# SOLUTION SET. Chapter 9 REQUIREMENTS FOR OBTAINING POPULATION INVERSIONS "LASER FUNDAMENTALS" Second Edition. By William T.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "SOLUTION SET. Chapter 9 REQUIREMENTS FOR OBTAINING POPULATION INVERSIONS "LASER FUNDAMENTALS" Second Edition. By William T."

Transcription

1 SOLUTION SET Chapter 9 REQUIREMENTS FOR OBTAINING POPULATION INVERSIONS "LASER FUNDAMENTALS" Second Edition By William T. Silfvast

2 C.11 q 1. Using the equations (9.8), (9.9), and (9.10) that were developed to describe changes in the populations of a three-level system, obtain expressions for the populations in the upper and lower laser levels, the inversion ratio, and the minimum pumping requirements given in (9.11), (9.12), (9.13), and (9.14). ol /\Ii _ d.a - _ ol - N '< c:ud /\./,/ - vgt f rd~ ('1.q) '?{(.f '~ N Ii. "=-,,;CA N; (I) f r-o ~ (Cf. 11>) lit /\l_e -:. c ~../tt + YA,i) '''" ( 2 ) (~8) (tt' 9 J ( 1, ID) (1) - '(UL N'1 - - (2) -. 1-;,i N.t T"~ (~IJ) r, ~ t, f (ou; + o,,1u)n" + v. >.. / -=.,, "'" N 011 ~ I'~ o.,; tt Nt :: c.t' ( o:.u +- 'lt) /Y Lf. re; ( '( 1tP- + Cl';;") f\/., + ~ ( 'OJ" + ~- e) N i.r. :: '.;" N I 2.l!"114. '";, '7~- 'O,t' ~,_ u N r;; ( '( tt-d- +-- ~ u) + 'tfa,t ( 'ttt'"' + 'oi.o.) (C/,/Z) f''1.e -=, tte ( """'..;.. '(.ft) ' r;.( 'ta'!,,( ' ' ' ~~ N,A.IA fl; I~ ( w.+-'6~ t.t)+ u.tcl~+t.d) Np. ::: 0 "' ( Y" u + a,.'j!. - {\/ ft, \ l) t;,; ( '("" ;-~.tti.) + ~.t (tit ~ t ~~)

3 Cll C/ 2. Referring to the example in Section 9.3 on the threshold pumping requirements for : a ruby laser, estimate the number of pumping photons and the power required to. pump the laser rod to the threshold value for a 6-mm-diameter, 0.1-m-long ruby laser rod doped to the concentration given in the example during a pumping cycle that lasts for the duration of the upper laser level lifetime of 3 ms. Assume that the laser is pumped by photons of wavelength 550 nm. Remember that Nofli represents the number of ground-state Cr 3 + ions pumped per cubic meter every second into the upper laser level. =: /, t;"'/ X /D p/a...ofd"'-4 /':, #- pft...,ot'o "~-:.. (1.~1 x10'- 2 ph.c!dia<l/s.)(s ><la-)s) -= l/. ~2. x 11J t&r p LT;;~. J s: '-IS-x 10 ~

4 CH C/ 3. Beginning with the rate equations given in (9.16) and (9.17), obtain the threshold inversion requirements for a three-level atomic laser as given in (9.21). ('f,16) (1,/7) (~,I~ J f'i A r +!'-{ t.{ 'tup u f)j_ - R.o V I' f'f I' + I o "" t{l-/j 0 0 ~ OUL + 'tuc 10 No [!~~ -r (\<~:!-i'~j i-;j,,,. I t

5 Cf! t!f. I 4. Refer to the energy-level diagram, Figure 10-S(b), of the argon ion with the rele-. vant energy levels for the nm laser transition. Assuming that it operates as a three-level laser when considering only the single-ion energy levels, what would be the maximum ratio of excitation from the ground state to the lower laser level 1 u -:: <.. (9,.) + I -:::-. G. 1.t =- { (!ILJ+I::: L/ 1--; '-. < r f-'ott!u.~ _J_ L Au.e. t.~- bj' Att.o : 2 3 :<' 10 f(lc +- '-/, f")< It> ~.s. +- A IJ..J_ - 7. g x I 0 7 / \$ ' I t < ----

6 Cli 1 5. Given the rate equations (9.25), (9.26), (9.27), and (9.28), obtain the expressions / for Nu, Nz, and I'oi for a four~level laser system given in (9.29), (9.30), and (9.33).. : cyj.t-= Y ot. Nb - ~b NL -i. ifu.1 Ni., ::. CJ ( 9, Z-.>) i~" "" - Y t.t.t /\I" +.t" N; -= o daf.i ~ ":. "'~ {'1, 'J.? ) (&/, l E?) S ~ ~ \$ t; rfa, ti Frtn-- ( 'i, 2 7) '"'. ~ A 1'. Ne. t)a Y.. itt,-&.t ~ (_'1, 2,) /\{ u ~,./l.( l\f~ Or '" tt ::,_,... - 'G(Ay IJ,,i No 1.-t..I;. 0 4>1;2. '6J4 (];A /'Va Yu'-,, ' f:j_y. - N.1_ - Ni. = 4"o.e 1'-lo + (ft,.q IV11 ':::!:E~ "!~ +- ~_, ~ /V~ 'ts't~ ~ o ~o Ytr..t '= ( o.1. + ~... ) Na ~l> f'oa ~0,,u_( Yot t- r;.a.) - ~~?l.t(;)) tr~' -.,,... - A/E.,o~ r ~ ::= e rllt. ){.qt)... Aff.e~ or- 17,A > e 'l!:f Au~

