# 1 Spring 2002 Galois Theory

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1 1 Spring 2002 Galois Theory Problem 1.1. Let F 7 be the field with 7 elements and let L be the splitting field of the polynomial X = 0 over F 7. Determine the degree of L over F 7, explaining carefully the principles underlying your computation. Solution: Note that 7 3 = 49 7 = 343, so [x (F 7 3) ] = [x = 0], since (F 7 3) is a multiplicative group of order 342. Also, F 7 3 contains all the roots of x = 0 since the number of roots of a polynomial cannot exceed its degree (by the Division Algorithm). Next note that = 342, so [x = 0] [x 171 = 1] [x = 0]. This implies that all the roots of X are contained in F 7 3 and so L F 7 3 since L can be obtained from F 7 by adjoining all the roots of X We therefore have F 7 3 L F 7 }{{} 3 and so L = F 7 3 or L = F 7 since 3 = [F 7 3 : F 7 ] = [F 7 3 : L][L : F 7 ] is prime. Next if α (F 7 3), then α 2 is a root of X Also, (F 7 3) is cyclic and hence isomorphic to Z 7 3 = {0, 1, 2,..., 342}, so the map α α 2 on F 7 3 has an image of size bigger than 7: 2α = 2β 2(α β) = 0 in Z 7 3 α β = 171. We therefore conclude that X has more than 7 distinct roots and hence L = F 7 3. Splitting Field: A splitting field of a polynomial f K[x] (K a field) is an extension L of K such that f decomposes into linear factors in L[x] and L is generated over K by the roots of f. Irreducible Polynomial: An irreducible polynomial is a polynomial of positive degree that does not factor into two polynomials of positive degree. Separable Polynomial: A polynomial f K[x] is called separable if it does not have multiple roots in any extension of K. Irreducible Separable: If f is an irreducible polynomials over the following fields then f is separable: (i) Field of zero characteristic (ii) Field of characteristic p degf (iii) Finite field 1

2 Field Extensions: If L/K is a field extension, then L can be regarded as a vector space over K. The dimension of L over K is also called the degree of the extension and denoted [L : K]. Multiplicativity of Degree: If L is a finite extension over K and M is a finite extension over L, then M is a finite extension over K and [M : K] = [M : L][L : K]. Finite Fields: For any prime p and any natural number n, there exists a field with p n elements which is unique up to isomorphism. These are the only finite fields. Cyclicity of F : If F is a finite field, then F is cyclic (Use the Fundamental Theorem of Finitely Generated Abelian Groups I and consider the biggest invariant factor n k and the polynomial x n k 1). Euler Function: The Euler function φ assigns to each positive integer n the number φ(n) of integers k such that 1 k n and (k, n) = 1. A cyclic group of order n has φ(n) generators. (k, n) = 1 if and only if k is a unit in the ring Z n. Problem 1.2. Show that there exists a Galois extension of Q of degree p for each prime p. State precisely all results which are needed to justify your answer. Solution: The solution that was here before was incorrect. x p a is irreducible over Q by Eisenstein s Criterion (and hence separable since Q has characteristic 0) for any a which is square free. Now let E be the splitting field of such an x p a. Roots of Unity: The (complex) n th roots unity form a cyclic group C n. The generators of C n are the n th primitive roots of unity. These are roots of the form µ k = e (2πk/n)i for (n, k) = 1. Algebraic/Transcendental Elements: Let E/F be fields. An element u E is algebraic over F if there exists f F [x] such that f(u) = 0; otherwise u is transcendental. If u is transcendental over F, then F [u] = F [x], where F [u] = {f(u) f F [x]} Irreducible Polynomial Finite Extension: If h F [x] is irreducible of degree n: (i) x + (h) is a root of h in E = F [x]/(h) = F [x + (h)] (ii) E is a field. (This is NOT true if h is not irreducible!) (iii) E/F is finite and [E : F ] = n. 2

3 Minimal Polynomial: If u E is algebraic over F, then I {f F [x] f(u) = 0} is an ideal in the PID F [x]. The generator of I is called the minimal polynomial of u and denoted m u. (i) m u is irreducible. (ii) The degree of m u is called the degree of u over F. Algebraic Finite: An element u E is algebraic over F if and only if F [u] is a finite dimensional vector space over F. In this case F [u] is a field and More precisely, we have and [F [u] : F ] = deg(m u ). F [u] = F [x]/(m u ) F [u] = F (u). As a consequence, every finite field extension is algebraic (E/F is algebraic if every element of E is algebraic over F : E/F finite implies that for all u E, E[u] is finite and hence u is algebraic). Cyclotomic Extension (prime case): Let p be a prime number. Consider the polynomial over Q x p 1 = (x 1)(x p 1 + x p x + 1) (x 1)Φ p, the roots of which are the p th roots of unity. If ξ is a primitive root of unity, then Q(ξ) would be a splitting field of Φ p (since it will contain all p th roots of unity). Since p is prime, any root of Φ p is a primitive root of unity. Φ p is irreducible: Over Z p [x], x p 1 = (x 1) p, so [Φ p ] p = (x 1) p 1. If Φ p = gh, then [Φ p ] p = [g] p [h] p = (x 1) k (x 1) l, with k, l > 0, and k + l = p 1. But then [g(1)] p = [g] p (1) = 0 and similarly [h(1)] p = 0 so that Φ p (1) = g(1)h(1) is divisible by p 2, which is impossible sinec Φ p (1) = p. From this we conclude that [Q(ξ) : Q] = p 1. Automorphism Groups: Let E/F be fields. The automorphisms of E over F (i.e. automorphisms of E which fixes F ) form a group under composition denoted Aut F E. Aut F E [E : F ] 3

