# Calculus for the Life Sciences II Assignment 6 solutions. f(x, y) = 3π 3 cos 2x + 2 sin 3y

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1 Calculus for the Life Sciences II Assignment 6 solutions Find the tangent plane to the graph of the function at the point (0, π f(x, y = 3π 3 cos 2x + 2 sin 3y Solution: The tangent plane of f at a point (a, b is given by the equation ( x a z = f(a, b + gradf(a, b y b Here (a, b = (0, π The x-partial derivative of f, f, is obtained by treating y as a constant and taking the derivative with respect to x: here it is given by sin 2x + 0 = 6 sin 2x Similarly f = 6 cos 3y, and so ( f gradf =, f = (6 sin 2x, 6 cos 3y For the tangent plane (or linear approximation, we evaluate the gradient at the specified point (0, π, that is, we plug in 0 for x and π for y: gradf(a, b = gradf(0, π = (0, 6 So the tangent plane is given by ( x a z =f(a, b + gradf(a, b y b ( x =f(0, π + (0, 6 y π ( x =(3π (0, 6 y π =(3π x + ( 6(y π =9π 3 6y Alternatively we could have used the equivalent formula for the tangent plane z = f(a, b + f f (a, b(x a + (a, b(y b

2 2 Find the (2,2-entry of the Jacobian matrix of the function [ ] x F (x, y = 2 y + 2xe y x/y 3ye x at the point (2, Solution: The Jacobian of F = ( f is given by g J = ( f The (2,2 entry means the second row, second column ((i, j th entry is the entry in the i th row and j th column, that is, Here g, the second row of F, is the function x/y 3ye x Its y-partial derivative is f = (x/y 3ye x = xy 2 3e x We are asked to evaluate this at the point (2, ; in other words, plug in 2 for x and for y: (2, = 2 2 3e 2 = 2 3e 2 3 Consider the following system of linear differential equations: dx dt = x + y dy dt = 4x y (a Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors associated with the system (b Write down the general solution formula for the system (c Give the particular solution for the initial values x(0 = 2, y(0 = 2 (d Draw the x- and y-nullclines and the direction arrows in the phase plane (e Sketch the solution curve for the initial condition in part (c into the phase plane (f Is the point (0,0 stable or unstable? Classify this equilibrium Solution: (a The matrix associated to the system is the matrix of coefficients in the differential equations: ( A = 4 2

3 Its eigenvalues are the roots of ( λ det(a λi = det = ( λ( λ 4 = λ 2 +2λ 3 = (λ+3(λ, 4 λ namely λ = 3, (We could use the quadratic formula instead of factoring directly; in general the quadratic formula will be necessary We find the eigenvectors for each eigenvalue λ by solving (A λiv = 0 by row reduction For λ = 3, ( 2 A λi =, 4 2 and the augmented matrix is immediately row-reduced to ( / The general solution to this (ie to x + /2x 2 = 0 is ( ( x t/2 v = = = t t and an eigenvector corresponding to λ = 3 is ( /2 v = x 2 ( /2 (We took t = here Alternatively we could take t = 2, which gives the eigenvector ( 2 Similarly we find that v 2 = ( /2 is an eigenvector for the eigenvalue λ 2 = (b The general solution is ( x y = C e λ t v + C 2 e λ 2t v 2 = C e 3t ( /2, ( /2 + C 2 e t = ( /2C e 3t + /2C 2 e t C e 3t + C 2 e t so x = /2C e 3t + /2C 2 e t, y = C e 3t + C 2 e t, with C and C 2 arbitrary constants (c At t = 0, x = /2C + /2C 2 and y = C + C 2, so we need to solve the linear system /2C + /2C 2 = 2 C + C 2 = 2 We can use any method we like, such as row-reduction, to find that there is a single solution, with C = 3, C 2 = The particular solution is therefore ( ( x 3/2e = 3t + /2e t y 3e 3t + e t, 3

4 (We should verify that this really is a solution of the system of differential equations and that it takes the specified initial values (d The x-nullcline is the solutions to x + y = 0, which is the line y = x The y-nullcline is the solutions to 4x y = 0, which is the line y = 4x (e,(f See picture at the end The arrows are obtained by taking various points (x, y along the nullclines (or the initial condition point (2, 2, and plotting the vector ( x + y, 4x y originating from that point The curve is obtained by taking various values for t (t = 0, 05,, and plotting the (x(t, y(t pairs, where x and y are given by the functions in part (c (g Note that (0, 0 is the only equilibrium point This will be true for any linear system of differential equations Since one of the eigenvalues (λ 2 = has positive real part, this equilibrium is unstable We can further see that the system is unstable since the particular solution in part (c heads off to infinity, not towards (0,0, as time t gets larger and larger 4 Consider a disease that propogates according to the system dx dt dy dt = 2 0xy 03x = 0xy 6y where x represents susceptible individuals, y represents infected individuals (a Find all biologically meaningful steady states (b Show that the Jacobian matrix of this system is given by [ 03 0y ] 0x 0y 0x 6 (c For the biologically meaningful steady states from (a, find the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix (d Determine the stability of the biologically meaningful steady states Solution: Biologically meaningful here simply means that the numbers are not negative The steady states (= equilibrium points are the places where both 2 0xy 03x = 0 and 0xy 6y = 0 The second equation is easier (since we can factor it so we deal with it first: y(0x 6 = 0 when y = 0 or when x = 6/0 = 60 For each of these cases we plug the given value into the first equation (which must also hold If y = 0, then the first equation says that 2 03x = 0, so x = 2/03 = 40 Therefore (40, 0 is one equilibrium The only other case is when x = 60 Here, the first equation says that 2 0(60y 03(60 = 0, so 6y = 6 and y = Therefore (60, is another equilibrium, and there are no others This equilibrium point is not biologically meaningful since its second coordinate is negative 4

5 (b The Jacobian of is given by ( f = g ( 2 0xy 03x 0xy 6y J = ( f We just have to confirm four partial derivatives were given correctly So, for example, f (2 0xy 03x = 03 0y (c We have one biologically meaningful steady states: (40,0 We plug x = 40, y = 0 into the formula given in part (b for JL ( 03 4 J(40, 0 = 0 2 This matrix is upper-triangular (since the only entry below the main diagonal is zero, so its eigenvalues are its diagonal entries: 03 and 2 (d Since the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix at the equilibrium have negative real part (in fact, are negative real numbers, we can conclude that this equilibrium is stable What this means in concrete terms is that starting from any population with any infection rate, after enough time the end result will be that x is very close to 60 and y is very close to 0; in other words the disease will be wiped out in time 5

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