapter Introduction
INTEGRALS 87 hpter 7 INTEGRALS Just s mountineer clims mountin ecuse it is there, so goo mthemtics stuent stuies new mteril ecuse it is there. JAMES B. BRISTOL 7. Introuction Differentil lculus is centre
More information4.5 THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS
4.5 The Funmentl Theorem of Clculus Contemporry Clculus 4.5 THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS This section contins the most importnt n most use theorem of clculus, THE Funmentl Theorem of Clculus. Discovere
More informationImproper Integrals. The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, as we ve discussed in class, goes as follows:
Improper Integrls The First Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus, s we ve discussed in clss, goes s follows: If f is continuous on the intervl [, ] nd F is function for which F t = ft, then ftdt = F F. An integrl
More informationSchool of Business. Blank Page
Integrl Clculus This unit is esigne to introuce the lerners to the sic concepts ssocite with Integrl Clculus. Integrl clculus cn e clssifie n iscusse into two thres. One is Inefinite Integrl n the other
More informationConservation Law. Chapter Goal. 6.2 Theory
Chpter 6 Conservtion Lw 6.1 Gol Our long term gol is to unerstn how mthemticl moels re erive. Here, we will stuy how certin quntity chnges with time in given region (sptil omin). We then first erive the
More informationReview of Gaussian Quadrature method
Review of Gussin Qudrture method Nsser M. Asi Spring 006 compiled on Sundy Decemer 1, 017 t 09:1 PM 1 The prolem To find numericl vlue for the integrl of rel vlued function of rel vrile over specific rnge
More informationDefinite Integrals. The area under a curve can be approximated by adding up the areas of rectangles = 1 1 +
Definite Integrls 5 The re under curve cn e pproximted y dding up the res of rectngles. Exmple. Approximte the re under y = from x = to x = using equl suintervls nd + x evluting the function t the lefthnd
More informationCHAPTER 9 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS
CHAPTER 9 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS BASIC CONCEPTS OF DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS LEARNING OBJECTIVES After stuying this chpter, you will be ble to: Unerstn the bsics
More informationHow do we solve these things, especially when they get complicated? How do we know when a system has a solution, and when is it unique?
XII. LINEAR ALGEBRA: SOLVING SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS Tody we re going to tlk out solving systems of liner equtions. These re prolems tht give couple of equtions with couple of unknowns, like: 6= x + x 7=
More informationBasic Derivative Properties
Bsic Derivtive Properties Let s strt this section by remining ourselves tht the erivtive is the slope of function Wht is the slope of constnt function? c FACT 2 Let f () =c, where c is constnt Then f 0
More informationMA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp.
MA123, Chpter 1: Formuls for integrls: integrls, ntiderivtives, nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (pp. 27233, Gootmn) Chpter Gols: Assignments: Understnd the sttement of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus.
More informationChapter 3. Techniques of integration. Contents. 3.1 Recap: Integration in one variable. This material is in Chapter 7 of Anton Calculus.
Chpter 3. Techniques of integrtion This mteril is in Chpter 7 of Anton Clculus. Contents 3. Recp: Integrtion in one vrible......................... 3. Antierivtives we know..............................
More informationB Veitch. Calculus I Study Guide
Clculus I Stuy Guie This stuy guie is in no wy exhustive. As stte in clss, ny type of question from clss, quizzes, exms, n homeworks re fir gme. There s no informtion here bout the wor problems. 1. Some
More informationChapter 6 Techniques of Integration
MA Techniques of Integrtion Asst.Prof.Dr.Suprnee Liswdi Chpter 6 Techniques of Integrtion Recll: Some importnt integrls tht we hve lernt so fr. Tle of Integrls n+ n d = + C n + e d = e + C ( n ) d = ln
More informationChapter Five  Eigenvalues, Eigenfunctions, and All That
Chpter Five  Eigenvlues, Eigenfunctions, n All Tht The prtil ifferentil eqution methos escrie in the previous chpter is specil cse of more generl setting in which we hve n eqution of the form L 1 xux,tl
More informationsec x over the interval (, ). x ) dx dx x 14. Use a graphing utility to generate some representative integral curves of the function Curve on 5
Curve on Clcultor eperience Fin n ownlo (or type in) progrm on your clcultor tht will fin the re uner curve using given number of rectngles. Mke sure tht the progrm fins LRAM, RRAM, n MRAM. (You nee to
More informationSection 4: Integration ECO4112F 2011
Reding: Ching Chpter Section : Integrtion ECOF Note: These notes do not fully cover the mteril in Ching, ut re ment to supplement your reding in Ching. Thus fr the optimistion you hve covered hs een sttic
More informationPolynomials and Division Theory
Higher Checklist (Unit ) Higher Checklist (Unit ) Polynomils nd Division Theory Skill Achieved? Know tht polynomil (expression) is of the form: n x + n x n + n x n + + n x + x + 0 where the i R re the
More informationn f(x i ) x. i=1 In section 4.2, we defined the definite integral of f from x = a to x = b as n f(x i ) x; f(x) dx = lim i=1
The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus As we continue to study the re problem, let s think bck to wht we know bout computing res of regions enclosed by curves. If we wnt to find the re of the region below the
More informationAntiderivatives/Indefinite Integrals of Basic Functions
Antiderivtives/Indefinite Integrls of Bsic Functions Power Rule: In prticulr, this mens tht x n+ x n n + + C, dx = ln x + C, if n if n = x 0 dx = dx = dx = x + C nd x (lthough you won t use the second
More informationLecture 3. In this lecture, we will discuss algorithms for solving systems of linear equations.
