1B40 Practical Skills


 Bernadette Gray
 4 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 B40 Prcticl Skills Comining uncertinties from severl quntities error propgtion We usully encounter situtions where the result of n experiment is given in terms of two (or more) quntities. We then need to know wht is the error on the finl nswer in terms of the uncertinties on the individul quntities. We will discuss some specific cses; summry ppers t the end. Liner cses A simple cse is where the result Z is liner sum of two other quntities A nd B e.g.. If A hs the vlue ± δnd B the vlue ± δthen Z hs the vlue ± δ. How is δ relted to δ ndδ? We might expect tht δ δ δ. However this could led to the nonsense result thtδ 0! We could decide to consider the mximum possile error nd simply dd the mgnitudes of δ ndδ. This would e n overestimtion of the error. We know tht more sensile pproch is to consider stndrd devitions. Thus if we squre ( δ) ( δ) ( δ) δδ. Over lrge numer of mesurements we would expect tht if δ nd δ re oth eqully positive nd negtive nd not correlted to ech other then the verge vlue δδ is ero. Hence ( δ ) ( δ) ( δ) nd we dd the errors on nd in qudrture. Note the result would hve een the sme if. A forml derivtion of the result is s follows [ ] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) cov.
2 The lst term involves the covrince of nd. This is mesure of whether their errors re correlted or not. It cn e positive or negtive or in the cse where they re uncorrelted ero. Its vlue is relted to the extent tht vlue of δ ffects tht of δ. Products nd quotients If then δ ( δ)( δ) δ δ δδ δ δ δ δδ. To firstorder in the errors δ δ δ. Since we don t know the signs of the uncertinties we squre nd verge over lrge numer of mesurements ( δ) ( δ ) ( δ) ( δ)( δ) ( δ ) ( δ) ( δ) ( δ)( δ). If the uncertinties in nd δ nd δ re uncorrelted ( δ)( δ ) 0 nd δ δ δ Thus in this cse we dd in qudrture the frctionl errors. If then ( δ / ) ( δ / ) δ δ δ δ δ δ δ δ δ δ δ. where in the second line we hve use the inomil pproximtion for δ δ when δ/. Just s in the liner cse we don t know the sign of the uncertinties so squring s efore.
3 δ δ δ δ δ δ δ δ if the errors re uncorrelted. Thus lso in this cse we dd in qudrture the frctionl errors.. Functions of single vrile Suppose we hve mesured quntity A nd determined its vlue s ± δ. The reson A ws mesured ws to provide n indirect mesurement of quntity Z which is known function of A i.e. f(). Wht is the est estimte for ± δ? The grph illustrtes such cse for. 0 8 (dz/da) DA/DZ DA ZA DZ A A The uncertinty δz in Z is relted to tht in A y 3
4 d δ d This is equivlent to ssuming tht f() is liner over the smll region we re considering nd we evlute the differentil t the men of the mesurements. This is generl result. Three exmples re d δ n n ) n giving n. ) d d δ ln δ d d exp exp d giving. δ 0 δ δ. 3) ( ) ( ) giving δ. Functions of Severl Vriles If f() nd the uncertinties in A nd B re given y δ nd δ respectively we mke the sme pproximtion s efore i.e. is liner function of nd in the relevnt region so tht we cn write The quntity δ. δ δ A 0 B 0 is clled prtil derivtive. You will lern more out these in your mthemtics courses (if you hven t lredy met them). To otin n expression for we consider s function of the vrile ll other quntities re considered s constnt nd differentite the expression for in the norml wy. As efore the signs of the uncertinties re not known so we squre the expression nd verge over mny mesurements ( δ) ( δ) ( δ) ( δ)( δ). ( δ ) ( δ) ( δ) ( δ)( δ) The lst term is ero if A nd B re independent vriles s there is equl proility of positive nd negtive comintions of δ nd δ whose verge is therefore ero. Thus ( δ ) ( δ) ( δ) This cn e extended to more vriles y dding further similr terms vi. 4