4 E G = F if and only if G = [E : F ], where G Aut F E is a subgroup and E G = {u E σ(u) = u, σ G}. Galois Extension: A finite extension E of a field F is a Galois extension if Aut F E = [E : F ]. Aut E F is called the Galois group of the extension E and is denoted Gal(E/F ). Separable Galois: Let f F [x] be such that all its irreducible factors are separable. Then its splitting field is a Galois extension of F. Galois Correspondence: Let E/F be Galois and let G = Gal(E/F ). We have Φ : {subfields of E containing F } {subgroups of G} : K G K, where G K = {g G g K = id} G, is a bijection, with inverse Ψ : {subgroups of G} {subfields of E containing F } : H E H, where E H = {α E σ(α) = α, h H} F. Also G K = [E : K], [E : E H ] = H. Finally, a Galois extension of F contained in E corresponds to a normal subgroup of G and vice versa. Problem 1.3. Let α = i + 2 where i = 1. (a) Compute the minimal polynomial of α over Q. (b) Let F be the splitting field and compute the degree of F over Q; (c) Show that F contains 3 quadratic extensions of Q; (d) Use this information to determine the Galois group. Solution: (a) α 2 (α 2 4) = (i + 2)(i 2) = 5, so α is a root of f x 4 4x We claim f is irreducible and hence f = m Q (α): Making a change of variable y = x 2, we know that (2 + i) is a root of the polynomial y 2 4y + 5, so it must be the case that its complex conjugate (2 i) is also a root, so f = (x 2 (2 + i))(x 2 + (2 i)) = (x ( 2 + i))(x + ( 2 + i)(x ( 2 i))(x + ( 2 i). 4

5 If f = gh, then the degree of g and h must add up to 4, but if say g is linear, then it is clear from the above that g / Q[x], so it must be the case that both g and h are quadratic. But it is equally easy to see that any product of two linear factors also does not lie in Q[x]. to (b) The splitting field of m Q (α) can be found by adjoining all the roots, hence is equal K Q( 2 + i, 2 i). We have that [K : Q] = [K : Q( 2 + i)][q( 2 + i) : Q]. By (a), the latter is equal to the degree of m Q (α) and hence is 4. Next observe that K = [Q( 2 + i)]( 2 i), so we look for the minimal polynomial of 2 i over Q( 2 + i). To this end note that ( 2 + i)( 2 i) = 5 so 2 i is a root of (( 2 + i)x) 2 5 = (( 2 + i)x 5)(( 2 + i)x + 5), which is irreducible. So [K : Q( 2 + i)] = 2 and [K : Q] = 8. (c) We again note that ( 2 + i)( 2 i) = 5 and 1 2 [( 2 + i) 2 ( 2 i) 2 ] = i, so that 5, i 5 and i are all in K. These are all quadratic extensions of Q since they satisfy polynomials x 2 5 = (x 5)(x+ 5), x 2 +5 = (x i 5)(x+i 5) and x 2 +1 = (x i)(x+i), respectively, all of which are irreducible of degree 2 (they are irreducible since they clearly have no root in Q). (d) m Q (α) is separable so K/Q is Galois. Let G = Gal(K/Q). Then G = [K : Q] = 8. By part (c), there are 3 quadratic extensions. In addition, all 3 extensions are in fact also Galois over Q (since they are all splitting fields of the corresponding minimal polynomials, all of which are separable). By the Galois Correspondence, these correspond to 3 distinct normal subgroups of G of index 2 (hence order 4). There are 3 abelian groups of order 8: Z/8Z, Z/2Z Z/2Z Z/2Z and Z/2Z Z/4Z, none of which has 3 subgroups of order 4. This leaves us with D 4 and Q 8. The quarternion group has only one subgroup of order 2, namely 1, but again by the Galois Correspondence, G has at least 2 subgroups of order 2, corresponding to Q( 2 + i) and Q( 2 i). So we are finally left to conclude that G = D 4. Irreducibility Degree 2 or 3: A polynomial of degree 2 or 3 is reducible if and only if it has a root in the field in question (hence irreducible if it has no root). Polynomials Over Q Galois: The splitting field of any polynomial over Q is Galois. 2 Winter 2002 Fields Problem 2.1. The discriminant of the special cubic polynomial f(x) = x 3 + ax + b is given by 4a 3 27b 2. Determine the Galois group of the splitting field of x 3 x + 1 over 5

