# 54.1 Definition: Let E/K and F/K be field extensions. A mapping : E

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1 54 Galois Theory This paragraph gives an exposition of Galois theory. Given any field extension E/K we associate intermediate fields of E/K with subgroups of a group called the Galois group of the extension. Many questions about the intermediate field structure of the extension can be thus reduced to related questions about the subgroup structure of the Galois group. Our exposition closely follows the treatment of I. Kaplansky. If E/K is a field extension then E is a field and also a K-vector space. It will be very fruitful to study both the field and the vector space structure of E at the same time. For this reason we consider mappings which preserve both of these structures. Let E be a field. Let us recall that a field automorphism of E is a oneto-one ring homomorphism from E onto E. Equivalently a field automorphism of E is an automorphism of the additive group (E+) which is also a ring isomorphism of E. Clearly the identity mapping on E is a field automorphism of E so the set of all field automorphisms of E is not empty. Besides if and are any two field automorphisms of E then and 1 are automorphisms of the additive group (E+) which are ring isomorphisms from E onto E as well (Lemma 30.16); thus and 1 are field automorphisms of E. Therefore the set of all field automorphisms of E is a subgroup of the group of all automorphisms of the additive group (E+). The group of all field automorphisms of E will be denoted by Aut(E). Thus we use the same notation for the group of additive group automorphisms of E and the group of field automorphisms of E. This is not likely to cause confusion. Anyhow Aut(E) will play a minor role in the sequel. Aut(E) is the collection of mappings from E onto E that preserve the field structure of E. From these field automorphisms we select the mappings that preserve the vector space structure of E. We introduce some terminology. 653

2 54.1 Definition: Let E/K and F/K be field extensions. A mapping : E F is called a K-homomorphism if is both a field homomorphism and a K-vector space homomorphism. A K-homomorphism : E K-isomorphism if F is called a is one-to-one and onto F. A K-isomorphism from E onto E is called a K-automorphism of E. The set of all K-automorphisms of E will. be denoted by Aut K E or by G(E/K). If : E F is a K-homomorphism then (1 E ) = 1 F (see the remarks follow-ing Definition 48.9). since is a field homomorphism and for any k K there holds k = (k1 E ) = k(1 E ) = k1 F = k since is a K-linear transforma-tion. Thus k = k for all k K. Conversely if : E F is a K- homomorph-ism such that k = k for all k K then (ke) = k. e = k(e ) for all k K and e E and thus is a K-linear transformation too. Therefore a field homomorphism : E F is a K-homomorphism if and only if fixes every element of K Lemma: Let E/K be a field extension and let Aut K E be the set of all K-automorphisms of E over K. Then Aut K E is a group. Proof: We have E Aut K E Aut(E) and Aut(E) is a group. Since the composition. two vector space isomorphisms and also the inverse of a vector space isomorphism are vector. space isomorphisms (Theorem 41.10) Aut K E is closed under composition and forming of inverses. Thus Aut K E is a subgroup of Aut(E) Definition: Let E/K be a field extension. The group Aut K E = G(E/K) is called the Galois group of E over K Examples: (a) Let E be any field and let P be the prime subfield of E. Any field automorphism of E fixes 1 E. This implies that fixes each element in P. Therefore any field automorphism of E is a P-automorphism of E and Aut(E) = Aut P (E).. 654

3 (b) The familiar complex conjugation mapping (a + bi a bi where ab ) is an -automorphism of. (c) The mapping : ( 2) ( 2) that maps a + b 2 to a b 2 (where ab ) is a -automorphism of ( 2). (d) Let K be a field and x an indeterminate over K.. Then K(x) is an extension field of K.. If a K then ax is transcendental over K and by Theorem the mapping a : K(x) K(x) given by f(x)/g(x) f(ax)/g(ax) is a field automorphism of K(x). It is easy to see that a is in fact a K-automorphism of K(x). Likewise for any b K the mapping b : K(x) K(x) given by. f(x)/g(x) f(x + b)/g(x + b) is a K-automorphism of K(x). As x a b = (ax) b = a(x + b) ax + b = (x + b) a = x b a unless a b 0 we see that Aut K K(x) is a nonabelian group. 1 or We find Aut K K(x). In the following y and z are two additional distinct indeterminates over K. Let u be an arbitrary element in K(x)\K say u = p(x)/q(x) where p(x) and q(x) are relatively prime polynomials in K[x] and q(x) 0. We claim that u is transcendental over K and K(x) is finite dimensional (hence algebraic) over K(u). We prove the first claim viz. that u is transcendental over K. If u were algebraic over K then u would have a minimal polynomial H(y) = y k + c k 1 y k c 1 y + c 0 K[y] over K. Then from H(u) = 0 we would get (p(x)/q(x)) k + c k 1 (p(x)/q(x)) k c 1 (p(x)/q(x)) + c 0 = 0 p(x) k + c k 1 p(x) k 1 q(x) c 1 p(x)q(x) k 1 + c 0 q(x) k = 0 q(x) p(x) k in K[x] and (p(x)q(x)) 1 q(x) is a unit in K[x] so q(x) K u = p(x)/q(x) K[x] H(u) = u k + c k 1 u k c 1 u + c 0 is a polynomial of degree k(deg p(x)) contrary to H(u) = 0. Thus u is transcendental over K. Secondly we prove that K(x):K(u) is finite. Now u = p(x)/q(x). Let us put p(x) = a n x n + a n 1 x n a 1 x + a 0 q(x) = b m x m + b m 1 x m b 1 x + b 0 with a n 0 b m. We note that x is a root of the polynomial F(y) = (b m u)y m + (b m 1 u)y m (b 1 u)y + b 0 a n y n a n 1 y n 1... a 1 y a 0 655