5 All the erlier exmples e.g. generl result given ove. c. c or / re just specil cses of the Correlted uncertinties Most of the mesurements of quntities you will meet in the lortory course re uncorrelted or t lest wekly correlted. So the sutle effects of correltions will usully e ignored. However it is worth considering n extreme cse to illustrte their effects. Consider the simple cse of. The error on is given y If then this result leds to.. Yet if we hd strted from we would immeditely get δ δnd hence in contrdiction to the previous result. The ltter is correct the former is wrong s it hs not llowed for the correltion etween nd ( ) which is of course 00%. We hve ( δ)( δ) 0 in fct cov( ). Exmple Consider tht quntity is dependent on quntities nd c in the following wy α β exp ( c) where α nd β re constnts. (This is contrived expression simply for the purposes of this exercise!) We wnt to find the error on in terms of those on nd c. We cn proceed either y pplying the formule for the vrious specil cses considered ove or the generl formul. Cse pply specil cse formule. Let / y β exp( c) nd p y then By differentition / α y α p. 5
6 nd so δ / p y δ y ( δ) ( αδ) ( δ p) 4. 4y ( δ) α ( δ) ( δy) But ( δ y) δ ( ) β δ ( c ) [ ] [ exp( )] ( δ y) ( δ) β c ( δc) Thus comining the results we get ( ) ( ) 4 exp( ). δ 4α δ 4 ( δ) β exp( c) ( δc). 4 exp( ) ( β c ) Cse ppliction of generl formul. By prtil differentition we hve The generl formul then gives α c exp( ) c c exp( ) ( β c ) c ( c) β exp. c 4α 4 β exp( c) c. 4 exp( ) 6
7 Summry of error propgtion formule If quntities nd hve errors nd respectively nd re uncorrelted nd k nd n re constnts then if quntity n error on quntity n ; ; ; ; / ; n n n ; n n ln( ) exp( ) e e k e k k k sin( k) kcos( k) Note nd re in rdins! ( ) f c f f f c c In complex expressions either pply the generl result from the lst row or rek the expression down into sums products nd quotients nd pply the seprte formule nd comine the results. 7
Polynomials and Division Theory
Higher Checklist (Unit ) Higher Checklist (Unit ) Polynomils nd Division Theory Skill Achieved? Know tht polynomil (expression) is of the form: n x + n x n + n x n + + n x + x + 0 where the i R re the
More informationpadic Egyptian Fractions
padic Egyptin Frctions Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Trditionl Egyptin Frctions nd Greedy Algorithm 2 3 Setup 3 4 pgreedy Algorithm 5 5 pegyptin Trditionl 10 6 Conclusion 1 Introduction An Egyptin frction
More informationQuadratic Forms. Quadratic Forms
Qudrtic Forms Recll the Simon & Blume excerpt from n erlier lecture which sid tht the min tsk of clculus is to pproximte nonliner functions with liner functions. It s ctully more ccurte to sy tht we pproximte
More informationDiscrete Mathematics and Probability Theory Summer 2014 James Cook Note 17
CS 70 Discrete Mthemtics nd Proility Theory Summer 2014 Jmes Cook Note 17 I.I.D. Rndom Vriles Estimting the is of coin Question: We wnt to estimte the proportion p of Democrts in the US popultion, y tking
More informationDiscrete Mathematics and Probability Theory Spring 2013 Anant Sahai Lecture 17
EECS 70 Discrete Mthemtics nd Proility Theory Spring 2013 Annt Shi Lecture 17 I.I.D. Rndom Vriles Estimting the is of coin Question: We wnt to estimte the proportion p of Democrts in the US popultion,
More informationBases for Vector Spaces
Bses for Vector Spces 22625 A set is independent if, roughly speking, there is no redundncy in the set: You cn t uild ny vector in the set s liner comintion of the others A set spns if you cn uild everything
More information2.4 Linear Inequalities and Interval Notation
.4 Liner Inequlities nd Intervl Nottion We wnt to solve equtions tht hve n inequlity symol insted of n equl sign. There re four inequlity symols tht we will look t: Less thn , Less thn or
More informationThe practical version
Roerto s Notes on Integrl Clculus Chpter 4: Definite integrls nd the FTC Section 7 The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus: The prcticl version Wht you need to know lredy: The theoreticl version of the FTC. Wht
More informationACCESS TO SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURE: MATHEMATICS 1 MATH00030 SEMESTER /2019
ACCESS TO SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURE: MATHEMATICS MATH00030 SEMESTER 208/209 DR. ANTHONY BROWN 7.. Introduction to Integrtion. 7. Integrl Clculus As ws the cse with the chpter on differentil