6 (a) F 3, the field with 3 elements. (b) F 5, the field with 5 elements. (c) Q, the rational numbers. Solution: (a) Since x 3 x + 1 is a cubic, it is reducible if and only if it has a root. A quick check shows that it has no root in F 3 so it is irreducible over F 3, hence separable and generates a Galois extension of degree divisible by 3 over F 3 (the extension generated by a single root has degree 3). Therefore there are only two possibilities for the Galois group: A 3 or S 3. The Galois group is A 3 if and only if the discriminant is the square of an element in F 3 (the Galois group is contained in A n if and only if each σ G fixes D if and only if D F since F is the fixed field of the Galois group). In this case the discriminant is calculated to be 4 ( 1) 3 27 = 23 = 1 = 1 2 in F 3. So the Galois group is indeed A 3. (Or just note that over a finite field all finite extensions are cyclic, so the Galois group cannot be S 3 since it is not cyclic.) (b) In this case a check shows that 3 is a root of x 3 x + 1 over F 5 and there are no other roots. So the polynomial splits into a linear term and an irreducible quadratic term. This generates a quadratic extension and the Galois group is Z/2Z (the order of the Galois group is equal to the degree of the extension). (c) By the Rational Root Test, the only possible roots are ±1 neither of which are roots, so x 3 x + 1 is irreducible over Q. The discriminant is 23 which is not a square in Q, so the Galois group is S 3. Polynomials Over Finite Fields Galois: The splitting field of any polynomial over a finite field is Galois (the splitting field of a polynomial f is the splitting field of the product of irreducible factors of f, which is separable). Characterization of Galois (Polynomial): An extension E/F is Galois if and only if E is the splitting field of some separable polynomial over F. If this is true, every irreducible polynomial in F [x] which has a root in E is separable and has all its root in E. Characterization of Galois (Fixed Field): E/F is Galois if and only if the fixed field of Aut E F is exactly F (in general it is bigger). Finite Extensions of Finite Fields are Cyclic: If F is a finite field, E/F is finite, then E/F is Galois with cyclic Galois group (E is cyclic so let θ be a generator, then E = F (θ) and [E : F ] = deg(m F (θ)). By uniqueness of finite fields and the irreducibility of m F (θ), m F (θ) must split in E, so that E/F is Galois. Assuming for 6

7 simplicity that F = F p, some prime p, we see that the Galois group is then generated by the Frobenius automorphism). Permutation of Roots: Let E/F be a field extension and α E algebraic over F. If σ Aut E F, then σ(α) is a root of m F (α) (this is obvious since σ fixes F ). Gal(E/F ) S n : Let E/F be Galois. Then E is the splitting field of some separable f F [x] with n roots. So any σ Gal(E/F ) defines a permutation of the n roots. Discriminant: The discriminant of a polynomial with roots x 1,..., x n is given by D = i<j(x i x j ) 2. Gal(E/F ) A n?: The Galois group G of f F [x] (the Galois group of a polynomial over F is the Galois group of the splitting field of f over F ) is a subgroup of A n if and only if the discriminant D F is the square of an element of F. Rational Root Test: Suppose P (x) = a n x n + +a 1 x+a 0 is a polynomial with integer coefficients, and x = p/q is a rational root of P (x), then p a 0 and q a n. Problem 2.2. A field extension K/Q is called biquadratic if it has degree 4 and if K = Q a, b) for some a, b Q. (a) Show that a biquadratic extension is normal with Galois group Gal(K/Q) = Z/2Z Z/2Z and list all sub extensions. (b) Prove that if K/Q is a normal extension of degree 4 with Gal(K/Q) = Z/2Z Z/2Z then K/Q is biquadratic. Solution: (a) First note that a b since otherwise [K : Q] = 2, which implies that f (x 2 a)(x 2 b) is separable. K is clearly the splitting field of f so K/Q is normal. Next note that Q( a) Q( a, b) corresponds to a subgroup H Gal (K/Q) of order 2 by the Galois Correspondence. Similarly, by considering Q( b), there is another subgroup H of order 2. H H by the Galois Correspondence, so the Galois group cannot be Z/4Z (which has only one subgroup of order 2). The only other possibility is Z/2Z Z/2Z. To describe the subfields, let σ, τ Gal(K/Q), with σ : a a, b b and τ : a a, b b. 7

8 Then we see that στ = τσ, so The subfields are then Gal(K/Q) = {σ, τ σ 2 = τ 2 = e, τσ = στ}. K σ, K τ, K στ, where K H = {k K σ(k) = k, σ H}. These are equal to Q( b), Q( a), Q( ab). (b) By the Galois Correspondence, K contains two distinct quadratic extensions of Q. These extensions are Galois since Gal(K/Q) is abelian so they must be splitting fields of irreducible quadratics, say Q( a) and Q( b) (here a b are the discriminants of the respective quadratics). [Q( a)]( b)/q( a) = Q( a, b)/q( a) has degree 1 or 2, but cannot be 1 since a b, so Q( a, b)/q has degree 4, which implies K = Q( a, b). Normal Extension: If E/F is algebraic, then E is a normal extension of F if E is the splitting field over F of a collection of polynomials f F [x]. Problem 2.3. Let K be a finite extension of the field F with no proper intermediate subfields. (a) If K/F is normal, show that the degree [K : F ] is a prime. (b) Give an example to show that [K : F ] need not be prime if K/F is not normal, and justify your answer. Solution: (a) Let E be the fixed field of Aut F K. Since there are no proper intermediate fields, E = F or E = K. If E = F, then K/F is Galois and by the Galois Correspondence, each subgroup of the Galois group corresponds to a subfield and we are done by Cauchy s Theorem: If the degree is n not a prime, then p < n, p prime, such that p n, Cauchy s theorem says there is an element g of order p, but then the subfield corresponding to g would be a proper intermediate field, a contradiction. If E = K, then Aut F K is trivial. If F were a perfect field, then it is the case that any irreducible polynomial is separable. K/F is normal so it is the splitting field of a collection of polynomials over F. If f is one of the polynomials and α is a root of f which does not lie in F, then F (α) = K, which implies that K is the splitting field of m F (α), which is irreducible, hence separable, so that K/F is Galois and we are done as before. We may therefore assume that F is not perfect and so in particular char(f ) = p, where p is a prime. With α as before, we have that [K : F ] = deg(m F (α)) and that α is the only root of f which does not lie in F (if β were another one, F (α) = F (β) = K and there would be an 8