4 in K(u)[y]. Thus x is algebraic over K(u). We see moreover that deg F(y) = max (mn) = max (deg p(x)deg q(x)) because b m u a n 0 as u K. We will show that F(y) is irreducible over K(u). This will imply cf(y) is the minimal polynomial of x over K(u) where 1/c is the leading coefficient of F(y) and so K(x):K(u) = deg cf(y) = deg F(y) = max (deg p(x)deg q(x)). Now the irreducibility of F(y) over K(u). Since u is transcendental over K the substitution homomorphism z u is in fact a field isomorphism from K(z) onto K(u) K(x) (Theorem 49.10). So K(u) K(z) and Theorem 33.8 gives K(u)[y] K(z)[y]. Then F(y) K(u)[y] is irreducible in K(u)[y] if and only if its image F(z) K(z)[y] is irreducible in K(z)[y]. From Theorem 34.5(3) and Lemma we conclude F(z) is irreducible in K(z)[y] if and only if F(z) = q(y)z p(y) is irreducible in K[z][y] = K[y][z]. But F(z) = q(y)z p(y) is certainly irreducible in K[y][z] since q(y)z p(y) is of degree one in K[y][z] and its coefficients q(y) p(y) are relatively prime in K[y] (for p(x) and q(x) are relatively prime in K[x]). Thus we get K(x):K(u) = max (deg p(x)deg q(x)) for any u = p(x)/q(x) in K(x)\K where p(x) and q(x) are relatively prime polynomials in K[x] and q(x) 0. Now let Aut K K(x) and x = u. Write u = p(x)/q(x) as above. Since K(u) = K(x ) = {f(x )/g(x ): fg K[x] g 0} we have u = {f(x) /g(x) : fg K[x] g 0} = {(f(x)/g(x)) : fg K[x] g 0} = (K(x)) = K(x) K K(x)\K and 1 = K(x):K(x) = K(x):K(u) = max (deg p(x)deg q(x)) yields p(x) = ax + b q(x) = cx + d for some abcd K. Here ad bc 0 for ad bc = 0 implies the contradiction u = p(x)/q(x) = (ax + b)/(cx + d) K. Thus every automorphism in Aut K K(x) is a substitution homomorphism that sends x to (ax + b)/(cx + d) for some abcd K satisfying ad bc 0. Conversely if is a substitution homomorphism of this type with x = (ax + b)/(cx + d) abcd K ad bc 0 then (ax + b)/(cx + d) =: u is not in K so u is transcendental over K and is a field homomorphism from K(x) onto K(u). Since ad bc 0 both of a and c cannot be 0 so K(x):K(u) = max (deg ax + bdeg cx + d) = 1 and K(u) = K(x). Hence field homomorphism from K(x) onto K(x). As fixes all elements in K we is a 656

5 infer that is in Aut K K(x). Therefore Aut K K(x) consists exactly of the substitution homomorphisms x (ax + b)/(cx + d) where abcd K and ad bc 0. The next lemma is a generalization of the familiar fact that the complex conjugate of any root of a polynomial with real coefficients is also a root of the same polynomial. In the terminology of 26 if E/K is a field extension. Aut K E acts on the set of distinct roots of a polynomial f(x) over K Lemma: Let E/K be a field extension and f(x) K[x]. If u E is a root of f(x) then for any Aut K E. the element u of E is also a root of f(x).. Proof: If f(x) = i=0 m ai x i then f(u) = 0 implies 0 = 0 = (f(u)) = ( m ai u i ) i=0 m = i=0 (ai )(u i m ) = ai (u ) i = f(u ). Thus u is a root of f(x). i=0 Let E/K be a finite dimensional extension and assume that {a 1 a 2... a m } is a K-basis of E. Then any K-automorphism of E is completely determined by its effect on the basis elements for if and are K- automorphisms of E and a i = a i for i = m then for any a E which we write in the form i=0 m = i=0 m ki (a i ) = i=0 ki (a i ) = i=0 m m ki a i we have a = ( m m ki a i = ( i=0 i=0 m ki a i ) = i=0 ki a i ki a i ) = a. For this reason we will describe the K-automorphisms of E by describing the images of the basis elements. Thus the conjugation mapping will be denoted by i i the mapping of Example 54.4(c) by 2 2 etc. In particular if E/K is a simple extension and a is a primitive element then {1aa 2... a n 1 } is a K-basis of E = K(a). where n is the degree of the minimal polynomial of a over K (Theorem 50.7). Let Aut K E. Since a i 657