Lecture 3 3 Solving liner equtions In this lecture we will discuss lgorithms for solving systems of liner equtions Multiplictive identity Let us restrict ourselves to considering squre mtrices since one
More informationSection 6: Area, Volume, and Average Value
Chpter The Integrl Applied Clculus Section 6: Are, Volume, nd Averge Vlue Are We hve lredy used integrls to find the re etween the grph of function nd the horizontl xis. Integrls cn lso e used to find
More informationEvaluating Definite Integrals. There are a few properties that you should remember in order to assist you in evaluating definite integrals.
Evluting Definite Integrls There re few properties tht you should rememer in order to ssist you in evluting definite integrls. f x dx= ; where k is ny rel constnt k f x dx= k f x dx ± = ± f x g x dx f
More informationVII. The Integral. 50. Area under a Graph. y = f(x)
VII. The Integrl In this chpter we efine the integrl of function on some intervl [, b]. The most common interprettion of the integrl is in terms of the re uner the grph of the given function, so tht is
More informationSection 6.1 INTRO to LAPLACE TRANSFORMS
Section 6. INTRO to LAPLACE TRANSFORMS Key terms: Improper Integrl; diverge, converge A A f(t)dt lim f(t)dt Piecewise Continuous Function; jump discontinuity Function of Exponentil Order Lplce Trnsform
More informationOverview of Calculus
Overview of Clculus June 6, 2016 1 Limits Clculus begins with the notion of limit. In symbols, lim f(x) = L x c In wors, however close you emn tht the function f evlute t x, f(x), to be to the limit L
More informationThe Regulated and Riemann Integrals
Chpter 1 The Regulted nd Riemnn Integrls 1.1 Introduction We will consider severl different pproches to defining the definite integrl f(x) dx of function f(x). These definitions will ll ssign the sme vlue
More informationUsing integration tables
Using integrtion tbles Integrtion tbles re inclue in most mth tetbooks, n vilble on the Internet. Using them is nother wy to evlute integrls. Sometimes the use is strightforwr; sometimes it tkes severl
More informationM 106 Integral Calculus and Applications
M 6 Integrl Clculus n Applictions Contents The Inefinite Integrls.................................................... Antierivtives n Inefinite Integrls.. Antierivtives.............................................................
More informationx ) dx dx x sec x over the interval (, ).