9 automorphism of K sending α to β and fixing everything in F, but since Aut F K is trivial, we conclude that α = β). In the splitting field K, we have m F (α) = (x α)(x α 1 )... (x α n 1 ). Since m F (α) is irreducible, none of the α i s is in F, so it must be the case that α i = α, i. Therefore m F (α) = (x α) n. This is a polynomial over F so in particular α n F. If α k F for any k < n, then m F (α) (x k α k ) would be of lower degree, a contradiction. Since (x α) n = n k=0 ( ) n x k α n k, k it must be the case that p ( n k), 1 k < n. In particular p n so n = γp, some γ. Now we have F F (α p ) F (α) = K. Since there are no intermediate fields, F (α p ) = F (α) = K, so that γ = 1 and [K : F ] = p. (b) Let F be a field and let α be an element of order 4 over F such that the splitting field L of m F (α) has S 4 as its Galois group. Let E = F (α), then [E : F ] = 4 which is not prime and [L : F ] = 4! = 24. We claim there is no intermediate field between E and F. By Galois Correspondence, E corresponds to some subgroup H Gal(L/F ) = S 4 such that [S 4 : H] = 4. Showing that there is no intermediate field is then equivalent to showing that H S 4 is maximal. To this end, observe that A 4 has no subgroup of index 2: A 4 = 24/2 = 12 so a subgroup of index 2 is a group of order 6, and hence isomorphic to either Z/6Z or S 3. It cannot be S 3 since S 3 contains odd permutations. It also cannot be Z/6Z since S 4 does not contain any element of order 6: First notice that S 4 does not contain any 6 cycles. Next if σ is an element of order 6, then writing σ = τ 1... τ n, where the τ i are disjoint cycles, we see that the order of σ is equal to the least common multiple of the τ i s. Cycles in S 4 can have lengths 1, 2, 3 or 4, so the only possibility is a cycle of length 2 and a cycle of length 3, but these cannot be disjoint (there are only 4 letters to permute), a contradiction. Next observe that A 4 is the only subgroup of index 2 in S 4 (more generally, A n is the only subgroup of index 2 in S n : Notice that any subgroup A of index 2 is normal and hence S n /A = Z/2Z. Therefore σ 2 A = A, σ S n σ 2 A, σ S n. This in particular implies that all three cycles are in A, since if τ is a three cycle, then τ 2 = τ 1. But A n is generated by three cycles, so A = A n.) This shows that any subgroup of S 4 of index 4 must be maximal: Suppose [S n : A] = 4 and A is not maximal, then A B a subgroup such that [B : A] > 1. So 4 = [S n : A] = [S n : B][B : A] > [S n : B] [S n : B] = 2 B = A n 9

10 which is a contradiction, because then [A n : A] = 2. We conclude that H is maximal since it has index 4. Perfection: A field of characteristic p is called perfect if every element of K is a p th power in K, i.e. K = K p. Any field of characteristic 0 is also called perfect. Any finite field is perfect, as is Q. Every irreducible polynomial over a perfect field is separable. 3 Fall 2002 Fields Problem 3.1. a) Determine the minimal polynomial of u = over Q. b) Determine the minimal polynomial of u 1 over Q. Solution: a) u 2 = , so (u 2 3) 2 = 8 and therefore u is a root of f x 4 6x Making the change of variable y = x 2 and using the quadratic equation, we see that f cannot factor as a product of two quadratics. On the other hand, the rational root test shows that it is impossible for f to factor as a linear term times a cubic. We conclude that f is irreducible so f = m Q (u). b) (u 1 ) 2 = So 2 3(u 1 ) (u 1 ) 2 = 1. Subtracting and squaring to get rid of 2, we see that u 1 is also a root of x 4 6x 2 + 1, which we have already determined to be irreducible, so m Q (u 1 ) = x 4 6x (Or just note x 4 ( ) = x 4 6x ) x 4 x 2 Problem 3.2. a) Let F be the field generated by the roots of the polynomial X over Q. Determine the Galois group F/Q. b) Describe all subfields of F. Solution: a) Let ξ = e 2πi/6. Then the roots of X are ξ i 6 3, 1 i 6. So F = Q(ξ, 6 3). Now notice that ξ = e πi/3 = i 3 2 Q( 6 3), since ( 6 3) 3 = 3 = i 3. So we conclude F = Q( 6 3). By Eisenstein s Criterion, X is irreducible and so it is the minimal polynomial of 6 3 and therefore [F : Q] = [Q( 6 3 : Q] = 6. This extension is Galois (since X has 6 distinct roots, hence separable) so let G denote the Galois group. Then we have that G = 6, which implies that G is either S 3 or Z/6Z (these are the only groups of order 6). To decide which one it is, 10