6 = (a ) i for any i = n 1. the mapping is completely determined by its effect on a.. Now a is a root in K(a) of the minimal polynomial of a over K. Thus Aut K E r where r is the number of distinct roots in K(a) of the minimal polynomial of a over K.. We proved the following lemma Lemma: Let K be a field. If a is algebraic over K with the minimal polynomial f over K and if r is the number of distinct roots of f in K(a) then Aut K K(a) r deg f = K(a):K Examples: (a) Let 3 2 be the positive real cube root of 2. Thus ( 3 2). We find Aut ( 3 2). If Aut ( 3 2) then 3 2 is a root of the minimal polynomial x 3 2 of 3 2 over. Since the roots of x 3 2 other than 3 2 are complex 3 2 must be 3 2. Thus must be the identity mapping on ( 3 2) and Aut ( 3 2) = 1. (b) = (i). and the minimal polynomial of i over is x which has two roots in. Thus Aut 2. Since the identity mapping and conjugation mapping are -automorphisms of Aut = 2 and we get Aut C 2. Likewise Aut ( 2) C 2. (c) We find Aut ( 2 3). We have ( 2 3) = ( 2)( 3). Here {1 2} is a -basis of ( 2) and {1 3} is a ( 2)-basis of ( 2)( 3) (because x 2 3 is irreducible over ( 2)) hence by Theorem { } is a -basis of ( 2 3). Now any Aut ( 2 3) maps 2 to 2 or to 2 and 3 to 3 or to 3 and there are four possibilities for : (a + b 2 + c 3 + d 6) 1 = a + b 2 + c 3 + d 6 (a + b 2 + c 3 + d 6) 2 = a + b 2 c 3 d 6 (a + b 2 + c 3 + d 6) 3 = a b 2 + c 3 d 6 (a + b 2 + c 3 + d 6) 4 = a b 2 c 3 + d 6 (abcd ). It is easy to see that are indeed -automorphisms of ( 2 3) so that Aut ( 2 3) = { }. Here is the 1 658

7 identity mapping on ( 2 3) and i j = k when {ijk} = {123}. Thus Aut ( 2 3) C 2 C 2 V 4. We now proceed to establish the correspondence between intermediate fields of an extension E/K and subgroups of Aut K E Lemma: Let E/K be a field extension and put G = Aut K E. (1) If L is an intermediate field of E/K then L = { G: l = l for all l L} is a subgroup of G. (2) If H is a subgroup of G then H = {a E: a = a for all H} is an intermediate field of E/K. Proof: (1) Clearly E L so L. If L then l( ) = (l ) = l = l for all l L so L and l = l gives l = l 1 for all l L. so 1 L. Thus L is a subgroup of Aut K E. (In fact L = Aut L E.) (2) Since any H Aut K E fixes the elements of K we have K H. If ab H then a = a and b = b for all H so (a + b) = a + b = a + b a + b H ( b) = (b ) = b b H (ab) = a. b = ab ab H (1/b) = 1/b = 1/b (provided b 0) 1/b H. So H is a subfield of E and therefore H is an intermediate field of E/K. For example in the notation of Example 54.7(c) we have ( 2) = { 1 ( 2 3) = 1 G = Aut ( 2 3) 2 } ( 3) = { 1 3 } ( 6) = { 1 4 } = G and 1 = ( 2 3) { 1 2 } = ( 2) { 1 3 } = ( 3) { 1 } = ( 6) 4 659

8 G =. If E/K is a field extension and H Aut K E then H is called the fixed field of H. Let us consider the four extreme cases of the priming correspondence in Lemma Lemma: Let E/K be a field extension and G = Aut K E. Then (1) 1 = E. (2) E = 1. (3) K = G. (4) G contains K and possibly K G. Proof: (1) 1 = {a E: a = a for all 1} = {a E: a E = a} = E. (2) E = { G: a = a for all a E} = { E } = 1. (3) K = { G: a = a for all a K} = G. (4) Of course K G. From Example 54.7(a) we know that Aut ( 3 2) = 1 so that for the extension ( 3 2)/ we have G = 1 and K = ( 3 2) = 1 = G. Thus G is not always equal to K. E 1 E 1 K G K G Definition: Let E/K be a field extension and put G = Aut K E. If G is equal to K then E/K is said to be a Galois extension and E is said to be Galois over K. Equivalently. E/K is Galois if and only if for any element a of E\K there exists a Aut K E such that a a. It is easy to verify that is a Galois extension of and that ( 2) and ( 2 3) are Galois extensions of. 660

9 54.11 Lemma: Let E/K be a field extension and put G = Aut K E. Let LM be intermediate fields of E/K and let HJ be subgroups of G. If X is an intermediate field of E/K or a subgroup of G we denote (X ) shortly by X. Then the following hold. (1) If L M then M L. (2) If H J then J H. (3) L L and H H. (4) L = L and H = H. Proof: (1) Suppose L M. If M then a = a for all a M and a fortiori a = a for all a L hence L and consequently M L. (2) Suppose H J. If a J then a = a for all J and a fortiori a = a for all H hence a H and consequently J H. (3) If a L then a = a for all L by the definition of L so a is fixed by all the K-automorphisms in L. Hence a is in the fixed field of L and a L. This gives L L. If H then a = a for all a H by the definition of H so fixes every element in H so H. This gives H H. (4) By parts (1) and (2) priming reverses inclusion therefore L L and H H yieldl L and H H. Also using (3) with L replaced by H and H by L we get H H and L L. So L = L and H = H. E 1 E 1 M M H H L L J J K G K G In general L may very well be a proper subset of L and H a proper subset of H. We introduce a term for the case of equality Definition: Let E/K be a field extension and G = Aut K E. An intermediate field L of E/K is said to be closed if L = L and a subgroup H of G is said to be closed if H = H. 661