Curve on 6 For , () Evlute the integrl, n (b) check your nswer by ifferentiting. ( ). ( ). ( ).. 6. sin cos 7. sec csccot 8. sec (sec tn ) 9. sin csc. Evlute the integrl sin by multiplying the numertor
More informationPhysics 116C Solution of inhomogeneous ordinary differential equations using Green s functions
Physics 6C Solution of inhomogeneous ordinry differentil equtions using Green s functions Peter Young November 5, 29 Homogeneous Equtions We hve studied, especilly in long HW problem, second order liner
More informationMath 211A Homework. Edward Burkard. = tan (2x + z)
Mth A Homework Ewr Burkr Eercises 5C Eercise 8 Show tht the utonomous system: 5 Plne Autonomous Systems = e sin 3y + sin cos + e z, y = sin ( + 3y, z = tn ( + z hs n unstble criticl point t = y = z =
More informationMATH 144: Business Calculus Final Review
MATH 144: Business Clculus Finl Review 1 Skills 1. Clculte severl limits. 2. Find verticl nd horizontl symptotes for given rtionl function. 3. Clculte derivtive by definition. 4. Clculte severl derivtives
More informationAPPENDIX. Precalculus Review D.1. Real Numbers and the Real Number Line
APPENDIX D Preclculus Review APPENDIX D.1 Rel Numers n the Rel Numer Line Rel Numers n the Rel Numer Line Orer n Inequlities Asolute Vlue n Distnce Rel Numers n the Rel Numer Line Rel numers cn e represente
More informationLinear Inequalities. Work Sheet 1
Work Sheet 1 Liner Inequlities RentHep, cr rentl compny,chrges $ 15 per week plus $ 0.0 per mile to rent one of their crs. Suppose you re limited y how much money you cn spend for the week : You cn spend
More information1 The Riemann Integral
The Riemnn Integrl. An exmple leding to the notion of integrl (res) We know how to find (i.e. define) the re of rectngle (bse height), tringle ( (sum of res of tringles). But how do we find/define n re
More informationSturmLiouville Theory
LECTURE 1 SturmLiouville Theory In the two preceing lectures I emonstrte the utility of Fourier series in solving PDE/BVPs. As we ll now see, Fourier series re just the tip of the iceerg of the theory
More informationBob Brown Math 251 Calculus 1 Chapter 5, Section 4 1 CCBC Dundalk
Bo Brown Mth Clculus Chpter, Section CCBC Dundlk The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Informlly, the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (FTC) sttes tht differentition nd definite integrtion re inverse opertions
More information5.3 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
CHAPTER 5. THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL 35 5.3 The Funmentl Theorem of Clculus Emple. Let f(t) t +. () Fin the re of the region below f(t), bove the tis, n between t n t. (You my wnt to look up the re formul
More informationHow can we approximate the area of a region in the plane? What is an interpretation of the area under the graph of a velocity function?
Mth 125 Summry Here re some thoughts I ws hving while considering wht to put on the first midterm. The core of your studying should be the ssigned homework problems: mke sure you relly understnd those
More informationThings to Memorize: A Partial List. January 27, 2017
Things to Memorize: A Prtil List Jnury 27, 2017 Chpter 2 Vectors  Bsic Fcts A vector hs mgnitude (lso clled size/length/norm) nd direction. It does not hve fixed position, so the sme vector cn e moved
More informationBridging the gap: GCSE AS Level
Bridging the gp: GCSE AS Level CONTENTS Chpter Removing rckets pge Chpter Liner equtions Chpter Simultneous equtions 8 Chpter Fctors 0 Chpter Chnge the suject of the formul Chpter 6 Solving qudrtic equtions
More informationSuppose we want to find the area under the parabola and above the x axis, between the lines x = 2 and x = 2.
Mth 43 Section 6. Section 6.: Definite Integrl Suppose we wnt to find the re of region tht is not so nicely shped. For exmple, consider the function shown elow. The re elow the curve nd ove the x xis cnnot
More informationMathematics. Area under Curve.