7 C II 'if. 6. Determine the single-pass gain of a 0.1-m-long Nd:YAG laser rod operating at f 1.06 µ,mat room temperature. Assume the following:. 1 (a) Auz = 4 x 10 3 s- 1, no significant collisional or phonon broadening occurs on that transition, and there exist no radiative decay routes from level u other than to level l; (b) the pumping level i decays primarily to the upper laser level u, and the lower laser level l decays to the ground state 0, at a rate of s- 1 ; (c) the lower laser level l is 0.27 ev above the ground state; (d) the pumping rate to the intermediate level i is 100 times the minimum value given in (9.33); and (e) the doping concentration of the Nd:YAG rod is m- 3. _ ceto_ar A-s~u.. ~ r"- =-i.t ~.. <-.::. I DO e?(,,~ T _"'- 300 Jc.. r I -~1. (-, I oo -i.,~-r!'/xto l/x. fl\ l/s o~.::::. e v = //, \$? ~ I -,. {),( I\/ _ 0 t.<-t_ F~ (J.3 o) ~ N 2, 97 X/O l / -:: 2.97X.IO- t> = H.. 2) 'l Fvo~ T~ IS '-) CJUA = 2,~ XI O k-t ~ 1 == (ti.. - N.L) i.t:f ::-(t.&/?)(to 21-2.rtx10~~2.txrr/t 3.., -=- ~. l~ /tm. r: ~,is. (.1) o.92~ r o "il.> - r L:::J - L e - e.... 2, "-) {')I> - 6 c;;;.. - \ 4:..- 0 v ~ t ~ -

8 L-fl 1 7. Beginning with the differential rate equations (9.35) and (9.36), solve for the expressions for Nu and Nz as a function of time as given in (9.37) and (9.38). ~'f :: No (ID'< - N"' Aw d..:: ::: N D 1-;.e + /\/ ~ A l{.q_ (q, 3ft;) A-ss UiMe No = tap---rr~-:t (o_ ~et. sc~-bte o_t;.t;v. A --r;r;~) fr.-, 1 ( -A411.:r) ~ a...ss~ ec 50 lt..(_tt/f'\ fv"- /\II.{_~ lvtt::::.c. 1 t-e c, :.. ~!7t>N-1,.,. I ( r;;, ) A r - (,_ e-a"'~ :r\ -n- +- I tu. ) I bt.t

9 {_JI q. 8. Referring to the energy-level diagram of the lead vapor laser of Problem 8 in Chap- \ I ter 4, graph the time dependence of the population inversion (in real time) of the : 3 I 1 Pf D nm laser transition, assuming that (a) the pumping flux to the upper laser level is twice that to the lower laser level and (b) the pumping is applied at a constant rate beginning at t = 0. Assume that radiation trapping prevents any decay to the three levels (3P 2, 3 Pi, 3 P 0 ) below the lower laser level, and assume there is essentially no decay to the higher-lying 1 S 0 level as shown in the figure., : A 1 rr.;- Ac_3,,,, 0 _..., 'i)j-:: lf. "Ix tb s Is ~ 1'-:. -::: f I - = /,I 2. X Io -lt S II\, A "3 P.f) <Z' 1 Xld'l>, - ;r/,, x 10- il s - e '' - { - e-' - N... ( ') - 0,423> ~ /, i;- - I - e

10 L_fl ~ 9. At what electron density would radiation trapping begin to slow down the decay of I the lower laser level of the He-Cd laser transition at nm? Assume a plasma tube radius of 1 mm. Assume that the gas temperature is 350 C and that half of the ions in the discharge are Cd+ ions while the other half are He+ ions. Assume also that there are no other ions in the discharge and that charge neutrality exists: the total electron charge of the free electrons that provide the discharge current equals the total ion charge in the discharge. Use the energy-level diagram and the associated coefficients of Figure 9-7 for the relevant Cd+ energy levels. Hint: The Cd+ ion ground state is the state that causes radiation trapping on the decay of the lower laser level, and its population accounts for half of the free electrons that make up the electron density in the discharge (the other half are He+ ions). f(q_p(( cvfi ' IVtLpp1~ bkw,~~ st~w.;f1i."'j w ~ CJ~ Nti b -=- I, '-I~ (9, '17) CjR ":: 2{!f J t I::: Lf 1" ~ 2 (~J ti ;:_ 2- T= 3~D ::,23~ b:::.ld->vv\,, (

11 Cll At what population density of the argon ion ground state would radiation trapping begin to reduce the population inversion for the laser transition of Problem 4? Assume a discharge tube diameter of 2 mm and a gas temperature of 600 K. ~ it.e -:-- '-I!6 ~. o ""- vv... "'R.o -= 7'2. 3 vi~ lo :::. I lm \,/IA. (Yf N ::.. '-( D (:::- fa 60 (<. f.e = 2~)+ I :: lf 1 D := "2 ( 3/i ) + I :; L( ("-{ 0 ::: /,'-I~ -

12 II(~,) I{- w~ \~L l~~ /\l.t ~ Sott:.e f()r & t..t.a.-1,,,.jro~s 4./-j. ~ lflff'e. td~.._,e;uej '(l..l.e. ~ Aut_::: 2. '7 rx /()I~ 'I H '610 ~ l+.to-= 2: A.1,, -: '5'1 L/.'l'XIO<i-:: 2.~'"/XI0 11 r, ' N.e = I. s x1a~r1.1~x1b" '-J ;;._, 1'-/'>( J{) II r, I.,.. f '[ 7 u 'l." It I. 2.SXJ0 1 q7 -=.., S'I XI i /. ~ --, XI D - e _j :::: I "'' 3 I VV\