More informationChapters Five Notes SN AA U1C5
Chpters Five Notes SN AA U1C5 Nme Period Section 5: Fctoring Qudrtic Epressions When you took lger, you lerned tht the first thing involved in fctoring is to mke sure to fctor out ny numers or vriles
More informationReview of Gaussian Quadrature method
Review of Gussin Qudrture method Nsser M. Asi Spring 006 compiled on Sundy Decemer 1, 017 t 09:1 PM 1 The prolem To find numericl vlue for the integrl of rel vlued function of rel vrile over specific rnge
More informationUNIFORM CONVERGENCE. Contents 1. Uniform Convergence 1 2. Properties of uniform convergence 3
UNIFORM CONVERGENCE Contents 1. Uniform Convergence 1 2. Properties of uniform convergence 3 Suppose f n : Ω R or f n : Ω C is sequence of rel or complex functions, nd f n f s n in some sense. Furthermore,
More informationChapter 8.2: The Integral
Chpter 8.: The Integrl You cn think of Clculus s doulewide triler. In one width of it lives differentil clculus. In the other hlf lives wht is clled integrl clculus. We hve lredy eplored few rooms in
More informationThings to Memorize: A Partial List. January 27, 2017
Things to Memorize: A Prtil List Jnury 27, 2017 Chpter 2 Vectors  Bsic Fcts A vector hs mgnitude (lso clled size/length/norm) nd direction. It does not hve fixed position, so the sme vector cn e moved
More informationThe area under the graph of f and above the xaxis between a and b is denoted by. f(x) dx. π O
1 Section 5. The Definite Integrl Suppose tht function f is continuous nd positive over n intervl [, ]. y = f(x) x The re under the grph of f nd ove the xxis etween nd is denoted y f(x) dx nd clled the
More informationReview of Calculus, cont d
Jim Lmbers MAT 460 Fll Semester 200910 Lecture 3 Notes These notes correspond to Section 1.1 in the text. Review of Clculus, cont d Riemnn Sums nd the Definite Integrl There re mny cses in which some
More informationI1 = I2 I1 = I2 + I3 I1 + I2 = I3 + I4 I 3
2 The Prllel Circuit Electric Circuits: Figure 2 elow show ttery nd multiple resistors rrnged in prllel. Ech resistor receives portion of the current from the ttery sed on its resistnce. The split is
More informationChapter 6 Techniques of Integration
MA Techniques of Integrtion Asst.Prof.Dr.Suprnee Liswdi Chpter 6 Techniques of Integrtion Recll: Some importnt integrls tht we hve lernt so fr. Tle of Integrls n+ n d = + C n + e d = e + C ( n ) d = ln
More informationMatrix Algebra. Matrix Addition, Scalar Multiplication and Transposition. Linear Algebra I 24
Mtrix lger Mtrix ddition, Sclr Multipliction nd rnsposition Mtrix lger Section.. Mtrix ddition, Sclr Multipliction nd rnsposition rectngulr rry of numers is clled mtrix ( the plurl is mtrices ) nd the
More informationSection 6: Area, Volume, and Average Value
Chpter The Integrl Applied Clculus Section 6: Are, Volume, nd Averge Vlue Are We hve lredy used integrls to find the re etween the grph of function nd the horizontl xis. Integrls cn lso e used to find
More information5.2 Exponent Properties Involving Quotients
5. Eponent Properties Involving Quotients Lerning Objectives Use the quotient of powers property. Use the power of quotient property. Simplify epressions involving quotient properties of eponents. Use
More information1 ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA and GEOMETRY READINESS DIAGNOSTIC TEST PRACTICE
ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA nd GEOMETRY READINESS DIAGNOSTIC TEST PRACTICE Directions: Study the exmples, work the prolems, then check your nswers t the end of ech topic. If you don t get the nswer given, check
More informationGoals: Determine how to calculate the area described by a function. Define the definite integral. Explore the relationship between the definite
Unit #8 : The Integrl Gols: Determine how to clculte the re described by function. Define the definite integrl. Eplore the reltionship between the definite integrl nd re. Eplore wys to estimte the definite
More informationParse trees, ambiguity, and Chomsky normal form