Mthemtics Are under Curve www.testprepkrt.com Tle of Content 1. Introduction.. Procedure of Curve Sketching. 3. Sketching of Some common Curves. 4. Are of Bounded Regions. 5. Sign convention for finding
More informationAntiderivatives Introduction
Antierivtives 0. Introuction So fr much of the term hs been sent fining erivtives or rtes of chnge. But in some circumstnces we lrey know the rte of chnge n we wish to etermine the originl function. For
More informationACCESS TO SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURE: MATHEMATICS 1 MATH00030 SEMESTER /2019
ACCESS TO SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURE: MATHEMATICS MATH00030 SEMESTER 208/209 DR. ANTHONY BROWN 7.. Introduction to Integrtion. 7. Integrl Clculus As ws the cse with the chpter on differentil
More informationSection 6.1 Definite Integral
Section 6.1 Definite Integrl Suppose we wnt to find the re of region tht is not so nicely shped. For exmple, consider the function shown elow. The re elow the curve nd ove the x xis cnnot e determined
More informationProperties of Integrals, Indefinite Integrals. Goals: Definition of the Definite Integral Integral Calculations using Antiderivatives
Block #6: Properties of Integrls, Indefinite Integrls Gols: Definition of the Definite Integrl Integrl Clcultions using Antiderivtives Properties of Integrls The Indefinite Integrl 1 Riemnn Sums  1 Riemnn
More informationReversing the Chain Rule. As we have seen from the Second Fundamental Theorem ( 4.3), the easiest way to evaluate an integral b
Mth 32 Substitution Method Stewrt 4.5 Reversing the Chin Rule. As we hve seen from the Second Fundmentl Theorem ( 4.3), the esiest wy to evlute n integrl b f(x) dx is to find n ntiderivtive, the indefinite
More informationReview of basic calculus
Review of bsic clculus This brief review reclls some of the most importnt concepts, definitions, nd theorems from bsic clculus. It is not intended to tech bsic clculus from scrtch. If ny of the items below
More informationImproper Integrals. Type I Improper Integrals How do we evaluate an integral such as
Improper Integrls Two different types of integrls cn qulify s improper. The first type of improper integrl (which we will refer to s Type I) involves evluting n integrl over n infinite region. In the grph
More informationHomework Problem Set 1 Solutions
Chemistry 460 Dr. Jen M. Stnr Homework Problem Set 1 Solutions 1. Determine the outcomes of operting the following opertors on the functions liste. In these functions, is constnt..) opertor: / ; function:
More informationSYDE 112, LECTURES 3 & 4: The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
SYDE 112, LECTURES & 4: The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus So fr we hve introduced two new concepts in this course: ntidifferentition nd Riemnn sums. It turns out tht these quntities re relted, but it is
More information5.7 Improper Integrals
458 pplictions of definite integrls 5.7 Improper Integrls In Section 5.4, we computed the work required to lift pylod of mss m from the surfce of moon of mss nd rdius R to height H bove the surfce of the
More informationAP Calculus AB First Semester Final Review
P Clculus B This review is esigne to give the stuent BSIC outline of wht nees to e reviewe for the P Clculus B First Semester Finl m. It is up to the iniviul stuent to etermine how much etr work is require
More information( ) Same as above but m = f x = f x  symmetric to yaxis. find where f ( x) Relative: Find where f ( x) x a + lim exists ( lim f exists.
AP Clculus Finl Review Sheet solutions When you see the words This is wht you think of doing Find the zeros Set function =, fctor or use qudrtic eqution if qudrtic, grph to find zeros on clcultor Find
More information2 b. , a. area is S= 2π xds. Again, understand where these formulas came from (pages ).
AP Clculus BC Review Chpter 8 Prt nd Chpter 9 Things to Know nd Be Ale to Do Know everything from the first prt of Chpter 8 Given n integrnd figure out how to ntidifferentite it using ny of the following
More informationOverview of Calculus I
Overview of Clculus I Prof. Jim Swift Northern Arizon University There re three key concepts in clculus: The limit, the derivtive, nd the integrl. You need to understnd the definitions of these three things,
More information1 Techniques of Integration
November 8, 8 MAT86 Week Justin Ko Techniques of Integrtion. Integrtion By Substitution (Chnge of Vribles) We cn think of integrtion by substitution s the counterprt of the chin rule for differentition.
More informationset is not closed under matrix [ multiplication, ] and does not form a group.
Prolem 2.3: Which of the following collections of 2 2 mtrices with rel entries form groups under [ mtrix ] multipliction? i) Those of the form for which c d 2 Answer: The set of such mtrices is not closed
More informationWe divide the interval [a, b] into subintervals of equal length x = b a n
Arc Length Given curve C defined by function f(x), we wnt to find the length of this curve between nd b. We do this by using process similr to wht we did in defining the Riemnn Sum of definite integrl:
More informationSection 7.1 Integration by Substitution
Section 7. Integrtion by Substitution Evlute ech of the following integrls. Keep in mind tht using substitution my not work on some problems. For one of the definite integrls, it is not possible to find
More informationChapter 9 Definite Integrals
Chpter 9 Definite Integrls In the previous chpter we found how to tke n ntiderivtive nd investigted the indefinite integrl. In this chpter the connection etween ntiderivtives nd definite integrls is estlished
More informationLECTURE 3. Orthogonal Functions. n X. It should be noted, however, that the vectors f i need not be orthogonal nor need they have unit length for
ECTURE 3 Orthogonl Functions 1. Orthogonl Bses The pproprite setting for our iscussion of orthogonl functions is tht of liner lgebr. So let me recll some relevnt fcts bout nite imensionl vector spces.