10 So E is Galois over K if and only if K is closed. Lemma 54.11(4) states that any primed object is closed Theorem: Let E/K be a field extension and G = Aut K E. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the set of all closed intermediate fields of E/K and the set of all closed subgroups of G given by L L. Proof: If L is a closed intermediate field of E/K then L is a subgroup of G by Lemma 54.8(1) and L is closed by Lemma 54.11(4). Thus priming is a mapping from the set of all closed intermediate fields of the extension into the set of all closed subgroups of G. This mapping is oneto-one for L = M implies (L ) = (M ) whence L = M by Lemma 54.11(4) again. Finally the priming mapping is onto the set of all closed subgroups of G because if H is any closed subgroup of G then H is a closed intermedi-ate field and (H ) = H. This completes the proof. This theorem is "virtually useless" until we determine which intermediate fields and which subgroups are closed. In the most important case when E/K is a finite dimensional Galois extension all intermediate fields and all subgroups will turn out to be closed. Our next goal is to show that an object is closed if it is "bigger than a closed object by a finite amount" (Theorem 54.16). We need two technical lemmas. If E/K is a field extension and LM are intermediate fields with L M then the dimension M:L of M over L will be called the relative dimension of L and M. If G is the Galois group of this extension and HJ are subgroups of G with H J then the index J:H of H in J will be called the relative index of H and J Lemma: Let E/K be a field extension and LM intermediate fields with L M. If the relative dimension M:L of L and M is finite 662

11 then the relative index of M and L is also finite. In fact L :M M:L. In particular if E/K is a finite dimensional extension then Aut K E E:K.. Proof: We make induction on n = M:L. If n = 1 then M = L and L = M so L :M = 1. Suppose now n 2 and that the theorem has been proved for all i n. Since M:L 1 we can find an a M\L. Now M:L is finite and therefore M is an algebraic extension of L (Theorem 50.10) so a is algebraic over L. Let f(x) L[x] be the minimal polynomial of a over L and put k = deg f(x). We have k 1 because a L (Lemma 49.6(1)). From Theorem 50.7 we deduce L(a):L = k and Theorem gives M:L(a) = n/k. The situation is depicted below. n/k k M M L(a) L(a) L L In case k n induction settles everything: from n/k n and k n we obtain L(a) :M M:L(a) and L :L(a) L(a):L and therefore L :M = L :L(a) L(a) :M requires a separate argument. L(a):L M:L(a) = k(n/k) = n = M:L. The case k = n Suppose now k = n so that M:L(a) = 1 and M = L(a). In order to prove L :M n we construct a one-to-one mapping from the set of all right cosets of M in L into the set of all distinct roots of f(x). Since has L :M right cosets this will prove that L :M number of distinct roots of f(x) in M. As r theorem will be thereby proved. r where r is the deg f = L(a):L = M:L the What the required mapping should be is suggested by Lemma We put : {b M: f(b) = 0} M a ( L ). Since a is a root of f(x) and L G = Aut K E Lemma 54.5 yields that a is indeed a root of f(x). The mapping is well defined for if M = M ( L ) then = for some M so fixes every element of M so fixes a and (M ) = a = a( ) = (a ) = a = (M ). Moreover is one-to-one for if (M ) = (M ) then a = a so a 1 = 663

12 a so 1 fixes a so 1 fixes each element of L(a) = M so M = M. This completes the proof of L :M M:L. 1 M and The assertion Aut K E E:K follows easily: Aut K E = Aut K E:1 = K :1 = K :E E:K Lemma: Let E/K be a field extension and HJ are subgroups of G = Aut K E with H J.. If the relative index J:H of H and J is finite then the relative dimension of J and H is also finite. In fact H :J J:H. Proof: Let J:H = n and assume by way of contradiction that H :J n. Then there are n + 1 elements in H that are linearly independent over n J say a 1 a 2... a n a n+1. Let H i=1 i be the disjoint decomposition of J as a union of right cosets of H. We consider the system of n linear equations in n + 1 unknowns: (a 1 1 )x 1 + (a 2 1 )x 2 + (a 3 1 )x (a n+1 1 )x n+1 = 0 (a 1 2 )x 1 + (a 2 2 )x 2 + (a 3 2 )x (a n+1 2 )x n+1 = (b) (a 1 n )x 1 + (a 2 n )x 2 + (a 3 n )x (a n+1 n )x n+1 = 0 where the coefficients a i j are in the field E.. Since the number of unknowns is greater than the number of equations. this system (b) has a nontrivial solution in E (Theorem 45.1).. From the nontrivial solutions of (b) we choose one for which the number of zeroes among x i is as small as possible. Let x 1 = b 1 x 2 = b 2 x 3 = b 3... x n+1 = b n+1 be such a solution. Assume r of the b j are nonzero (r n + 1). By the choice of b j there is no solution x 1 = c 1 x 2 = c 2 x 3 = c 3... x n+1 = c n+1 of (b) in which the number of nonzero c j 's is less than r. Eventually after renumbering we may assume that b 1... b r are distinct from zero and (in case n + 1 r) b r+1 =... = b n+1 = 0. Also we may assume that b 1 = 1 for otherwise we may take the solution b 1 /b 1 b 2 /b 1 b 3 /b 1... b n+1 /b 1 instead of b 1 b 2 b 3... b n+1. Of course the number r of nonzero elements in both solutions are the same. Let J. We consider the system: 664

