What we know about Fluid Mechanics. What we know about Fluid Mechanics


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1 What we know about Fluid Mechanics 1. Survey says. 3. Image from: What we know about Fluid Mechanics 1. MEB (single input, single output, steady, incompressible, no rxn, no phase change, little heat; good for pipes, pumps; Moody chart; Fanning friction factor versus Re ) 1
2 What we know about Fluid Mechanics 1. MEB (single input, single output, steady, incompressible, no rxn, no phase change, little heat; good for pipes, pumps; Moody chart; Fanning friction factor versus Re ). Fluid Statics ( ; same elevation, same pressure; good for manometers, water in tanks) 3 What we know about Fluid Mechanics 1. MEB (single input, single output, steady, incompressible, no rxn, no phase change, little heat; good for pipes, pumps; Moody chart; Fanning friction factor versus Re ). Fluid Statics ( ; same elevation, same pressure; good for manometers, water in tanks) 3. Math is in our future 4
3 CM3110 Transport Processes and Unit Operations I How do fluids behave? (Ch) 1. Viscosity. Drag 3. Boundary Layers 4. Laminar versus Turbulent Flow 5. Lift 6. Supersonic 7. Surface Tension 8. Curved Streamlines 9. Magnetohydrodynamics Viscosity, A measure of a liquid s resistance to flow water (modest viscosity) honey (high viscosity) 6 3
4 Viscous fluids transmit stress from one location to another. oil honey 7 Momentum Flux Momentum () = mass * velocity vectors Viscosity determines the magnitude of momentum flux z top plate has momentum, and it transfers this momentum to the top layer of fluid v z V V y H v z 0 v z (y) momentum flux Each fluid layer transfers the momentum downward 8 4
5 How is forcetomoveplate related to V? Stress on a ysurface in the zdirection F V v v A H H 0 z y0 z yh v z y (Note choice of coordinate system) (See discussion of sign convention of stress; we use the tensionpositive convention) yz dvz yz F A dy Newton s Law of Viscosity 9 9 stresses at a point in a fluid yz kgm s force kg m / s yz area area s area / Momentum Flux f ê y f A( eˆ eˆ yy yx y x eˆ ) yz z A surface whose unit normal is in the ydirection stress on a ysurface in the ydirection (See discussion of sign convention of stress; we use the tensionpositive convention) in the zdirection yz flux of zmomentum 10 5
6 (p110) Example.1: What are the units of viscosity? dvz yz dy Newton s Law of Viscosity Viscosity, Greek letter mu 11 Viscosity A measure of a liquid s resistance to flow Viscous fluids transmit stress from one location to another. Viscosity is responsible for the development of pressure distributions in laminar flow. 1 6
7 (p110) Example.: How much force does it take to inject a waterlike solution through a 16gauge needle (inner diameter=1.194 mm, L=40mm)? f plunger D p L 13 Need to know: p( Q) From the methods of this course, we shall see that for Newtonian fluids: HagenPoiseuille equation (slow flow through tubes) Q 4 p p R 0 L 8L 14 7
8 In the momentum balance, viscosity appears because it produces a force: all forces f ma Rate of change of momentum Forces (including viscous forces) Inertia 15. Drag F drag The retarding force on an object due to a fluid (retarding implies opposite in direction to the fluid velocity) 16 8
9 . Drag F drag The retarding force on an object due to a fluid (retarding implies opposite in direction to the fluid velocity) Image from: We study how to: Calculate drag, Drag is a consequence of viscosity 1. Calculate velocity. Calculate force on the object surface 3. Calculate the component of that force in the direction of the flow When impossible to calculate, 1. Measure force on model in a wind/water tunnel. Correlate using dimensional analysis 3. Scale up to system of interest Microscopicmomentum balance 17 Without drag, objects of different weights, shapes, fall at the same speed: In 1971, astronaut David Scott conducted Galileo s experiment on the moon as part of Apollo
10 Drag Coefficient, C D True at high speeds C D F 1 v drag A p reference area Image from: Image from: 19 (p117) Example.4: How much faster will a bicycle racer traveling at 40 mph go if she adopts a racing crouch rather than riding upright? CD 1.1 CD CD CD
11 Under what conditions is drag a simple matter of knowing C D? Could vary with: Flow speed Shape Density Viscosity Temperature... C D F 1 v drag A p (i.e., Why is this so? When is this so?) 1 Drag behavior of a sphere (Similar to using the Moody Chart when interested in wall drag in pipes) 11
12 Moody Chart: Data Correlation for Friction in Straight Pipes (Review) 16 Re Moody Chart (image from: Geankoplis) 3. Boundary Layers (BL) Regions near solid surfaces in which viscosity dominates the flow behavior, especially at high speeds 4 1
13 .3 Boundary Layers (BL) BL form at high speeds Regions near solid surfaces in which viscosity dominates the flow behavior, especially at high speeds 5 There is relative motion near the surfaces (viscosity is important); Away from surfaces, the flow is uniform (viscosity is not important; inertia dominates) Newton s Law of Viscosity dvz yz dy 6 13
14 Attached boundary layer near surface Boundary layer detaches angle of attack Source: Illustrated experiments in fluid mechanics: the NCFMF book of film notes, MIT Press, Faith A. Morrison Michigan Tech. U. Why is the surface of a golf ball designed the way it is? 8 14