11 notice that ( 6 3) 2 = ( 3) 1/3 = 3 3, so 3 3 F. Consider Q( 3 3)/Q. This extension is not Galois, since 3 3 is a root of X 3 3 but Q( 3 3) does not contain any other roots of X 3 3, which is also irreducible by Eisenstein. By the Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory, there is a correspondence between subfields which are Galois over Q and normal subgroups of G. We therefore conclude that G cannot be abelian since it contains a subgroup which is not normal (the subgroup fixing the subfield Q( 3 3), so the only possibility is G = S 3. (If we had wished to be more explicit, we could have used the fact that an element of the Galois group maps a root to a root to make computations. First it is clear that G S 6. Since 6 3 generates Q( 6 3) over Q, any σ G is completely determined by σ( 6 3). Label the roots 1 through 6 such that ξ i 6 3 is labeled i. Let G = {σ 1, σ 2,..., σ 6 } such that σ i maps 6 3 to the i th root. Consider σ 1 : 6 3 ξ 6 3. We will know everything about σ 1 once we figure out where it maps ξ = To this end notice we calculate: σ 1 ( 3) = σ 1 (( 6 3) 3 ) = ξ 3 3 = ( ) σ 2 + = = ξ 5. 2 From this we see that σ1 2(ξ 6 3) = σ 1 ( 6 3) = σ(ξ 5 ξ 6 3) = (ξ 5 ) = ξ 6 3 (since ξ 6 = 1). So we conclude that σ 6 is a subgroup of order 2. On the other hand, it is clear that σ 3 : 6 3 ξ = 6 3 also has order 2. Therefore G contains two subgroups of order 2 and hence cannot be cyclic (a cyclic group of order n contains a unique subgroup of order d for each d n), so G = S 3.) b) By the Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory, subfields of F corresponds to subgroups of G = S 3 in an order reversing way. S 3 has 3 subgroups of order 2, generated by the three transpositions: {e, (12)}, {e, (13)}, {e, (23)}. These correspond to the three subfields of F which has degree 6/2 = 3 over Q: Q(ξ 2 3 3), Q(ξ 4 3 3), Q( 3 3). S 3 has one subgroup of order 3 (3 is prime so this subgroup is cyclic. The only elements in S 3 of order 3 are the cyclic permutations of order 3), namely A 3 = {e, (123), (123) 2 }, which correspond to the subfield of F which has degree 2 over Q: There are no other non trivial subfields. Q( 3). Suppose now instead we want to find the Galois group of X 6 3: Let ξ denote a primitive 6 th root of unity and α = e πi/ Then F = Q(ξ, α). We have [F : Q] = [F : Q(α)][Q(α) : 11

12 Q]. X 6 3 is irreducible over Q by Eisenstein s Criterion, so it is the minimal polynomial of α and therefore [Q(α) : Q] = 6. The minimal polynomial of ξ over Q is x 2 x + 1 = (x e iπ/3 )(x e 5πi/3 ). Since the degree of the polynomial is 2 and neither of the root is in Q(α), x 2 x + 1 remains irreducible over Q(α) and we conclude that [F : Q(α)] = 2 and [F : Q] = 12. The subextension Q(ξ)/Q is Galois (it is the splitting field of x 2 x + 1 over Q), so by the Galois Correspondence this corresponds to a normal subgroup H of Gal(F/Q) of order 6 fixing Q(ξ), which can be either Z/6Z or S 3 (notice that If E/K/F is such that E/F is Galois, then E/K is also Galois). The roots of X 6 3 are α, ξα, ξ 2 α, ξ 3 α, ξ 4 α, ξ 5 α. Any σ Aut Q(ξ) F = Gal(F/Q(ξ) must map a root to a root and hence is determined by σ(α) (remember that σ fixes ξ, so if σ(α) = ξ m α, then σ(ξ k α) = ξ k σ(α) = ξ m+k α, where m and k are defined modulo 6). We see that γ : Aut Q(ξ) F Z/6Z by σ n where σ(α) = ξ n α is an isomorphism (If σ and τ are such that σ(α) = ξ m α and τ(α) = ξ n α, then στ(α) = ξ m+n α and στ(ξ k α) = ξ k στ(α) = ξ m+n (ξ k α), so γ(στ) = γ(σ) + γ(τ)) and therefore H = Z/6Z. By considering Q(α)/Q, we also see that there is a subgroup H 2 of order 2. Therefore Gal(F/Q) = H H 2, which gives us two possibilities: Z/6Z Z/2Z or D 6 (symmetries of a hexagon). Since Q(α) is not normal, Gal(F/Q) cannot be abelian and we are forced to conclude that Gal(F/Q) = D 6 (symmetries of a regular hexagon). Eisenstein s Criterion: Let p be a prime in Z and let Suppose f(x) = x n + a n 1 x n a 1 x + a 0 Z[x], n 1. p a i, 0 i < n but p 2 a 0. Then f(x) is irreducible in both Z[x] and Q[x]. Sometimes a change of variable is useful if this does not apply directly, e.g. if one can show that the polynomial with y = x + 1 is irreducible, then the polynomial must also be irreducible in the original variable(just replace x by y in the factorization if it were reducible). Trivial Observation: If E/K/F is such that E/F is Galois, then E/K is also Galois. Dihedral Group: The dihedral group D n is the group of symmetries of a regular n gon. A regular n gon has 2n symmetries: n rotations and n reflections. A quick observation is then that there are n subgroups of order n if n is odd, corresponding to the n reflections and n + 1 subgroups of order 2 if n is even, corresponding to the n reflections plus rotation by π radians about the origin. The presentation for D n is D n = {r, s r n = s 2 = 1, rs = sr 1 }, 12

13 where r is rotation counterclockwise about the origin through 2π/n radians and s is one of the reflections. Semidirect Product: Let G be a group. Then G decomposes as a semidirect product of subgroups N and H, write G = N H, if (i) N G; (ii) N H = {e}; (iii) NH = G. (i) ensures that NH = HN is a group and (ii) and (iii) says every element can be written uniquely as nh with n N, h H. On the other hand, if there are groups H and N such that there is a homomorphism α : H Aut(N), then N H is a group with multiplication given by (n 1, h 1 )(n 2, h 2 ) = (n 1 α(h 1 )n 2, h 1 h 2 ). Denote this group by N α H. We have Ñ (N α H), where Ñ = {(n, e) n N}. Define H = {(e, h) h H}, then Ñ H = {(e, e)}. We see that N α H = Ñ H as a semidirect product. If G splits as a semidirect product of N and H, define then is a group isomorphism. Γ : H Aut(H) : h conjugation by h, N Γ H G : (n, h) nh Now suppose G is a finite group, N G, N H = {e} and N H = G, then it is the case that NH = G and so G splits as a semidirect product of Ñ and H. Explicitly, we have that G = NH = N Γ H, where Γ is conjugation by elements of H. 13