13 (a 1 1 )x 1 + (a 2 1 )x 2 + (a 3 1 )x (a n+1 1 )x n+1 = 0 (a 1 2 )x 1 + (a 2 2 )x 2 + (a 3 2 )x (a n+1 2 )x n+1 = (s) (a 1 n )x 1 + (a 2 n )x 2 + (a 3 n )x (a n+1 n )x n+1 = 0 We make two remarks concerning (s). First since x 1 = b 1 = 1 x 2 = b 2 x 3 = b 3... x n+1 = b n+1 is a solution of (b) and is a homomorphism it is clear that x 1 = b 1 = 1 x 2 = b 2 x 3 = b 3... x n+1 = b n+1 is a solution of (s). Second the system (s) is identical with (b) aside from the order of the equations. To prove the last assertion we note that n are elements of distinct right cosets of H in J for H i = H j implies ( i )( j ) 1 H so i j 1 H so H i = H j so i = j. Let us write then H 1 = H i1 H 2 = H i2 H 3 = H i3... H n = H in so that 1 = 1 i 1 2 = 2 i 2 3 = 3 i... 3 n = n i n for some H (where {i n 1 i 2 i 3... i n } = {12... n}). Thus each k fixes each a m in H and the i -th equation k (a 1 i )x k 1 + (a 2 i )x k 2 + (a 3 i )x k (a n+1 i )x k n+1 = 0 in (b) is identical with (a 1 k i k )x 1 + (a 2 k i k )x 2 + (a 3 k i k )x (a n+1 k i k )x n+1 = 0 and therefore with the k-th equation (a 1 k )x 1 + (a 2 k )x 2 + (a 3 k )x (a n+1 k )x n+1 = 0 in (s). This proves that (b) and (s) are identical systems. Consequently the solution x 1 = 1 x 2 = b 2 x 3 = b 3... x n+1 = b n+1 of (s) is also a solution of (b). Now x 1 = 1 x 2 = b 2 x 3 = b 3... x n+1 = b n+1 is a solution of (b). Hence the difference of these solutions x 1 = 0 x 2 = b 2 b 2 x 3 = b 3 b 3... x n+1 = b n+1 b n+1 i.e. x 1 = 0 x 2 = b 2 b 2... x r = b r b r x r+1 = 0... x n+1 = 0 (c) is a solution of (b). So far was an arbitrary element of J. We now make a judicious choice of. One of the n belongs to H say H so a 1 m 1 = a m because a m H for m = n n + 1. Since x 1 = b 1 x 2 = b 2 x 3 = b 3... x n+1 = b n+1 is a solution of (b) we get a 1 b 1 + a 2 b 2 + a 3 b a n+1 b n+1 = 0 665

14 from the first equation in (b). Here {a 1 a 2 a 3... a n+1 } is linearly independent over J and b 1 = 1 0. Thus all of b 1 b 2 b 3... b n+1 cannot be in J : one of them say b 2 is not in J. So there is a J such that b 2 b 2. We choose J such that b 2 b 2. Then the solution (c) of the system (b) is a nontrivial solution in which the number of zonzero elements is less than r contrary to the meaning of r as the smallest number of nonzero elements in any solution of (b). This contradiction shows that H :J n is impossible. Hence H :J n = J:H Theorem: Let E/K be a field extension and G = Aut K E. Let LM be intermediate fields of E/K with L M and let HJ be subgroups of G with H J. (1) If L is closed and M:L is finite then M is closed and L :M = M:L. (2) If H is closed and J:H is finite then J is closed and H :J = J:H. Proof: (1) Here M M by Lemma 54.11(3) and L = L by hypothesis so M:L M :M M:L = M :L = M :L = (M ) :(L ) L :M M:L the last two inequalities by Lemma and Lemma respectively. This proves L :M = M:L. The proof of (2) is similar and will be omitted. We are now in a position to state and prove the major theorem of this paragraph Theorem (Fundamental theorem of Galois theory): Let E/K be a finite dimensional Galois extension of fields and G = Aut K E. Then there is a one-to-one correspondence between the set of all intermediate fields of E/K and the set of all subgroups of G given by L L. In this correspondence the relative dimension of two intermediate fields is equal to the relative index of the corresponding subgroups. In particular G = Aut K E = E:K.. 666

15 Proof: By Theorem there is a one-to-one correspondence between the set of all closed intermediate fields of E/K and the set of all closed subgroups of G given by L L. Now K is closed (E/K is a Galois exten-sion) by hypothesis and all intermediate fields are closed by Theorem 54.16(1) since they are finite dimensional over K. Moreover if M is any intermediate field then K :M = M:K. In particular E is closed and Aut K E = G = G:1 = G:E = K :E = E:K. Hence G is finite. Since 1 is closed it follows from Theorem 54.16(2) that all subgroups of G are closed because they are finite subgroups of G. Hence the priming mapping is a one-to-one correspondence between the set of all intermediate fields of E/K and the set of all subgroups of G. Theorem tells that the relative dimension M:L of two intermediate fields L M is equal to the relative index L :M of the corresponding subgroups of G and that the relative index J:H of two subgroups H J of G is equal to the relative dimension H :J of the corresponding intermediate fields Examples: (a) Let 3 2 be the real cube root of 2 and consider the extension ( 3 2 ) over. The -automorphisms of ( 3 2 ) are where : : : : : = = = 3 2( 1 ) 6 : = 3 2( 1 ) 2 = 1. Any element u of ( 3 2 ) can be written uniquely in the form u = a + b c d + e f 3 4 where abcdef are rational numbers. We show that ( 3 2 ) is Galois over. To this end we have to show that the fixed field of G is exactly. Since 667

16 (a + b c d + e f 3 4 ) 2 = a + b c (d + e f 3 4) 2 = a + b c (d + e f 3 4)( 1 ) =(a d) + (b e) (c f) 3 4 d e 3 2 f 3 4 we see that an element u = a + b c d + e f 3 4 of ( 3 2 ) is fixed by 2 if and only if a = a d d = d b = b e e = e c = c f f = f. So an element u of ( 3 2 ) fixed by 2 has the form a + b c 3 4. If u is fixed also by 3 then a + b c 3 4 = (a + b c 3 4) = a + b c = a + b c 3 4( 1 ) = a c b 3 2 c 3 4 yields b = 0 c = c c = 0 and so u = a.. Since an element u in the fixed field of G is necessarily fixed by 2 and 3 that u has to be rational. Thus the fixed field of G is. This shows that ( 3 2 ) is Galois over. The multiplication table of G( ( 3 2 )/ ) can be constructed easily. Since = = 3 2 and 2 3 = 2 3 = 2 we have 2 3 = 4 etc. and the multiplication table of G( ( 3 2 )/ ) is