13 Cl-/ For the H-like n = n = 2 transition of the B 4 + ion, what is the maximum electron density at which a population inversion could occur for an electron and ion temperature of 300 ev? What would the gain be on that transition under those conditions, assuming that the pumping flux to the lower laser levels (other than radiative decay from the n = 3 level) is negligible? Assume that the population in the upper laser level is io- 5 ne. Note that the transition probabilities for H-like ions scale as Z 4 compared to hydrogen and that A 32 = 4.4 x 10 7 s- 1 for hydrogen. n~)( = o, I 3> {T; Te (I<) 'A~,, '>- ( t.-\ll*'-) ~-= ~ ~ p/!+ ~ ti ~:,--,,3 l S")'- -- Vl e ~ ::: (), /J {?..'f'i'xio" -;::. /, ')'f)(io "l'l/.m.) (2 ~,2~ X ID-~ ) 3

14 12. For a discharge-pumped gas laser medium, assume that the electron pumping flux is twice as great to the upper laser level as to the lower laser level. Also assume! that the decay rate from the lower laser level is twice as great as that from the upper laser level. The decay from the upper laser level goes only to the lower laser level and there is no other source of excitation to either the upper or lower laser levels than those just described. What is the ratio of Nu to Nz under these conditions? What would the value of the trapping factor Fzo (see eqn. 9.45) have to be in order to equalize the populations of the levels? Assume that the statistical weights of both laser levels are the same. c ti.) 1)1 -- d ta_ /\I 4 t!".j l'\/.e CVR - -;u. (' + '~){- r:)ia ) A,o Avi bj ~~:::. tl< ~p _J - Gu - '- A1.o :: 2.. A t.<..t r I 2 - t,3'3 (. ~ -_.., c ; r I f=jc-=: I ) l It :;- ) - "L...

### SOLUTION SET. Chapter 8 LASER OSCILLATION ABOVE THRESHOLD "LASER FUNDAMENTALS" Second Edition

SOLUTION SET Chapter 8 LASER OSCILLATION ABOVE THRESHOLD "LASER FUNDAMENTALS" Second Edition By William T. Silfvast - 1. An argon ion laser (as shown in Figure 10-S(b)) operating at 488.0 nm with a gainregion

### ~,. :'lr. H ~ j. l' ", ...,~l. 0 '" ~ bl '!; 1'1. :<! f'~.., I,," r: t,... r':l G. t r,. 1'1 [<, ."" f'" 1n. t.1 ~- n I'>' 1:1 , I. <1 ~'..

,, 'l t (.) :;,/.I I n ri' ' r l ' rt ( n :' (I : d! n t, :?rj I),.. fl.),. f!..,,., til, ID f-i... j I. 't' r' t II!:t () (l r El,, (fl lj J4 ([) f., () :. -,,.,.I :i l:'!, :I J.A.. t,.. p, - ' I I I

### APPH 4200 Physics of Fluids

APPH 42 Physics of Fluids Problem Solving and Vorticity (Ch. 5) 1.!! Quick Review 2.! Vorticity 3.! Kelvin s Theorem 4.! Examples 1 How to solve fluid problems? (Like those in textbook) Ç"Tt=l I \$T1P#(

### K E L LY T H O M P S O N

K E L LY T H O M P S O N S E A O LO G Y C R E ATO R, F O U N D E R, A N D PA R T N E R K e l l y T h o m p s o n i s t h e c r e a t o r, f o u n d e r, a n d p a r t n e r o f S e a o l o g y, a n e x

### 176 5 t h Fl oo r. 337 P o ly me r Ma te ri al s

A g la di ou s F. L. 462 E l ec tr on ic D ev el op me nt A i ng er A.W.S. 371 C. A. M. A l ex an de r 236 A d mi ni st ra ti on R. H. (M rs ) A n dr ew s P. V. 326 O p ti ca l Tr an sm is si on A p ps

### SOUTHWESTERN ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY SCHEDULE H-6.1b NUCLEAR UNIT OUTAGE DATA. For the Test Year Ended March 31, 2009

Schedule H-6.lb SOUTHWSTRN LCTRIC POWR COMPANY SCHDUL H-6.1b NUCLAR UNIT OUTAG DATA For the Test Year nded March 31, 29 This schedule is not applicable to SVvPCO. 5 Schedule H-6.1 c SOUTHWSTRN LCTRIC POWR

### A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W

A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W Volume 52 Fall 2000 Number 1 B E F O R E D I S A B I L I T Y C I V I L R I G HT S : C I V I L W A R P E N S I O N S A N D TH E P O L I T I C S O F D I S A B I L I T Y I N

### I M P O R T A N T S A F E T Y I N S T R U C T I O N S W h e n u s i n g t h i s e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e, b a s i c p r e c a u t i o n s s h o

I M P O R T A N T S A F E T Y I N S T R U C T I O N S W h e n u s i n g t h i s e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e, b a s i c p r e c a u t i o n s s h o u l d a l w a y s b e t a k e n, i n c l u d f o l

### rhtre PAID U.S. POSTAGE Can't attend? Pass this on to a friend. Cleveland, Ohio Permit No. 799 First Class

rhtr irt Cl.S. POSTAG PAD Cllnd, Ohi Prmit. 799 Cn't ttnd? P thi n t frind. \ ; n l *di: >.8 >,5 G *' >(n n c. if9\$9\$.jj V G. r.t 0 H: u ) ' r x * H > x > i M

### S U E K E AY S S H A R O N T IM B E R W IN D M A R T Z -PA U L L IN. Carlisle Franklin Springboro. Clearcreek TWP. Middletown. Turtlecreek TWP.