Prse trees, miguity, nd Chomsky norml form In this lecture we will discuss few importnt notions connected with contextfree grmmrs, including prse trees, miguity, nd specil form for contextfree grmmrs
More informationProperties of Integrals, Indefinite Integrals. Goals: Definition of the Definite Integral Integral Calculations using Antiderivatives
Block #6: Properties of Integrls, Indefinite Integrls Gols: Definition of the Definite Integrl Integrl Clcultions using Antiderivtives Properties of Integrls The Indefinite Integrl 1 Riemnn Sums  1 Riemnn
More informationDefinite Integrals. The area under a curve can be approximated by adding up the areas of rectangles = 1 1 +
Definite Integrls 5 The re under curve cn e pproximted y dding up the res of rectngles. Exmple. Approximte the re under y = from x = to x = using equl suintervls nd + x evluting the function t the lefthnd
More informationCS 275 Automata and Formal Language Theory
CS 275 utomt nd Forml Lnguge Theory Course Notes Prt II: The Recognition Prolem (II) Chpter II.5.: Properties of Context Free Grmmrs (14) nton Setzer (Bsed on ook drft y J. V. Tucker nd K. Stephenson)
More informationMath 1B, lecture 4: Error bounds for numerical methods
Mth B, lecture 4: Error bounds for numericl methods Nthn Pflueger 4 September 0 Introduction The five numericl methods descried in the previous lecture ll operte by the sme principle: they pproximte the
More informationThe Regulated and Riemann Integrals
Chpter 1 The Regulted nd Riemnn Integrls 1.1 Introduction We will consider severl different pproches to defining the definite integrl f(x) dx of function f(x). These definitions will ll ssign the sme vlue
More informationSection 4: Integration ECO4112F 2011
Reding: Ching Chpter Section : Integrtion ECOF Note: These notes do not fully cover the mteril in Ching, ut re ment to supplement your reding in Ching. Thus fr the optimistion you hve covered hs een sttic
More informationA REVIEW OF CALCULUS CONCEPTS FOR JDEP 384H. Thomas Shores Department of Mathematics University of Nebraska Spring 2007
A REVIEW OF CALCULUS CONCEPTS FOR JDEP 384H Thoms Shores Deprtment of Mthemtics University of Nebrsk Spring 2007 Contents Rtes of Chnge nd Derivtives 1 Dierentils 4 Are nd Integrls 5 Multivrite Clculus
More informationBridging the gap: GCSE AS Level
Bridging the gp: GCSE AS Level CONTENTS Chpter Removing rckets pge Chpter Liner equtions Chpter Simultneous equtions 8 Chpter Fctors 0 Chpter Chnge the suject of the formul Chpter 6 Solving qudrtic equtions
More informationJim Lambers MAT 169 Fall Semester Lecture 4 Notes
Jim Lmbers MAT 169 Fll Semester 200910 Lecture 4 Notes These notes correspond to Section 8.2 in the text. Series Wht is Series? An infinte series, usully referred to simply s series, is n sum of ll of
More informationMath 8 Winter 2015 Applications of Integration
Mth 8 Winter 205 Applictions of Integrtion Here re few importnt pplictions of integrtion. The pplictions you my see on n exm in this course include only the Net Chnge Theorem (which is relly just the Fundmentl
More informationLinear Inequalities. Work Sheet 1
Work Sheet 1 Liner Inequlities RentHep, cr rentl compny,chrges $ 15 per week plus $ 0.0 per mile to rent one of their crs. Suppose you re limited y how much money you cn spend for the week : You cn spend
More informationImproper Integrals. The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, as we ve discussed in class, goes as follows:
Improper Integrls The First Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus, s we ve discussed in clss, goes s follows: If f is continuous on the intervl [, ] nd F is function for which F t = ft, then ftdt = F F. An integrl
More informationu( t) + K 2 ( ) = 1 t > 0 Analyzing Damped Oscillations Problem (Meador, example 218, pp 4448): Determine the equation of the following graph.
nlyzing Dmped Oscilltions Prolem (Medor, exmple 218, pp 4448): Determine the eqution of the following grph. The eqution is ssumed to e of the following form f ( t) = K 1 u( t) + K 2 e!"t sin (#t + $
More informationMA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp.