17 So G( ( 3 2 )/ ) is a nonabelian group of order 6 and isomorphic to S 3 as can be easily seen by comparing the table above with the multiplication table of S 3 : (13) (23) (123) (12) (132) (23) (123) (12) (132) (13) (23) (23) (12) (123) (13) (132) (123) (123) (13) (132) (23) (12) (12) (12) (132) (13) (23) (123) (132) (132) (12) (13) (123) (23) (13) (13) (123) (23) (132) (12) The isomorphism G( ( 3 2 )/ ) S 3 can be found in a better way by ob-serving that any automorphism ing( ( 3 2 )/ ) is completely determined by its effect on the roots of x 3 2. The roots of x 3 2 are u 1 = 3 2 u 2 = 3 2 u 3 = Now 2 maps u 1 to u 1 u 2 to u 3 and u 3 to u 2 and can therefore be represented in a readily understood extension of the notation for permutations as ( u 1 u 2 u 3 u 1 u 3 u 2 ) = (u 1 )(u 2 u 3 ) = (u 2 u 3 ). Dropping u and retaining only the indices we see that 2 can be thought of as the permutation (23) in S 3. The other j can be thought of as permutations in S 3 in a similar way and this gives the isomorphism G( ( 3 2 )/ ) S 3. In the multiplication tables above j and its image in S 3 under this isomorphism occupy corresponding places. The subgroup structure of S 3 is well known. The subgroups of S 3 are depicted in the Hasse diagram below (A B means A B)

18 { (23)} { (13)} { (12)} { (123)(132)} = A 3 S 3 So the subgroups of G( ( 3 2 )/ ) are 1 { 1 2 } { 1 6 } { 1 4 } { } G( ( 3 2 )/ ) and priming yields ( 3 2 ) ( 3 2) ( 3 2 ) ( ) ( ). 670

19 (b) Let 4 2 be the real fourth root of 2 and consider the extension ( 4 2i) over. The -automorphisms of ( 4 2i) are 1 where : : : : : : : : i i 4 2 i i 4 2i i i 4 2i i i 4 2 i i 4 2 i i 4 2i i i 4 2i i i. We put 2 = and 3 =. Then o( ) = 2 o( ) = 4 and = 1. Thus G( ( 4 2i)/ ) is a dihedral group of order 8. Since any automorphism in G( ( 4 2i)/ ) is completely determined by its effect on the four roots u 1 = 4 2 u 2 = 4 2i u 3 = 4 2 u 4 = 4 2i of x 4 2 the group G( ( 4 2i)/ ) is isomorphic to a subgroup of S 4. We see = ( u 1 u 2 u 3 u 4 u 2 u 3 u 4 u 1 ) = (u 1 u 2 u 3 u 4 ) and = ( u 1 u 2 u 3 u 4 u 1 u 4 u 3 u 2 ) = (u 2 u 4 ). So G( ( 4 2i)/ ) (24)(1234) = { (13)(24)(12)(34)(13)(24)(14)(23)(1234)(1432)} S 4 by an isomorph-ism 2 = (24) 3 = (1234). The subgroups of G( ( 4 2i)/ ) are 1 {1 } {1 {1 3 } 2 } {1 2 } {1 } 671

20 {1 2 2 } {1 2 3 } {1 2 3 } Aut ( 4 2i) Let us find the intermediate field of ( 4 2i)/ corresponding to {1 2 }. We write u = 4 2 for brevity. We have (u) 2 = (u ) = (ui) = (u. i ) = (ui. i) = ( u) = (u ) = u and (i) 2 = (i ) = (i ) = i = i. Now let abcdefgh and s = a + bu + cu 2 + du 3 + ei + fui + gu 2 i + hu 3 i. Then s 2 = (a + bu + cu 2 + du 3 + ei + fui + gu 2 i + hu 3 i) 2 = a + b( u) + c( u) 2 + d( u) 3 + e( i) + f( u)( i) + g( u) 2 ( i) + h( u) 3 ( i) = a bu + cu 2 du 3 ei + fui gu 2 i + hu 3 i and so s is fixed under 2 if and only if a = a b = b c = c d = d e = e f = f g = g h = h so if and only if b = d = e = g = 0 so if and only if s = a + cu 2 + fui + hu 3 i = a + f(ui) c(ui) 2 h(ui) 3 so if and only if s (ui). Thus the intermediate field of ( 4 2i)/ corresponding to {1 2 } is {1 2 } = (ui) = ( 4 2i). Similar computations yield that the Galois corre-spondence is as in the diagram below where intermediate fields occupy the same relative position as the corresponding subgroups. ( 4 2i) ( 4 2) ( 4 2i) ( 2i) ( 4 2(1+i)) ( 4 2(1 i)) ( 2) (i) ( 2i) 672