F R A N K L IN M A D IS O N S U E R O B E R T LE IC H T Y A LY C E C H A M B E R L A IN T W IN C R E E K M A R T Z -PA U L L IN C O R A O W E N M E A D O W L A R K W R E N N LA N T IS R E D R O B IN F

### P a g e 5 1 of R e p o r t P B 4 / 0 9

P a g e 5 1 of R e p o r t P B 4 / 0 9 J A R T a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e i n t e n t o f N e l s o n s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n i s t o e n h a n c e c o n n e

### OH BOY! Story. N a r r a t iv e a n d o bj e c t s th ea t e r Fo r a l l a g e s, fr o m th e a ge of 9

OH BOY! O h Boy!, was or igin a lly cr eat ed in F r en ch an d was a m a jor s u cc ess on t h e Fr en ch st a ge f or young au di enc es. It h a s b een s een by ap pr ox i ma t ely 175,000 sp ect at

### T h e C S E T I P r o j e c t

T h e P r o j e c t T H E P R O J E C T T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S A r t i c l e P a g e C o m p r e h e n s i v e A s s es s m e n t o f t h e U F O / E T I P h e n o m e n o n M a y 1 9 9 1 1 E T

### Lasers PH 645/ OSE 645/ EE 613 Summer 2010 Section 1: T/Th 2:45-4:45 PM Engineering Building 240

Lasers PH 645/ OSE 645/ EE 613 Summer 2010 Section 1: T/Th 2:45-4:45 PM Engineering Building 240 John D. Williams, Ph.D. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 406 Optics Building - UAHuntsville,

### Software Process Models there are many process model s in th e li t e ra t u re, s om e a r e prescriptions and some are descriptions you need to mode

Unit 2 : Software Process O b j ec t i ve This unit introduces software systems engineering through a discussion of software processes and their principal characteristics. In order to achieve the desireable

### Future Self-Guides. E,.?, :0-..-.,0 Q., 5...q ',D5', 4,] 1-}., d-'.4.., _. ZoltAn Dbrnyei Introduction. u u rt 5,4) ,-,4, a. a aci,, u 4.

te SelfGi ZltAn Dbnyei Intdtin ; ) Q) 4 t? ) t _ 4 73 y S _ E _ p p 4 t t 4) 1_ ::_ J 1 `i () L VI O I4 " " 1 D 4 L e Q) 1 k) QJ 7 j ZS _Le t 1 ej!2 i1 L 77 7 G (4) 4 6 t (1 ;7 bb F) t f; n (i M Q) 7S

### fur \ \,,^N/ D7,,)d.s) 7. The champion and Runner up of the previous year shall be allowed to play directly in final Zone.

OUL O GR SODRY DUTO, ODS,RT,SMTUR,USWR.l ntuctin f cnuct f Kbi ( y/gil)tunent f 2L-Lg t. 2.. 4.. 6. Mtche hll be lye e K ule f ene f tie t tie Dutin f ech tch hll be - +0 (Rece)+ = M The ticint f ech Te

### Lasers PH 645/ OSE 645/ EE 613 Summer 2010 Section 1: T/Th 2:45-4:45 PM Engineering Building 240

Lasers PH 645/ OSE 645/ EE 613 Summer 2010 Section 1: T/Th 2:45-4:45 PM Engineering Building 240 John D. Williams, Ph.D. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 406 Optics Building - UAHuntsville,

### BROOKLYN COLLEGE Department of Chemistry. Chemistry 1 Second Lecture Exam Nov. 27, Name Page 1 of 5

BROOKLYN COLLEGE Department of Chemistry Chemistry 1 Second Lecture Exam Nov. 27, 2002 Name Page 1 of 5 Circle the name of your lab instructor Kobrak, Zhou, Girotto, Hussey, Du Before you begin the exam,

### Using the Rational Root Theorem to Find Real and Imaginary Roots Real roots can be one of two types: ra...-\; 0 or - l (- - ONLl --

Using the Rational Root Theorem to Find Real and Imaginary Roots Real roots can be one of two types: ra...-\; 0 or - l (- - ONLl -- Consider the function h(x) =IJ\ 4-8x 3-12x 2 + 24x {?\whose graph is

### Integrated II: Unit 2 Study Guide 2. Find the value of s. (s - 2) 2 = 200. ~ :-!:[Uost. ~-~::~~n. '!JJori. s: ~ &:Ll()J~

Name: 1. Find the value of r., (r + 4) 2 = 48 4_ {1 1:. r l f 11i),_ == :r (t~ : t %J3 (t:; KL\J5 ~ ~ v~~f3] ntegrated : Unit 2 Study Guide 2. Find the value of s. (s 2) 2 = 200 ~ :!:[Uost ~~::~~n '!JJori

### Keep this exam closed until you are told to begin.

Name: (please print) Signature: ECE 2300 -- Exam #1 October 11, 2014 Keep this exam closed until you are told to begin. 1. This exam is closed book, closed notes. You may use one 8.5 x 11 crib sheet, or

### The Periodic Table. Periodic Properties. Can you explain this graph? Valence Electrons. Valence Electrons. Paramagnetism

Periodic Properties Atomic & Ionic Radius Energy Electron Affinity We want to understand the variations in these properties in terms of electron configurations. The Periodic Table Elements in a column

### c. What is the average rate of change of f on the interval [, ]? Answer: d. What is a local minimum value of f? Answer: 5 e. On what interval(s) is f

Essential Skills Chapter f ( x + h) f ( x ). Simplifying the difference quotient Section. h f ( x + h) f ( x ) Example: For f ( x) = 4x 4 x, find and simplify completely. h Answer: 4 8x 4 h. Finding the

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom.