14 We can in fact determine all possible isomorphism classes of NH. NH looks like N Γ H, where (n 1, h 1 )(n 2, h 2 ) = (n 1 Γ(h 1 )(n 2 ), h 1 h 2 ) = (n 1 (h 1 n 2 h 1 1 ), h 1h 2 ). Each Γ(h) is an automorphism of N. Note that by associativity and the fact that Γ is a homomorphism so (n 1, h 1 )(n 2, h 2 )(n 3, h 3 ) = (n 1 Γ(h 1 )(n 2 )Γ(h 1 h 2 )(n 3 ), h 1 h 2 h 3 ) and therefore = (n 1 Γ(h 1 )(n 2 Γ(h 2 )(n 3 )), h 1 h 2 h 3 ) = (n 1 Γ(h 1 )(n 2 )Γ(h 1 )(Γ(h 2 )(n 3 )), h 1 h 2 h 3 ), Γ(h 1 h 2 ) = Γ(h 1 ) Γ(h 2 ) α : H Aut(N) : h Γ(h) is a homomorphism. This shows that each isomorphism class of N H arose from some homomorphism α : H Aut(N). Conversely, given α : H Aut(N), we can form N α H and we have as before N α H = Ñ H = NH, where Ñ = {(n, 0) n N} and H = {(0, h) h H}. Note that Γ is given by Γ(h)(n) = hnh 1 = α(h)(n). It is not the case that different α s necessarily lead to distinct isomorphism classes. Problem 3.3. Let p be a prime integer such that p 2 or 3 (mod 5). Prove that the polynomial 1 + X + X 2 + X 3 + X 4 is irreducible over Z/pZ. Solution: 1 + X + X 2 + X 3 + X 4 = X5 1 X 1 Φ 5(X), the 5 th cyclotomic polynomial and has as roots all the primitive 5 th roots of unity. If ξ is a primitive 5 th root of unity, we would like to find the least n such that F p n contains ξ. It will be enough to show that n = 4 (if Φ 5 (X) = f(x)g(x) were reducible, then say η is a root of f which has degree k, then η is a primitive root of unity and F p (η) would be isomorphic to F p k with k < 4, a contradiction). 14

15 First suppose n is such that ξ F p n. (F p n) is cyclic so let θ be a generator. Then θ pn 1 = 1 and θ raised to a lower power is not equal to 1. If ξ F p n, then ( k N)(θ k = ξ) so (θ k ) 5 = 1 in F p n and (θ k ) l 1 in F p n for l < 5. This implies that 5k = α(p n 1), some α N. If α 5 then α = 5 since 5 is prime so we conclude k = p n 1 and ξ = 1, a contradiction. If α k, then we can cancel α on both sides of the equation to get that 5k = (p n 1) = p n 1 (mod 5). Conversely, suppose p n 1 (mod 5). Then p n = 5k + 1, some k N. Again let θ be a generator of (F p n). Then (θ k ) 5 = θ pn 1 = 1 and so θ k is a primitive 5 th root of unity. The roots of unity form a cyclic group, so that if F p n contains one primitive root of unity it must contain all of them, which implies that ξ F p n. Now let n be the order of p in F 5, i.e. n is minimal such that p n 1 (mod 5). Then from the above we know that n is also the minimal n such that ξ F p n. For both p 2 (mod 5) and p 3 (mod 5) we have that n = 4 so Φ 5 is irreducible over F p (here we use the fact that Z/nZ is a ring so that a 1 = b 1, a 2 = b 2, then a 1 + a 2 = b 1 + b 2 and a 1 a 2 = b 1 b 2 ). Factorization of Φ q over F p : Let p q be primes. If n is the least integer such that p n 1 mod q, then the minimal polynomial of ξ q has degree n over F p. Moreover, Φ q is the product of q 1 n distinct irreducible polynomials of degree n in F p. Z/nZ: Z/nZ = {0, 1,..., n 1} form a commutative ring with 1 under addition and multiplication modulo n (these operations are of course both well defined). 4 Winter 2003 Fields Problem 4.1. Let F q be the finite field of q elements. Answer the following questions: (a) List all subfields of F p 6 for a prime p. Justify your answer. (b) Find a formula for the number of monic irreducible polynomials of degree 6 in F p [X]. Justify your answer. Solution: (a) F p 6 is the splitting field of x p6 x over Z p (x p6 x is separable since the derivative is -1 and has no root and therefore has p 6 roots, so by order counting, F p 6 is contained in the splitting field. On the other hand, each element in F satisfies x p 6 p6 1 = 1 and so each element in F p 6 is a root of x p6 x and we conclude the splitting field is equal 15