More informationCourse 2BA1 Supplement concerning Integration by Parts
Course 2BA1 Supplement concerning Integrtion by Prts Dvi R. Wilkins Copyright c Dvi R. Wilkins 22 3 The Rule for Integrtion by Prts Let u n v be continuously ifferentible relvlue functions on the intervl
More informationThe Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Part 2, The Evaluation Part
AP Clculus AB 6.4 Funmentl Theorem of Clculus The Funmentl Theorem of Clculus hs two prts. These two prts tie together the concept of integrtion n ifferentition n is regre by some to by the most importnt
More informationLab 11 Approximate Integration
Nme Student ID # Instructor L Period Dte Due L 11 Approximte Integrtion Ojectives 1. To ecome fmilir with the right endpoint rule, the trpezoidl rule, nd Simpson's rule. 2. To compre nd contrst the properties
More informationImproper Integrals, and Differential Equations
Improper Integrls, nd Differentil Equtions October 22, 204 5.3 Improper Integrls Previously, we discussed how integrls correspond to res. More specificlly, we sid tht for function f(x), the region creted
More informationChapter 1: Logarithmic functions and indices
Chpter : Logrithmic functions nd indices. You cn simplify epressions y using rules of indices m n m n m n m n ( m ) n mn m m m m n m m n Emple Simplify these epressions: 5 r r c 4 4 d 6 5 e ( ) f ( ) 4
More information4.4 Areas, Integrals and Antiderivatives
. res, integrls nd ntiderivtives 333. Ares, Integrls nd Antiderivtives This section explores properties of functions defined s res nd exmines some connections mong res, integrls nd ntiderivtives. In order
More informationInterpreting Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem
Interpreting Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem Tody, we go further in interpreting the mening of the definite integrl. Using Units to Aid Interprettion We lredy know tht if f(t) is the rte of chnge of
More informationUnit #9 : Definite Integral Properties; Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Unit #9 : Definite Integrl Properties; Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Gols: Identify properties of definite integrls Define odd nd even functions, nd reltionship to integrl vlues Introduce the Fundmentl
More informationTopics Covered AP Calculus AB
Topics Covered AP Clculus AB ) Elementry Functions ) Properties of Functions i) A function f is defined s set of ll ordered pirs (, y), such tht for ech element, there corresponds ectly one element y.
More informationMath 113 Exam 2 Practice
Mth Em Prctice Februry, 8 Em will cover sections 6.5, 7.7.5 nd 7.8. This sheet hs three sections. The first section will remind you bout techniques nd formuls tht you should know. The second gives number
More informationIntroduction. Calculus I. Calculus II: The Area Problem
Introuction Clculus I Clculus I h s its theme the slope problem How o we mke sense of the notion of slope for curves when we only know wht the slope of line mens? The nswer, of course, ws the to efine
More information7.1 Integral as Net Change and 7.2 Areas in the Plane Calculus
7.1 Integrl s Net Chnge nd 7. Ares in the Plne Clculus 7.1 INTEGRAL AS NET CHANGE Notecrds from 7.1: Displcement vs Totl Distnce, Integrl s Net Chnge We hve lredy seen how the position of n oject cn e
More informationINTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATION
INTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATION 5.1 Ares nd Distnces Assume f(x) 0 on the intervl [, b]. Let A be the re under the grph of f(x). b We will obtin n pproximtion of A in the following three steps. STEP 1: Divide
More informationContinuous Random Variables Class 5, Jeremy Orloff and Jonathan Bloom
Lerning Gols Continuous Rndom Vriles Clss 5, 8.05 Jeremy Orloff nd Jonthn Bloom. Know the definition of continuous rndom vrile. 2. Know the definition of the proility density function (pdf) nd cumultive
More informationThe Evaluation Theorem
These notes closely follow the presenttion of the mteril given in Jmes Stewrt s textook Clculus, Concepts nd Contexts (2nd edition) These notes re intended primrily for inclss presenttion nd should not
More informationAdvanced Calculus: MATH 410 Notes on Integrals and Integrability Professor David Levermore 17 October 2004
Advnced Clculus: MATH 410 Notes on Integrls nd Integrbility Professor Dvid Levermore 17 October 2004 1. Definite Integrls In this section we revisit the definite integrl tht you were introduced to when
More informationBefore we can begin Ch. 3 on Radicals, we need to be familiar with perfect squares, cubes, etc. Try and do as many as you can without a calculator!!!