178 (MAGNETIC) SPIN QUANTUM NUMBER: "spin down" or "spin up" - An ORBITAL (region with fixed "n", "l" and "ml" values) can hold TWO electrons. ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum

### Exhibit 2-9/30/15 Invoice Filing Page 1841 of Page 3660 Docket No

xhibit 2-9/3/15 Invie Filing Pge 1841 f Pge 366 Dket. 44498 F u v 7? u ' 1 L ffi s xs L. s 91 S'.e q ; t w W yn S. s t = p '1 F? 5! 4 ` p V -', {} f6 3 j v > ; gl. li -. " F LL tfi = g us J 3 y 4 @" V)

### Beechwood Music Department Staff

Beechwood Music Department Staff MRS SARAH KERSHAW - HEAD OF MUSIC S a ra h K e rs h a w t r a i n e d a t t h e R oy a l We ls h C o l le g e of M u s i c a n d D ra m a w h e re s h e ob t a i n e d

### 2.' -4-5 I fo. - /30 + ;3, x + G: ~ / ~ ) ~ ov. Fd'r evt.'i') cutckf' ()y\e.._o OYLt dtt:vl. t'"'i ~ _) y =.5_21/2-+. 8"'- 2.

Statistics 100 Sample FINAL Instructions: I. WORK ALL PROBLEMS. Please, give details and explanations and SHOW ALL YOUR WORK so that partial credits can be given. 2. You may use four pages of notes, tables

### Chapter II TRIANGULAR NUMBERS

Chapter II TRIANGULAR NUMBERS Part of this work contained in this chapter has resulted in the following publications: Gopalan, M.A. and Jayakuar, P. "Note on triangular nubers in arithetic progression",

### SOLUTION SET. Chapter 6 RADIATION AND THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM - ABSORPTION AND STIMULATED EMISSION "LASER FUNDAMENTALS" Second Edition

SOLUTION SET Chapter 6 RADIATION AND THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM - ABSORPTION AND STIMULATED EMISSION "LASER FUNDAMENTALS" Second Edition By William T. Silfvast Cll ~ 1. Calculate the number of radiation modes

### If anything confuses you or is not clear, raise your hand and ask!

CHM 1045 Dr. Light s Section December 10, 2002 FINAL EXAM Name (please print) Recitation Section Meeting Time This exam consists of six pages. Make sure you have one of each. Print your name at the top

### Speed of light c = m/s. x n e a x d x = 1. 2 n+1 a n π a. He Li Ne Na Ar K Ni 58.

Physical Chemistry II Test Name: KEY CHEM 464 Spring 18 Chapters 7-11 Average = 1. / 16 6 questions worth a total of 16 points Planck's constant h = 6.63 1-34 J s Speed of light c = 3. 1 8 m/s ħ = h π

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### i;\-'i frz q > R>? >tr E*+ [S I z> N g> F 'x sa :r> >,9 T F >= = = I Y E H H>tr iir- g-i I * s I!,i --' - = a trx - H tnz rqx o >.F g< s Ire tr () -s

5 C /? >9 T > ; '. ; J ' ' J. \ ;\' \.> ). L; c\ u ( (J ) \ 1 ) : C ) (... >\ > 9 e!) T C). '1!\ /_ \ '\ ' > 9 C > 9.' \( T Z > 9 > 5 P + 9 9 ) :> : + (. \ z : ) z cf C : u 9 ( :!z! Z c (! \$ f 1 :.1 f.

### r(j) -::::.- --X U.;,..;...-h_D_Vl_5_ :;;2.. Name: ~s'~o--=-i Class; Date: ID: A

Name: ~s'~o--=-i Class; Date: U.;,..;...-h_D_Vl_5 _ MAC 2233 Chapter 4 Review for the test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Find the derivative

### Solutions and Ions. Pure Substances

Class #4 Solutions and Ions CHEM 107 L.S. Brown Texas A&M University Pure Substances Pure substance: described completely by a single chemical formula Fixed composition 1 Mixtures Combination of 2 or more

### Laser Spectroscopy on Bunched Radioactive Ion Beams

Laser Spectroscopy on Bunched Radioactive Ion Beams Jon Billowes University of Manchester Balkan School on Nuclear Physics, Bodrum 2004 Lecture 1. 1.1 Nuclear moments 1.2 Hyperfine interaction in free

### 4 4 N v b r t, 20 xpr n f th ll f th p p l t n p pr d. H ndr d nd th nd f t v L th n n f th pr v n f V ln, r dn nd l r thr n nt pr n, h r th ff r d nd

n r t d n 20 20 0 : 0 T P bl D n, l d t z d http:.h th tr t. r pd l 4 4 N v b r t, 20 xpr n f th ll f th p p l t n p pr d. H ndr d nd th nd f t v L th n n f th pr v n f V ln, r dn nd l r thr n nt pr n,

### 8. Relax and do well.

CHEM 1314 3;30 pm Theory Exam III John III. Gelder November 13, 2002 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 8 different pages. The last page include a periodic

### 4 8 N v btr 20, 20 th r l f ff nt f l t. r t pl n f r th n tr t n f h h v lr d b n r d t, rd n t h h th t b t f l rd n t f th rld ll b n tr t d n R th

n r t d n 20 2 :24 T P bl D n, l d t z d http:.h th tr t. r pd l 4 8 N v btr 20, 20 th r l f ff nt f l t. r t pl n f r th n tr t n f h h v lr d b n r d t, rd n t h h th t b t f l rd n t f th rld ll b n