21 (c) Let p be a prime number and n p n / p. The mapping : p n a p n a p. We consider the extension is a field homomorphism (Lemma 52.2) and fixes every element in p (Theorem 12.7 or Theorem 52.8). Thus is p -linear and since p n: p is finite is onto p n (Theorem 42.22). So is an p -automorphism of p n. We put G = Aut. We want to show G =. First we prove o( ) = n. p pn From a n = a pn = a for all a p n (Lemma 52.4(2) or Theorem 52.8) we get n = 1 so o( ) n.. On the other hand if m is a positive proper divisor of n then p n has a proper subfield p m with p m elements (Theorem 52.8) and there is a b p n \ p m with b m = b pm b so m 1. So we conclude o( ) = n. Since p n : p is finite we get n = o( ) = G = G:1 = ( p ) :( p n) p n : p = n from Lemma so = G = n and G =. It is now easy to show that p n is Galois over p. We have G = = {a p n : a = a} = p by Theorem 52.8 and thus p n is Galois over p. The Galois correspondence is easy to describe. The subgroups of in one-to-one correspondence with the positive divisors of n and any subgroup H of G is of the form H = (Theorem 11.8). The subfield of p n corresponding to H = m is H = m = {a p n : a m = a} = {a p n : a pm = a} = p m the unique subfield of p n with p m elements. m are p n 1 n/m n/m m p m m m G = p In all these examples we first determined the subgroups of the Galois group and then found the intermediate fields corresponding to them. One can of course reverse this i.e. one can determine the intermediate fields in the first place and then find the subgroups corresponding to 673

22 them. However it is in general more difficult to find all intermediate fields of an extension for it is likely that one overlooks some of them. Also it is more difficult to avoid duplications. For instance in Example 54.18(c) it is not immediately clear where ( 2(1+i)) and ( 2(1 i)) are nor whether ( 2(1+i)) = ( 2(1 i)). It is far easier to list the subgroups than to list the intermediate fields. It is natural to ask which intermediate fields correspond to the normal subgroups of the Galois group of an extension. Also what can be said about the factor groups of the Galois group? We proceed to answer these questions. We need a definition Definition: Let E/K be a field extension and let G = Aut K E be its Galois group.. An intermediate field L of this extension is said to be stable relative to K and E. or to be (KE)-stable if every K-automorphism Aut K E of E maps L into L. In the situation of Definition if L is a (KE)-stable intermediate field then the inverse 1 of any K-automorphism of E also maps L into L. Thus the restriction L to L of any K-automorphism of E is a K-automorphism of L. Thus we have a "restriction" mapping res: Aut K E Aut K L A K-automorphism of L is said to be extendible to E if there is a K- automorphism of E such that = L. Therefore res is a mapping onto the set of all extendible K-automorphisms of L. L Theorem: Let E/K be a field extension.. (1) If L is a (KE)-stable intermediate field. then L is a normal subgroup of the Galois group Aut K E. (2) If H is a normal subgroup of Aut K E then H is a (KE)-stable intermediate field of the extension.. 674

23 Proof: (1) We are to prove that 1 L for all L and Aut K E. Thus we must show that a( 1 ) = a for all a L. Indeed if a L L and Aut K E then a 1 L since L is (KE)-stable so (a 1 ) = a 1 so a( 1 ) = (a 1 ) = (a 1 ) = a. Hence L Aut K E. (2) We are to prove that a H for all a H and Aut K E. Thus we must show that (a ) = a for all H. Indeed if a H H. and so a( Aut K E then 1 H since H Aut K E so a( ) = a. Hence H is (KE)-stable.. 1 ) = a so a( ) 1 = a Theorem: Let E/K be a Galois extension and L an intermediate field. If L is (KE)-stable then L is Galois over K. Proof: For any a L\K we must find a Aut K L such that a a. Since E is Galois over K there is a Aut K E such that a a. Then L Aut K L by stability of L relative to K and E. Thus L can be taken as Theorem: Let E/K be a Galois extension and f(x) K[x] be irreducible in K[x]. If f(x) has a root in E then f(x) splits in E and the roots of f(x) are all simple. Proof: Let a 1 be a root of f(x) in E. We put deg f(x) = n. We want to show that f(x) = c(x a 1 )(x a 2 )... (x a n ) for some elements ca 1 a 2... a n in E. For this purpose we put g(x) = (x a 1 )(x a 2 )... (x a m ) E[x] where a 1 a 2... a m are all the distinct roots of f(x) in E. We know m Theorem n from Any K-automorphism of E maps a root of f(x) to a root of f(x) (Lemma 54.5). Thus the coefficients of g(x) which are symmetric in the roots a 1 a 2... a m of g(x). are fixed by any K-automorphism of E. This shows that the coefficients of g(x) are in E = K. Hence g(x) K[x].. Then f(x) and g(x) are two polynomials in K[x] with a common root a 1 and f(x) is irreducible over K.. Theorem 35.18(1)(3) gives then f(x) g(x) and consequently n = deg f(x) deg g(x) = m.. We have m n also thus n = m. From f(x) g(x) we get then f(x) g(x). So f(x) = c(x a 1 )(x a 2 )... (x a n ) for some c K and the roots a 1 a 2... a n E of are all distinct i.e. all roots of f(x) are simple.. 675