15 Manipulate boundarylayer separation When the boundary layer is turbulent, it detaches farther back (yielding lower drag) smooth ball rough ball H. Schlichting, Boundary Layer Theory (McGrawHill, NY cover: This image from a simulation of wind blowing past a building (black square) reveals the vortices that are shed downwind of the building; dark orange represents the highest air speeds, dark blue the lowest. As a result of such vortex formation and shedding, tall buildings can experience large, potentially catastrophic forces. (Courtesy of the computational fluid dynamics group at Rowan William Davies and Irwin Inc.) 30 15
16 (p14) Example.5: A new tower hotel, cylindrical in shape and 100 ft in diameter, has been built in a resort town near the sea on the windward side of an island. Hotel guests complain that there are often uncomfortably high winds near several of the entrances to the tower. How do the wind speed and pressure vary with position around the tower and with onshore wind speed? 31 The full NavierStokes is hard to solve; when viscosity is zero, however, it s easy to solve the NS for v and p Viscosity is NOT zero; however, outside the boundary layer, viscosity is not important. Boundary Layers STRATEGY: When away from surfaces, solve for outer (viscosity=0) flow For inviscid flows: v comes from stream function, ; (Diff Eqns) Pressure comes from v and the Bernoulli equation: Bernoulli equation p v z constant along a streamline (see section 8. of our text) 3 16
17 Velocity outside boundary layer Boundary Layers cylinder in uniform flow: (potential flow solution) Pressure outside boundary layer Bernoulli equation R U 1 cos r R v U1 sin r 0 r z p v z constant along a streamline (see section 8. of our text) 33 Boundary Layers in Internal Flow: Entrance flow field in pipe flow Entrance region Boundary layer Fully developed flow (see section 8. of our text) 34 Faith A. Morrison Michigan Tech. U. 17
18 4. Laminar versus Turbulent Flow Laminar versus Turbulent Flow Viscosity dominates Inertia dominates 36 18
19 Reynolds Experiment Viscosity dominates Inertia dominates 37 CM3110 Transport Processes and Unit Operations I How do fluids behave? (Ch) 1. Viscosity. Drag 3. Boundary Layers 4. Laminar versus Turbulent Flow 5. Lift 6. Supersonic 7. Surface Tension 8. Curved Streamlines Advanced 9. Magnetohydrodynamics
20 TakeAway from Today: How do fluids behave? 1. Viscosity. Drag 3. Boundary Layers dvz yz C D dy Fdrag 1 v A Viscous effects within BL; no viscous effects in main stream; Bernoulli equation (like MEB) assumes no viscous effects (outside the boundary layer) 4. Laminar versus Turbulent Flow (we know about this already) p p v z constant along a streamline 39 Viscous stress Viscous effects dominate near walls Inertial effects dominate away from walls TakeAway from Today: How do fluids behave? 1. Viscosity. Drag 3. Boundary Layers dvz yz C D dy Fdrag 1 v A Viscous effects within BL; no viscous effects in main stream; Bernoulli equation (like MEB) assumes no viscous effects (outside the boundary layer) 4. Laminar versus Turbulent Flow (we know about this already) p p v z constant along a streamline 40 0
21 What we know about Fluid Mechanics 1. MEB (single input, single output, steady, incompressible, no rxn, no phase change, little heat; good for pipes, pumps; Moody chart; Fanning friction factor versus Re ). Fluid Statics ; same elevation, same pressure; good for manometers, water in tanks) 3. Math is in our future What we know about Fluid Mechanics 1. MEB (single input, single output, steady, incompressible, no rxn, no phase change, little heat; good for pipes, pumps; Moody chart; Fanning friction factor versus Re ). Fluid Statics ; same elevation, same pressure; good for manometers, water in tanks) 3. Newton s Law of Viscosity (fluids transmit forces through momentum flux) 4. Momentum flux (=stress) has 9 components 5. Drag is a consequence of viscosity 6. Boundary layers form (viscous effects are confined near surfaces at high speeds) 4 1
22 What we know about Fluid Mechanics 8. Sometimes viscous effects dominate; sometimes inertial effects dominate 43 Need one more tool: Control Volume (Ch3) Following fluid particles is complex: It is simpler to observe the flow pass through a fixed volume control volume 44
23 Control Volume A chosen volume in a flow on which we perform balances (mass, momentum, energy) control volume Shape, size are arbitrary; choose to be convenient Because we are now balancing on control volumes instead of on bodies, the laws of physics are written differently 45 Control Volume Mass balance, flowing system (open system; control volume): rate of net mass accumulation flowing in of mass in out steady state 46 3
24 Control Volume Momentum balance, flowing system (open system; control volume): rate of sum of forces net momentum accumulation acting on control vol flowing in of momentum in out steady state momentum momentum F on i flowing in flowing out 0 in the streams in the streams i i i note that momentum is a vector quantity all forces f ma 47 We are ready to try a momentum balance. Tools: Mass balance (mass conserved) Newton s nd law (momentum conserved) Control volume Newton s law of viscosity Calculus 3 (multivariable calculus) 48 4
25 CM3110 Transport I Part I: Fluid Mechanics: Microscopic Balances Professor Faith Morrison Department of Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University 49 5
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