### STEEL PIPE NIPPLE BLACK AND GALVANIZED

Price Sheet Effective August 09, 2018 Supersedes CWN-218 A Member of The Phoenix Forge Group CapProducts LTD. Phone: 519-482-5000 Fax: 519-482-7728 Toll Free: 800-265-5586 www.capproducts.com www.capitolcamco.com

### ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom.

160 ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom. 4p 3d 4s 3p 3s 2p 2s 1s Each blank represents an ORBITAL, and can hold two electrons. The 4s subshell

### Lecture10: Plasma Physics 1. APPH E6101x Columbia University

Lecture10: Plasma Physics 1 APPH E6101x Columbia University Last Lecture - Conservation principles in magnetized plasma frozen-in and conservation of particles/flux tubes) - Alfvén waves without plasma

### 46 D b r 4, 20 : p t n f r n b P l h tr p, pl t z r f r n. nd n th t n t d f t n th tr ht r t b f l n t, nd th ff r n b ttl t th r p rf l pp n nt n th

n r t d n 20 0 : T P bl D n, l d t z d http:.h th tr t. r pd l 46 D b r 4, 20 : p t n f r n b P l h tr p, pl t z r f r n. nd n th t n t d f t n th tr ht r t b f l n t, nd th ff r n b ttl t th r p rf l

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### n r t d n :4 T P bl D n, l d t z d th tr t. r pd l

n r t d n 20 20 :4 T P bl D n, l d t z d http:.h th tr t. r pd l 2 0 x pt n f t v t, f f d, b th n nd th P r n h h, th r h v n t b n p d f r nt r. Th t v v d pr n, h v r, p n th pl v t r, d b p t r b R

### MANY ELECTRON ATOMS Chapter 15

MANY ELECTRON ATOMS Chapter 15 Electron-Electron Repulsions (15.5-15.9) The hydrogen atom Schrödinger equation is exactly solvable yielding the wavefunctions and orbitals of chemistry. Howev er, the Schrödinger

### NAME: FIRST EXAMINATION

1 Chemistry 64 Winter 1994 NAME: FIRST EXAMINATION THIS EXAMINATION IS WORTH 100 POINTS AND CONTAINS 4 (FOUR) QUESTIONS THEY ARE NOT EQUALLY WEIGHTED! YOU SHOULD ATTEMPT ALL QUESTIONS AND ALLOCATE YOUR

### ,. *â â > V>V. â ND * 828.

BL D,. *â â > V>V Z V L. XX. J N R â J N, 828. LL BL D, D NB R H â ND T. D LL, TR ND, L ND N. * 828. n r t d n 20 2 2 0 : 0 T http: hdl.h ndl.n t 202 dp. 0 02802 68 Th N : l nd r.. N > R, L X. Fn r f,

### Chemistry 2 Exam Roane State Academic Festival. Name (print neatly) School

Name (print neatly) School There are fifteen question on this exam. Each question is weighted equally. n the answer sheet, write your name in the space provided and your answers in the blanks provided.

### Lab Day and Time: Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start.

Name: Lab Day and Time: Instructions 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. 2. This exam is closed note and closed book. You are not allowed to use any outside material while taking this

### VIIIA H PREDICTING CHARGE

58 IA PREDICTING CHARGE VIIIA H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA You can reliably determine the charge using our method for Groups IA, IIA, IIIB, Aluminum, and the Group VA, VIA, and VIIA NONMETALS Li Be B C N

### ECE430 Name 5 () ( '-'1-+/~ Or"- f w.s. Section: (Circle One) 10 MWF 12:30 TuTh (Sauer) (Liu) TOTAL: USEFUL INFORMATION

" ~~~~~,",,_~"",,"cr,~ - r " ECE430 Name 5 () ( '-'1-+/~ Or"- f ws Exam #2 (print Name) Spring 2005 Section: (Circle One) 10 MWF 12:30 TuTh (Sauer) (Liu) Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 TOTAL:

### CATAVASII LA NAȘTEREA DOMNULUI DUMNEZEU ȘI MÂNTUITORULUI NOSTRU, IISUS HRISTOS. CÂNTAREA I-A. Ήχος Πα. to os se e e na aș te e e slă ă ă vi i i i i

CATAVASII LA NAȘTEREA DOMNULUI DUMNEZEU ȘI MÂNTUITORULUI NOSTRU, IISUS HRISTOS. CÂNTAREA I-A Ήχος α H ris to os s n ș t slă ă ă vi i i i i ți'l Hris to o os di in c ru u uri, în tâm pi i n ți i'l Hris

### necessita d'interrogare il cielo

gigi nei necessia d'inegae i cie cic pe sax span s inuie a dispiegaa fma dea uce < affeandi ves i cen dea uce isnane " sienzi dei padi sie veic dei' anima 5 J i f H 5 f AL J) i ) L '3 J J "' U J J ö'

### CHEM 10113, Quiz 5 October 26, 2011

CHEM 10113, Quiz 5 October 26, 2011 Name (please print) All equations must be balanced and show phases for full credit. Significant figures count, show charges as appropriate, and please box your answers!