16 to F p 6). The Galois group Gal(F p 6/F) p ) is generated by the Frobenius automorphism and is cyclic of order 6, hence isomorphic to Z/6Z. The two non trivial subgroups of Z/6Z, namely Z/2Z and Z/3Z correspond to intermediate fields between F p 6 and F p of degree (over F p ) 3 and 2, respectively. These are the unique splitting fields of x p3 x and x p2 x over F p, namely F p 3 and F p 2, respectively. (b) Let f be an irreducible polynomial over F p of degree d 6. If α is a root of f, then F p (α)/f has degree d and hence is equal to F p d by uniqueness of splitting fields. F p d/f p is Galois, so F p d( F p 6) in fact contains all roots of f. Since F p 6 is equal to the set of roots of x p6 x, it must be the case that f x p6 x. Now let g be the product of all (monic) minimal polynomials of elements in F p 6 with no repeats, then it follows that g x p6 x. Conversely, it is clearly that x p6 x g and so we conclude g = x p6 x. Since any irreducible polynomial of degree d is the minimal polynomial of (each of) its roots, we see that in fact x p6 x is the product of all irreducible polynomials over F p of degree d 6. Now let ψ(d) = number of irreducible polynomials of degree d over F p. Then (since the degree of x p6 x is p 6 ) we have p 6 = dψ(d). d 6 By the Mobius Inversion Formula, we get 6ψ(6) = d 6 µ(d)p 6/d, where µ(1) = 1, µ(n) = 0 if n contains a square factor, and µ(n) = ( 1) r if n has r distinct prime factors. Calculating, we get So ψ(6) = 1 6 (p6 p 3 p 2 + p). 6ψ(6) = µ(1)p 6 + µ(2)p 3 + µ(3)p 2 + µ(6)p = p 6 p 3 p 2 + p. Instead of using the Mobius Inversion Formula we could have proceeded as follows. First note that if f is an irreducible polynomial over F p, then f is separable. Say the degree of f is 6, then f has 6 distinct roots and it is the case that none of these roots can lie in F p 2 or F p 3 (if α is a root of f, then f = m Fp (α) has degree 6. If say α F p 2, then the degree of α over F p would be 2, a contradiction). Now observe that F p 2 and F p 3 intersect in F p since 2 and 3 are relatively prime, so inclusion exclusion gives that there are p 6 p 3 p 2 + p elements of degree 6 over F p in F p 6. It suffices to count the number of minimal polynomials of these elements of order 6 (as before if f is irreducible of degree 6, then it is the minimal 16

17 polynomial of (each of) its roots). Each such minimal polynomials has 6 distinct roots, so there must be 1 6 (p6 p 3 p 2 + p) monic irreducible polynomials over F p of degree 6. (Explicitly, pick an element α 1 of degree six, write down its minimal polynomial f 1. Now pick some α 2 which is not equal to any of the roots of f 1 and write down its minimal polynomial f 2. Continue this way, we will eventually exhaust all elements of degree 6 and will have found all irreducible polynomials of degree 6. Notice this implies that 6 p 6 p 3 p 2 + p.) x pn x F p n: The finite field F p n x pn x over F p. is precisely the set of roots of the polynomial x pn x: The polynomial x pn x over F p is in fact the product of all irreducible polynomials of degree d n over F p. Mobius Inversion Formula: Let f(n) be a function defined for all nonnegative integers n and let F (n) = f(d). d n Then we have f(n) = d n µ(d)f ( n d ), where µ(1) = 1, µ(n) = 0 if n has a square factor, and µ(n) = ( 1) r if n has r distinct prime factors. Splitting Fields of Irreducible Polynomials over F p : Let f be irreducible of degree n over F p. Then the splitting field of f is exactly F p n. Problem 4.2. Let K/F be a quadratic extension of fields and M/F be a Galois extension over F containing K such that Gal(M/K) is a cyclic group of odd prime order p. Answer the following two questions: (a) Determine the possible groups Gal(M/F ) up to isomorphisms, and justify your answer. (b) Find the number of intermediate fields L between F and M with [L : F ] = p. Justify your answer. Solution: (a) Let G = Gal(M/F ). Then G = [M : F ] = [M : K][K : F ] = 2p. Let H = Gal(M/K). First we claim H G: H has order p so [G : H] = 2. Now let G act on the cosets of H by left multiplication. This induces λ : G S 2 : g λ g : ah hah. 17

18 We have ker(λ) = g G ghg 1 and by the First Isomorphism Theorem and Lagrange s Theorem, G/ker(λ) S 2 = 2, which forces ker(λ) = p and therefore H = ker(λ) G. Next by Cauchy s Theorem, there is a subgroup H 2 G of order 2. Hence G = HH 2 = Z/pZ Z/2Z as a semidirect product. This gives us two possibilities: Z/pZ Z/2Z or D p (symmetries of a p gon). (b) By the Galois Correspondence, intermediate field L such that [L : F ] = p correspond to subgroups of G of order 2. If G = Z/pZ Z/2Z, then there is exactly one subgroup of order 2 since p is odd. If G = D p, then there are p subgroups of order 2, corresponding to the p reflections (there is a reflection through each line joining a vertex and the side opposite to it). Problem 4.3. Find the degree of the splitting field E of X 6 3 over the following fields: (a) Q( 3) (Q: the field of rational numbers); (b) F 7, the field with 7 elements; (c) F 5, the field with 5 elements, and justify your answer. Solution: (a) X 6 3 is irreducible over Q by Eisenstein s Criterion applied with the prime 3. The splitting field is given by E = Q(ξ, 3 1/6 ), where ξ = e 2πi 6 is a primitive 6 th root of unity. We claim that [Q(ξ, 3 1/6 ) : Q] = 12: First we have that [Q(3 1//6 ) : Q] = 6. Next it is clear that the cyclotomic polynomial X 2 X + 1 = Φ 6 (which has ξ and ξ 5 as roots) remains irreducible over Q(3 1/6 ), so [Q(3 1/6, ξ) : Q(3 1/6 ] = 2. Finally, X is irreducible over Q so is the minimal polynomial of 3. Hence [Q( 3) : Q] = 2 and so [E : Q( 3)] = 6. (b) First note that (mod 7). So 12 = [E : Q] = [E : Q( 3]2, x 6 3 (x 6 ) = x F 7 n is the (unique) splitting field of x 7n x, so if the roots of x 6 3 are contained in F 7 n, then it must be the case that x 6 3 x 7n x = x(x 7n 1 1). Since (x m 1) (x n 1) if and only if m n, we now wish to find the least integer m such that 7 m 1 (mod 36). To this 18