Nme: Algebr II Honors PreChpter Homework Before we cn begin Ch on Rdicls, we need to be fmilir with perfect squres, cubes, etc Try nd do s mny s you cn without clcultor!!! n The nth root of n n Be ble
More informationIntroduction. Calculus I. Calculus II: The Area Problem
Introuction Clculus I Clculus I h s its theme the slope problem How o we mke sense of the notion of slope for curves when we only know wht the slope of line mens? The nswer, of course, ws the to efine
More informationImproper Integrals. Introduction. Type 1: Improper Integrals on Infinite Intervals. When we defined the definite integral.
Improper Integrls Introduction When we defined the definite integrl f d we ssumed tht f ws continuous on [, ] where [, ] ws finite, closed intervl There re t lest two wys this definition cn fil to e stisfied:
More informationWhen e = 0 we obtain the case of a circle.
3.4 Conic sections Circles belong to specil clss of cures clle conic sections. Other such cures re the ellipse, prbol, n hyperbol. We will briefly escribe the stnr conics. These re chosen to he simple
More informationMultiplying integers EXERCISE 2B INDIVIDUAL PATHWAYS. 6 ì 4 = 6 ì 0 = 4 ì 0 = 6 ì 3 = 5 ì 3 = 4 ì 3 = 4 ì 2 = 4 ì 1 = 5 ì 2 = 6 ì 2 = 6 ì 1 =
EXERCISE B INDIVIDUAL PATHWAYS Activity B Integer multipliction doc69 Activity B More integer multipliction doc698 Activity B Advnced integer multipliction doc699 Multiplying integers FLUENCY
More informationUNIFORM CONVERGENCE. Contents 1. Uniform Convergence 1 2. Properties of uniform convergence 3
UNIFORM CONVERGENCE Contents 1. Uniform Convergence 1 2. Properties of uniform convergence 3 Suppose f n : Ω R or f n : Ω C is sequence of rel or complex functions, nd f n f s n in some sense. Furthermore,
More informationMath Calculus with Analytic Geometry II
orem of definite Mth 5.0 with Anlytic Geometry II Jnury 4, 0 orem of definite If < b then b f (x) dx = ( under f bove xxis) ( bove f under xxis) Exmple 8 0 3 9 x dx = π 3 4 = 9π 4 orem of definite Problem
More informationSection 7.1 Area of a Region Between Two Curves
Section 7.1 Are of Region Between Two Curves White Bord Chllenge The circle elow is inscried into squre: Clcultor 0 cm Wht is the shded re? 400 100 85.841cm White Bord Chllenge Find the re of the region
More information10. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES
. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES.. Ares etween curves So res ove the xxis re positive nd res elow re negtive, right? Wrong! We lied! Well, when you first lern out integrtion it s convenient fiction tht s true in
More informationFundamental Theorem of Calculus
Funmentl Teorem of Clculus Liming Png 1 Sttement of te Teorem Te funmentl Teorem of Clculus is one of te most importnt teorems in te istory of mtemtics, wic ws first iscovere by Newton n Leibniz inepenently.
More informationFormulae For. Standard Formulae Of Integrals: x dx k, n 1. log. a dx a k. cosec x.cot xdx cosec. e dx e k. sec. ax dx ax k. 1 1 a x.
Forule For Stndrd Forule Of Integrls: u Integrl Clculus By OP Gupt [Indir Awrd Winner, +9965 35 48] A B C D n n k, n n log k k log e e k k E sin cos k F cos sin G tn log sec k OR log cos k H cot log sin
More informationThe area under the graph of f and above the xaxis between a and b is denoted by. f(x) dx. π O
1 Section 5. The Definite Integrl Suppose tht function f is continuous nd positive over n intervl [, ]. y = f(x) x The re under the grph of f nd ove the xxis etween nd is denoted y f(x) dx nd clled the
More informationf(x) dx, If one of these two conditions is not met, we call the integral improper. Our usual definition for the value for the definite integral
Improper Integrls Every time tht we hve evluted definite integrl such s f(x) dx, we hve mde two implicit ssumptions bout the integrl:. The intervl [, b] is finite, nd. f(x) is continuous on [, b]. If one
More information2.4 Linear Inequalities and Interval Notation
.4 Liner Inequlities nd Intervl Nottion We wnt to solve equtions tht hve n inequlity symol insted of n equl sign. There re four inequlity symols tht we will look t: Less thn , Less thn or
More information