### 5 questions, 3 points each, 15 points total possible. 26 Fe Cu Ni Co Pd Ag Ru 101.

Physical Chemistry II Lab CHEM 4644 spring 2017 final exam KEY 5 questions, 3 points each, 15 points total possible h = 6.626 10-34 J s c = 3.00 10 8 m/s 1 GHz = 10 9 s -1. B= h 8π 2 I ν= 1 2 π k μ 6 P

Сборник 2 fhxn "HeHo, Dolty!" HAL LEONARD D/X/ELAND COMBO PAK 2 Music and Lyric by JERRY HERMÁN Arranged by PAUL SEVERSON CLARNET jy f t / / 6f /* t ü.. r 3 p i

### R e p u b lic o f th e P h ilip p in e s. R e g io n V II, C e n tra l V isa y a s. C ity o f T a g b ila ran

R e p u b l f th e P h lp p e D e p rt e t f E d u t R e V, e tr l V y D V N F B H L ty f T b l r Ju ly, D V N M E M R A N D U M N. 0,. L T F E N R H G H H L F F E R N G F R 6 M P L E M E N T A T N T :,

### Atomic Emission Spectra. and. Flame Tests. Burlingame High School Chemistry

Atomic Structure Atomic Emission Spectra and Flame Tests Flame Tests Sodium potassium lithium When electrons are excited they bump up to a higher energy level. As they bounce back down they release energy

### I-1. rei. o & A ;l{ o v(l) o t. e 6rf, \o. afl. 6rt {'il l'i. S o S S. l"l. \o a S lrh S \ S s l'l {a ra \o r' tn \$ ra S \ S SG{ \$ao. \ S l"l. \ (?

>. 1! = * l >'r : ^, : - fr). ;1,!/!i ;(?= f: r*. fl J :!= J; J- >. Vf i - ) CJ ) ṯ,- ( r k : ( l i ( l 9 ) ( ;l fr i) rf,? l i =r, [l CB i.l.!.) -i l.l l.!. * (.1 (..i -.1.! r ).!,l l.r l ( i b i i '9,

### Atomic weight: This is a decimal number, but for radioactive elements it is replaced with a number in parenthesis.

47 Blocks on the periodic table 11 Sodium 22.99 Atomic number: This is always a whole number. The periodic table is arranged by atomic number! Element symbol: A one or two letter abbreviation for the name

### 8. Relax and do well.

CHEM 1215 Exam III John III. Gelder November 11, 1998 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 7 different pages. The last page includes a periodic table and

### Ranking accounting, banking and finance journals: A note

MPRA Munich Personal RePEc Archive Ranking accounting, banking and finance ournals: A note George Halkos and Nickolaos Tzeremes University of Thessaly, Department of Economics January 2012 Online at https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/36166/

### I N A C O M P L E X W O R L D

IS L A M I C E C O N O M I C S I N A C O M P L E X W O R L D E x p l o r a t i o n s i n A g-b eanste d S i m u l a t i o n S a m i A l-s u w a i l e m 1 4 2 9 H 2 0 0 8 I s l a m i c D e v e l o p m e

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### Chapter 12 The Atom & Periodic Table- part 2

Chapter 12 The Atom & Periodic Table- part 2 Electrons found outside the nucleus; negatively charged Protons found in the nucleus; positive charge equal in magnitude to the electron s negative charge Neutrons

### INSTRUCTIONS: Exam III. November 10, 1999 Lab Section

CHEM 1215 Exam III John III. Gelder November 10, 1999 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 7 different pages. The last page includes a periodic table and

### Element Cube Project (x2)

Element Cube Project (x2) Background: As a class, we will construct a three dimensional periodic table by each student selecting two elements in which you will need to create an element cube. Helpful Links

### -"l" also contributes ENERGY. Higher values for "l" mean the electron has higher energy.

175 - Giving the four parameters will uniquely identify an electron around an atom. No two electrons in the same atom can share all four. These parameters are called QUANTUM NUMBERS. PRINCIPAL QUANTUM

### Le Chatelier's Principle. 2. How changes in each factor affect equilibrium (Le Chatelier's Principle)

Chern 12 Notes 11.4 - Le Chatelier's Principle Goals are to learn: 1. The factors that can cause changes in a system at equilibrium 2. How changes in each factor affect equilibrium (Le Chatelier's Principle)

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds!

69 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### 828.^ 2 F r, Br n, nd t h. n, v n lth h th n l nd h d n r d t n v l l n th f v r x t p th l ft. n ll n n n f lt ll th t p n nt r f d pp nt nt nd, th t

2Â F b. Th h ph rd l nd r. l X. TH H PH RD L ND R. L X. F r, Br n, nd t h. B th ttr h ph rd. n th l f p t r l l nd, t t d t, n n t n, nt r rl r th n th n r l t f th f th th r l, nd d r b t t f nn r r pr

### ,.*Hffi;;* SONAI, IUERCANTII,N I,IMITDII REGD- 0FFICE: 105/33, VARDHMAN GotD[N PLNLA,R0AD No.44, pitampura, DELHI *ffigfk"

\$ S, URCT,,MTD RGD 0C: 10/, VRDM G[ LL,R0D.44, ptmpur, DL114 C: l22ldll98l,c0224gb, eb:.nlmernte.m T, Dte: 17h tber, 201 BS Lmted hre ]eejeebhy Ter Dll Street Mumb 41 The Mnger (Ltng) Delh Stk xhnge /1,

Radiometric Dating (tap anywhere) Protons Neutrons Electrons Elements on the periodic table are STABLE Elements can have radioactive versions of itself called ISOTOPES!! Page 1 in your ESRT has your list!

### A/P Warrants. June 15, To Approve. To Ratify. Authorize the City Manager to approve such expenditures as are legally due and

T. 7 TY LS ALATS A/P rrnts June 5, 5 Pges: To Approve - 5 89, 54.3 A/P rrnts 6/ 5/ 5 Subtotl \$ 89, 54. 3 To Rtify Pges: 6-, 34. 98 Advnce rrnts 5/ 6/ 5-4 3, 659. 94 Advnce rrnts 6/ / 5 4, 7. 69 June Retirees

### Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in the Columns!