24 The next theorem is a kind of converse to Theorem The result is not necessarily true without the hypothesis that L is algebraic (cf. Ex. 8) Theorem: Let E/K be a field extension and L an intermediate field. If L is algebraic and Galois over K then L is (KE)-stable. Proof: We want to show that a L for any a L and any Aut K E. If a L then a is algebraic over K since L is algebraic over K. Let f(x) be the minimal polynomial of a over K. Then f(x) is a product of n distinct polynomials of degree one in L[x] because L is Galois over K (Theorem 54.22). Thus all roots of f(x) are in L.. Now if Aut K E then a is a root of f(x) hence a L as was to be proved.. Let E/K be a field extension and let L be a (KE)-stable intermediate field of E/K. Let us consider the restriction mapping res: Aut K E Aut K L Since ( ) L = L L for any two K-automorphisms of E we see that res is a homomorphism. Therefore (Aut K E)/Ker res = Im res. Now Im res is the set of all K-automorphisms of L that are extendible to E (hence the set of all K-automorphisms of L that are extendible to E is a subgroup of Aut K E) and Ker res = { Aut K E: L = L } = { Aut E: a = a for all a L} K = L = Aut L E. Hence (Aut K E)/(Aut L E) is isomorphic to the group of all K- automorphisms of L that are extendible to E. We proved the L Theorem: Let E/K be a field extension and L an intermediate field. If L is (KE)-stable then (L = Aut L E is normal in Aut K E and) the quotient group G(E/K)/G(E/L) = (Aut K E)/(Aut L E) is isomorphic to the subgroup of Aut K L consisting exactly of the K-automorphisms of L that are extendible to E. We can now supplement the fundamental theorem by describing the situation with respect to an intermediate field. 676

25 54.25 Theorem:. Let E/K be a finite dimensional Galois extension of fields and G = Aut K E. Let L be an intermediate field of E/K. (1) E is Galois over L.. (2) L is Galois over K if and only if L = Aut L E is normal in G = Aut K E. In this case G/L = (Aut K E)/(Aut L E) is isomorphic to the Galois group Aut K L of L over K. Thus G(E/K)/G(E/L) G(L/K). Proof: Here the hypotheses of the fundamental theorem are satisfied. The fundamental theorem states that any intermediate field of E/K and any subgroup of G is closed. (1) In order to show that E is Galois over L we must prove that L = L that is that L is closed. This follows from the fundamental theorem. (2) E/K is a finite dimensional extension by hypothesis and so L/K is also a finite dimensional extension. Thus L is algebraic over K (Theorem 50.10) If L is Galois over K then L is (KE)-stable by Theorem and so L is normal in Aut K E by Theorem 54.20(1). Conversely if L is normal in Aut K E then L is a (KE)-stable intermediate field by Theorem 54.20(2). Here L = L because all intermediate fields are closed. Thus L is (KE)-stable. Theorem tells then that L is Galois over K. So L is Galois over K if and only if L is normal in G = Aut k E. Suppose now L is Galois over K and L G = Aut k E. Then Aut K L = L:K by the fundamental theorem. (with L in place of E). Theorem states that G/L = (Aut K E)/(Aut L E) is isomorphic to a subgroup of Aut K L. Using L = L (i.e. L is closed). and G = K (i.e. L is Galois over K) we see G/L = G:L = L :G = L:K = Aut K L by the fundamental theorem. Thus G/L which is isomorphic to a subgroup of Aut K L has the same order as Aut K L. Since Aut K L = L:K is finite this implies that G/L is actually isomorphic to Aut K L itself as was to be shown.. We end this paragraph with an important illustration of Theorem

26 54.26 Theorem: Let q be a field of q elements and E a finite dimensional extension of q. Then E is Galois over q and Aut E is cyclic generated by the automorphism where :a a q for all a q E. Proof: Let E: q = r and char q = p so that p is the prime subfield of q (and of E). We have q = p m where m = q : p. We consider the extension E/ p. Since E is an r-dimensional vector space over q and q is an m- dimensional vector space over p Theorem says E is an rm-dimensional vector space over p and so E = p rm. Thus E is a finite field and E is Galois over p (Example 54.18(c)). Then E is Galois over any intermediate field of E/ p (Theorem 54.25(1)); in particular E is Galois over q. Furthermore we know from Example 54.18(c) that Aut E = p where is the field isomorphism a a p for all a E and that the group ( q ) corresponding to the intermediate field q with p m elements is m. Thus Aut a E. E = ( q q ) = where = m is the mapping a a pm = a q for all Exercises 1. Find the Galois group Aut K E and all its subgroups and describe the Galois correspondence between the subgroups of Aut K E and the intermediate fields of E/K when (a) E = ( 2 3) and K = ; (b) E = ( ) and K = K = ( 3 2); (c) E = ( i) and K = (i) K = (i 4 3); (d) E = ( 3 2i) and K = (i); (e) E = ( 2 3 5) and K = ( 2). 2. Let E/K be a field extension. Prove that if L is a (KE)-stable intermediate field so is L and that if H is a normal subgroup of Aut K E so is H. 678

27 3. Let E/K be a field extension and G = Aut K E. Let L M be intermediate fields of E/K and let HJ be subgroups of G. Prove that H J = H J and (LM) = L M. If in addition L is finite dimensional and Galois over K then LM is finite dimensional and Galois over M and Aut L M L Aut M LM. 4. Let K be a field and x an indeterminate over K. Show that if L is an intermediate field of K(x)/K and L K then K(x):L is finite. 5. Prove that K(x) is Galois over K if and only if K is infinite. 6. Let K be an infinite field. Prove that a proper subgroup of Aut K K(x) is closed if and only if it is a finite subgroup of Aut K K(x). 7. Consider the extension (x)/. Prove that the intermediate field (x 2 ) is closed and the intermediate field (x 3 ) is not closed. 8. Let K be an infinite field and xy two distinct indeterminates over K. Show that the intermediate field K(x) of the extension K(xy)/K is Galois over K but K(x) is not stable relative to K and K(xy). 679

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