19 end notice first that 7 (Z/36Z) = (Z/2 2 Z) (Z/3 2 Z) = Z/2Z Z/6Z, by the Chinese Remainder Theorem. So 7 has either order 2 or order 6 in (Z/36Z). It clearly does not have order 2 so it must be the case that (mod 36). So x 36 1 x x 76 x and hence all roots of x 6 3 are contained in F 7 6 which implies that E F 7 6 and so [E : F] = 1, 2, 3, or 6 (since it must divide [F 7 6 : F 7 ] = 6). E F 7 since a 6 = 1 3 for all a F 7. E F 7 2 since a 72 1 = a 48 = (a 6 ) 8 = 1 for all a F 7 2, but if a is a root of x 6 3, then a 6 = 3 so (a 6 ) 8 = 3 8 = 3 2 (3 6 ) 2 (mod 7) (we have used the fact that (mod 7) and is not equal to 1. E F 7 3 since a 73 1 = a = (a 6 ) = 1 for all a F 7 3, but if a is a root of x 6 3, then a 6 = 3 so (a 6 ) 5 7 = = (3 3 ) = 27 = 6 and is not equal to 1. We are therefore left to conclude that E = F 7 6 and [E : F 7 ] = 6. (c) By the same reasoning as in (b), we calculate: x 6 3 (x 6 ) = x 24 1 x 25 x = x 52 x, so all the roots of x 6 3 are contained in F 5 2. Hence E F 5 2. x 52 x has distinct roots since it has derivative 1 so x 6 3 must also have distinct roots since it divides x 52 x. Therefore x 6 3 must have 6 roots and so E F 5 (which only has 5 elements) and we conclude E = F 5 2 and [E : F 5 ] = 2. Important Fact About Finite Fields: Every a F p n a pn = a and every 0 a F p n satisfies a pn 1 = 1. (p a prime integer) satisfies Cyclotomic Polynomials: The n th cyclotomic polynomial Φ n (x) is defined to be the polynomial whose roots are the primitive n th roots of unity: Φ n (x) = (x ξn), a a<n; (a,n)=1 where ξ n = e 2πi n. Clearly deg(φ n ) = φ(n), where φ is the Euler φ function. Notice that x n 1 = Φ d (x). d n This allows us to compute Φ n (x) recursively. It can also be shown inductively that Φ n (x) Z[x]. Note that comparing degrees in the last equation gives n = d n φ(d). 19

20 Applying the Mobius Inversion Formula to n = F (n) = d n φ(d), we get φ(n) = ( n ) µ(d). d d n Cyclotomic Extension (general case): If we can now show that Φ n (x) is irreducible, then we will be able to conclude that To this end suppose [Q(ξ n ) : Q] = φ(n). Φ n (x) = f(x)g(x), with f, g Z[x], f irreducible. Let ξ be a root of f and p n a prime. Then ξ p is a root of Φ n (x). If g(ξ p ) = 0, then ξ is a root of g(x p ). Reducing mod p and using the fact that f is the minimal polynomial of ξ, we get that (g(x)) p = f(x)h(x), some h(x) Z[x]. This implies f and g have a common root, but this implies then Φ n (x) and therefore x n 1 has a multiple root over F p. This is a contradiction since x n 1 is separable (it has derivative nx n 1 which is relatively prime to x n 1). So ξ p is a root of f for each p n. Now given any a such that (a, n) = 1, write a = p 1... p k with p i primes, then we see that ξ a = (((ξ p 1 ) p 2 )... ) p k is a root of f and therefore all primitive n th roots of unity are roots of f and we conclude Φ n (x) = f(x) is irreducible. The map (Z/nZ) Gal(Q(ξ n )/Q) : a σ a : σ a (ξ n ) = ξn a is an isomorphism. So (a b) (a n b n ): Gal(Q(ξ n )/Q) = (Z/nZ). (a 1)(a n 1 + a n a + 1) = a n 1 since all the intermediate terms telescope. So (( a n b n = b n a ) n ) 1 b (( = b n a ) ) ( ( a ) n 1 ( a ) n 2 ( a ) b b b b = (a b)(a n 1 + a n 2 b + + ab n 1 + b n 1 ). ) 20

21 (x m 1) (x n 1) m n: By the previous item, (x m 1) ((x m ) k 1) = x km 1 for any k N. Conversely, suppose (x m 1) (x n 1). The roots of x m 1 are precisely the m th roots of unity. Let ξ be a primitive m th root of unity. Since (x m 1) (x n 1), ξ must also be a n th root of unity. By the Division Algorithm, write n = mk + r, where r < n. Then we have that 1 = ξ n = ξ mk+r = ξ mk ξ r = ξ r, from which we conclude that ξ r = 1, but since ξ is a primitive root of unity, it must be the case that r = 0 and therefore m n. 21

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