Chemistry 1304.001 Name (please print) Exam 5 (100 points) April 18, 2018 On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this exam. Signed Date Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in

### Chemistry 1 First Lecture Exam Fall Abbasi Khajo Levine Mathias Mathias/Ortiz Metlitsky Rahi Sanchez-Delgado Vasserman

Chemistry 1 First Lecture Exam Fall 2011 Page 1 of 9 NAME Circle the name of your recitation/lab instructor(s) Abbasi Khajo Levine Mathias Mathias/Ortiz Metlitsky Rahi Sanchez-Delgado Vasserman Before

### Atomic weight: This is a decimal number, but for radioactive elements it is replaced with a number in parenthesis.

47 Blocks on the periodic table 11 Sodium 22.99 Atomic number: This is always a whole number. The periodic table is arranged by atomic number! Element symbol: A one or two letter abbreviation for the name

### Ch. 9 NOTES ~ Chemical Bonding NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics.

Ch. 9 NOTES ~ Chemical Bonding NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I. Review: Comparison of ionic and molecular compounds Molecular compounds Ionic

THS PAGE DECLASSFED AW E0 2958 BL K THS PAGE DECLASSFED AW E0 2958 THS PAGE DECLASSFED AW E0 2958 B L K THS PAGE DECLASSFED AW E0 2958 THS PAGE DECLASSFED AW EO 2958 THS PAGE DECLASSFED AW EO 2958 THS

### Atoms and the Periodic Table

Atoms and the Periodic Table Parts of the Atom Proton Found in the nucleus Number of protons defines the element Charge +1, mass 1 Parts of the Atom Neutron Found in the nucleus Stabilizes the nucleus

### -"l" also contributes ENERGY. Higher values for "l" mean the electron has higher energy.

170 - Giving the four parameters will uniquely identify an electron around an atom. No two electrons in the same atom can share all four. These parameters are called QUANTUM NUMBERS. PRINCIPAL QUANTUM

### INSTRUCTIONS: CHEM Exam I. September 13, 1994 Lab Section

CHEM 1314.05 Exam I John I. Gelder September 13, 1994 Name TA's Name Lab Section Please sign your name below to give permission to post, by the last 4 digits of your student I.D. number, your course scores

### Grilled it ems are prepared over real mesquit e wood CREATE A COMBO STEAKS. Onion Brewski Sirloin * Our signature USDA Choice 12 oz. Sirloin.

TT & L Gl v l q T l q TK v i f i ' i i T K L G ' T G!? Ti 10 (Pik 3) -F- L P ki - ik T ffl i zzll ik Fi Pikl x i f l \$3 (li 2) i f i i i - i f i jlñ i 84 6 - f ki i Fi 6 T i ffl i 10 -i i fi & i i ffl

### Lab Day and Time: Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start.

Name: Lab Day and Time: Instructions 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. 2. This exam is closed note and closed book. You are not allowed to use any outside material while taking this

### HANDOUT SET GENERAL CHEMISTRY II

HANDOUT SET GENERAL CHEMISTRY II Periodic Table of the Elements 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 IA VIIIA 1 2 H He 1.00794 IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 4.00262 3 Li 6.941 11 Na 22.9898

### - Atomic line spectra are UNIQUE to each element. They're like atomic "fingerprints".

- Atomic line spectra are UNIQUE to each element. They're like atomic "fingerprints". - Problem was that the current model of the atom completely failed to explain why atoms emitted these lines. An orbit

### Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST D

Lesson eight What are characteristics of chemical reactions? Science Constructing Explanations, Engaging in Argument and Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS Reading

### 7. Relax and do well.

CHEM 1215 Exam II John II. Gelder October 7, 1998 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 5 different pages. The last page includes a periodic table and a solubility

### POLYTECHNIC OF NAMIBIA

POLYTECHNIC OF NAMIBIA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SCIENCES BACHELOR OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HEALTH SCIENCE CHEMISTRY (HSC 511S) NQF level 5 SECOND OPPORTUNITY EXAMINATION November 2014 TIME: MARKS:

### IONIC COMPOUNDS. - USUALLY form from metals combining with nonmetals, or from metals combining with metalloids

52 IONIC COMPOUNDS - USUALLY form from metals combining with nonmetals, or from metals combining with metalloids Examples: - almost always solid at room temperature, and usually have relatively high melting

### CHEM 130 Exp. 8: Molecular Models

CHEM 130 Exp. 8: Molecular Models In this lab, we will learn and practice predicting molecular structures from molecular formulas. The Periodic Table of the Elements IA 1 H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 3 5

### single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides MC2

single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides MC2 Period 1 1 H 18 He 2 Group 1 2 Li Be Group 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C N O F Ne 3 4 Na K Mg Ca Group 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Al Ga

### CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 4: Matter and materials 1

CLASS TEST GRADE PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 4: Matter and materials MARKS: 45 TIME: hour INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION. Answer ALL the questions. 2. You may use non-programmable calculators. 3. You

### The Periodic Table of the Elements

The Periodic Table of the Elements All matter is composed of elements. All of the elements are composed of atoms. An atom is the smallest part of an element which still retains the properties of that element.

### Unique phenomena of tungsten associated with fusion reactor: uncertainties of stable hydrogen configuration tapped in tungsten vacancy

Unique phenomena of tungsten associated with fusion reactor: uncertainties of stable hydrogen configuration tapped in tungsten vacancy Kyushu University Kazuhito Ohsawa Technical Meeting of the International