Electricity. From the word Elektron Greek for amber


 Nelson Merritt
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1 Electricity From the word Elektron Greek for amber
2 Electrical systems have two main objectives: To gather, store, process, transport information & Energy To distribute and convert energy
3 Electrical Engineering Subdivisions Communication Computer Systems Control Systems Electromagnetics Electronics Power Systems Signal Processing
4 Where do we find electrical circuits? Communications Radio, internet, telephone, television Data Processing Desktop computers, servers Automobiles displays, sensors, motors Home lighting, heating, appliances Weather Stations wind speed, precipitation, temperature Power Plants moving magnets, transformers Human Body is Polymeric System controlled by Electrical System?
5 Why Study Electrical Engineering in SNU MSE? To know the Basic Knowledge of Electronics So you can understand a little about Electronic System around you To Operate and Maintain Electrical Systems To Communicate with Electrical Engineer Additionally Good Examination Grade
6 Basic Definitions Passive : No Power Gain (Two terminal) Active : Power Gain : Builtin Power Source Passive Component Linear Power Resistor V V = R I or I = P = VI = 2 IR dv R Capacitor I = C 1 2 P = dt 2 CV Inductor di 2 V = L P = 1 2 LI dt NonLinear Diode Active Component Transistor OP amp 1 2 = V R 2
7 Circuit Symbols Battery or Power Supply Resistor Capacitor Switch
8 More Circuit Symbols DC Voltage Supply AC Voltage Supply Open Circuit Closed Circuit Short Circuit DC Current Supply AC Current Supply
9
10 Electrical Current Current  the rate of flow of charge through a conductor Conventional Current Direction of flow of positive (+) charges Electron Current Opposite to that of conventional current Units for Current Amperes Charge of the Electron e = Coulombs 1 A = 1 C/s
11 Effect of Electric Currents on the Body A can be felt A is painful A causes involuntary muscle contractions A causes loss of muscle control A can be fatal if the current last for more than 1 second
12 Current Equation Current in Amperes (A) i = q t Time in Seconds (s) Charge in Coulombs (C) Calculus: i = dq( t dt )
13 dq( t) i( t) = (1.1) dt q ( t) = t i( t) dt + q( t0 t 0 ) (1.2) Figure 1.4 q (t) i (t) t0 : Charge : Current : some initial time at which the charge is known
14 Types of Electricity Static Electricity  no motion of free charges Current Electricity  motion of free charges Direct Current (DC) Alternating Current (AC)
15 Voltage Description Current Description
16 KIRCHHOFF S CURRENT LAW (KCL) The net current entering a node is zero. Alternatively, the sum of the currents entering a node equals the sum of the currents leaving a node. i 1 + i 2  i 3 = 0 i 3  i 4 = 0 i 5 + i 6  i 7 = 0
17 Kirchoff Current Law : Σ I k =0 The sum of current at a node is always zero Parallel Circuit : Constant Voltage V V 1 I = = Z = Z Z Resistor k k k Zk R = 1/ Capacitor C = k R k k C k Σ I k =0 i a  i b + i c  i d = 0 Current Direction + : Inward Direction  : Outward Direction
18 Examples of KCL i a = 4A i b = 2A i c = 8A i a = i b = i c
19 Voltage Voltage : A measure of the potential to move electrons. Sources of Voltage Batteries (DC) Wall Outlets (AC) DC v ( t ) = 9V AC v( t ) = 110V sin(120πt ) Unit of voltage : Volts (V) 1V = 1 Joule per coulomb (J/C).
20 v = ab v ba
21 KIRCHHOFF S VOLTAGE LAW(KVL) The algebraic sum of the voltages equals zero for any closed path (loop) in an electrical circuit.
22 Kirchoff Voltage Law : Σ V k =0 The sum of voltage drop around a loop is always zero Serial Circuit : Constant Current V = IZ Resistor = IZ = k Z k k Z k R = R k Capacitor = k C 1/ k C k Same Current for All Elements Same Volatve for All Elements
23 Rearrangement of Circuit Parallel A, B C D, E, F Serial
24 Power and Energy Power : the rate of energy conversion Units : Watts Equation : p=iv Resistors convert electrical energy into heat energy. p = iv p = iv Power delivered by a battery Power dissipated by a resistor
25 POWER AND ENERGY p = Ri 2 p = vi v 2 p = R Power p ( t) = v( t) i( t) Energy w t = 1 t2 p( t) dt
26 Introduction to Circuit Element  Conductor  Voltage Source  Current Source  Resistor Conductor : The voltage between ends of an ideal conductor is zero regardless of the current through the conductor Short Circuit Note. Open Circuit Ideal Element :
27 Independent Source Constant Voltage Source Constant Current Source Battery, Home Power Specially Designed Circuit Voltage or Current is specified by itself into Circuit.
28 Dependent Voltage Source Τransistor, Amplifier, Electrical Generator Voltage or Current is determined by others in Circuits
29 Dependent Current Source Current through Source is designed as 3v x if v x = 5V Source : 15A Current through Source is designed as 2i y if i y = 5A Source : 10A Many type of real world devices such as Electrical machines Transistor, transformer Amplifier due to Safety & Economics
30 Resistor Equations Ohm s Law: v = ir Resistance: R = ρl A Length in Meters (m) Resistance in Ohms (Ω) Resistivity in Ohmsmeters (Ω m) Crosssectional Area In square meters (m 2 )
31 R = ρl A ρ : resistivity
32 Ohm s law i = Gv G = 1 R G R : conductance : resistance v = ir
33 What is an Insulator? A material that does not allow electrons to flow freely Examples: Wood Plastics Ceramics Amber
34 What is a conductor? A material that allows free electron movement Examples: Aluminum Gold Copper Most Metals
35 What is a semiconductor? A class of materials whose electron conductivity is between that of a conductor and insulator Examples: Silicon Germanium
36 Summary
37 Resistivity for Various Material at 300K Conductors Resistivity Aluminum Carbon (amorphous) Copper Gold Nichrome Silver Tungsten Semiconductors Silicon (divice grade) depends on impurity concentration 108 to 1 Insulators Fused quartz Glass (typical) Teflon >
38 Mechanical Strain Gauge(Resistor)
39 Resistor Color Codes 2 Silver 1 Gold 0 Black 1 Brown 2 Red 3 Orange 4 Yellow 5 Green 6 Blue 7 Violet 8 Gray 9 White Tolerance 5% Gold 10% Silver 20% No 4 th band Prefix giga kilo meg or mega milli micro Abbrevi ation G M k m μ Scale factor nano pico femto n p f
40 INTRODUCTION TO CIRCUITS
41 Kirchoff Current Law : Σ I k =0 The sum of current at a node is always zero Parallel Circuit : Constant Voltage V V 1 I = = Z = Z Z Resistor k k k Zk Kirchoff Law R = 1/ Capacitor C = k R k Kirchoff Voltage Law : Σ V k =0 The sum of voltage drop around a loop is always zero Serial Circuit : Constant Current V = IZ Resistor = IZ = k Z k k Z k k C k R = R k Capacitor = k C 1/ k C k
42 Concept Questions How can you change the resistance of a resistor? How would you determine the resistivity of pencil lead? How would you determine the Number of Electrons in Earth?
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