MA123, Chpter 1: Formuls for integrls: integrls, ntiderivtives, nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (pp. 27233, Gootmn) Chpter Gols: Assignments: Understnd the sttement of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus.
More informationP 3 (x) = f(0) + f (0)x + f (0) 2. x 2 + f (0) . In the problem set, you are asked to show, in general, the n th order term is a n = f (n) (0)
1 Tylor polynomils In Section 3.5, we discussed how to pproximte function f(x) round point in terms of its first derivtive f (x) evluted t, tht is using the liner pproximtion f() + f ()(x ). We clled this
More information7.2 The Definite Integral
7.2 The Definite Integrl the definite integrl In the previous section, it ws found tht if function f is continuous nd nonnegtive, then the re under the grph of f on [, b] is given by F (b) F (), where
More information4 VECTORS. 4.0 Introduction. Objectives. Activity 1
4 VECTRS Chpter 4 Vectors jectives fter studying this chpter you should understnd the difference etween vectors nd sclrs; e le to find the mgnitude nd direction of vector; e le to dd vectors, nd multiply
More informationRecitation 3: More Applications of the Derivative
Mth 1c TA: Pdric Brtlett Recittion 3: More Applictions of the Derivtive Week 3 Cltech 2012 1 Rndom Question Question 1 A grph consists of the following: A set V of vertices. A set E of edges where ech
More informationFarey Fractions. Rickard Fernström. U.U.D.M. Project Report 2017:24. Department of Mathematics Uppsala University
U.U.D.M. Project Report 07:4 Frey Frctions Rickrd Fernström Exmensrete i mtemtik, 5 hp Hledre: Andres Strömergsson Exmintor: Jörgen Östensson Juni 07 Deprtment of Mthemtics Uppsl University Frey Frctions
More informationImproper Integrals, and Differential Equations
Improper Integrls, nd Differentil Equtions October 22, 204 5.3 Improper Integrls Previously, we discussed how integrls correspond to res. More specificlly, we sid tht for function f(x), the region creted
More information2. VECTORS AND MATRICES IN 3 DIMENSIONS
2 VECTORS AND MATRICES IN 3 DIMENSIONS 21 Extending the Theory of 2dimensionl Vectors x A point in 3dimensionl spce cn e represented y column vector of the form y z zxis yxis z x y xxis Most of the
More informationLecture 14: Quadrature
Lecture 14: Qudrture This lecture is concerned with the evlution of integrls fx)dx 1) over finite intervl [, b] The integrnd fx) is ssumed to be relvlues nd smooth The pproximtion of n integrl by numericl
More informationBest Approximation. Chapter The General Case
Chpter 4 Best Approximtion 4.1 The Generl Cse In the previous chpter, we hve seen how n interpolting polynomil cn be used s n pproximtion to given function. We now wnt to find the best pproximtion to given
More information5.7 Improper Integrals
458 pplictions of definite integrls 5.7 Improper Integrls In Section 5.4, we computed the work required to lift pylod of mss m from the surfce of moon of mss nd rdius R to height H bove the surfce of the
More informationBest Approximation in the 2norm
Jim Lmbers MAT 77 Fll Semester 111 Lecture 1 Notes These notes correspond to Sections 9. nd 9.3 in the text. Best Approximtion in the norm Suppose tht we wish to obtin function f n (x) tht is liner combintion
More informationLecture 3. In this lecture, we will discuss algorithms for solving systems of linear equations.
Lecture 3 3 Solving liner equtions In this lecture we will discuss lgorithms for solving systems of liner equtions Multiplictive identity Let us restrict ourselves to considering squre mtrices since one
More informationReview of basic calculus
Review of bsic clculus This brief review reclls some of the most importnt concepts, definitions, nd theorems from bsic clculus. It is not intended to tech bsic clculus from scrtch. If ny of the items below
More informationThe First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] and F (x) is any antiderivative. f(x) dx = F (b) F (a).
The Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus Mth 4, Section 0, Spring 009 We now know enough bout definite integrls to give precise formultions of the Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus. We will lso look t some bsic emples
More informationUnit #9 : Definite Integral Properties; Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Unit #9 : Definite Integrl Properties; Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Gols: Identify properties of definite integrls Define odd nd even functions, nd reltionship to integrl vlues Introduce the Fundmentl
More informationName Solutions to Test 3 November 8, 2017
Nme Solutions to Test 3 November 8, 07 This test consists of three prts. Plese note tht in prts II nd III, you cn skip one question of those offered. Some possibly useful formuls cn be found below. Brrier
More information4.1. Probability Density Functions
STT 1 4.14. 4.1. Proility Density Functions Ojectives. Continuous rndom vrile  vers  discrete rndom vrile. Proility density function. Uniform distriution nd its properties. Expected vlue nd vrince of
More informationLecture 20: Numerical Integration III
cs4: introduction to numericl nlysis /8/0 Lecture 0: Numericl Integrtion III Instructor: Professor Amos Ron Scribes: Mrk Cowlishw, Yunpeng Li, Nthnel Fillmore For the lst few lectures we hve discussed
More informationAn Overview of Integration
An Overview of Integrtion S. F. Ellermeyer July 26, 2 The Definite Integrl of Function f Over n Intervl, Suppose tht f is continuous function defined on n intervl,. The definite integrl of f from to is
More informationChapter 0. What is the Lebesgue integral about?
Chpter 0. Wht is the Lebesgue integrl bout? The pln is to hve tutoril sheet ech week, most often on Fridy, (to be done during the clss) where you will try to get used to the ides introduced in the previous
More informationSUMMER KNOWHOW STUDY AND LEARNING CENTRE
SUMMER KNOWHOW STUDY AND LEARNING CENTRE Indices & Logrithms 2 Contents Indices.2 Frctionl Indices.4 Logrithms 6 Exponentil equtions. Simplifying Surds 13 Opertions on Surds..16 Scientific Nottion..18
More informationLinear Systems with Constant Coefficients
Liner Systems with Constnt Coefficients 4305 Here is system of n differentil equtions in n unknowns: x x + + n x n, x x + + n x n, x n n x + + nn x n This is constnt coefficient liner homogeneous system
More informationImproper Integrals. Introduction. Type 1: Improper Integrals on Infinite Intervals. When we defined the definite integral.
Improper Integrls Introduction When we defined the definite integrl f d we ssumed tht f ws continuous on [, ] where [, ] ws finite, closed intervl There re t lest two wys this definition cn fil to e stisfied:
More informationOverview of Calculus I
Overview of Clculus I Prof. Jim Swift Northern Arizon University There re three key concepts in clculus: The limit, the derivtive, nd the integrl. You need to understnd the definitions of these three things,
More informationMathematics Number: Logarithms
plce of mind F A C U L T Y O F E D U C A T I O N Deprtment of Curriculum nd Pedgogy Mthemtics Numer: Logrithms Science nd Mthemtics Eduction Reserch Group Supported y UBC Teching nd Lerning Enhncement
More informationInterpreting Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem
Interpreting Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem Tody, we go further in interpreting the mening of the definite integrl. Using Units to Aid Interprettion We lredy know tht if f(t) is the rte of chnge of
More informationOperations with Polynomials
38 Chpter P Prerequisites P.4 Opertions with Polynomils Wht you should lern: How to identify the leding coefficients nd degrees of polynomils How to dd nd subtrct polynomils How to multiply polynomils
More informationIntegrals  Motivation
Integrls  Motivtion When we looked t function s rte of chnge If f(x) is liner, the nswer is esy slope If f(x) is nonliner, we hd to work hrd limits derivtive A relted question is the re under f(x) (but
More information10. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES
. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES.. Ares etween curves So res ove the xxis re positive nd res elow re negtive, right? Wrong! We lied! Well, when you first lern out integrtion it s convenient fiction tht s true in
More informationHow can we approximate the area of a region in the plane? What is an interpretation of the area under the graph of a velocity function?
Mth 125 Summry Here re some thoughts I ws hving while considering wht to put on the first midterm. The core of your studying should be the ssigned homework problems: mke sure you relly understnd those
More informationLecture Solution of a System of Linear Equation
ChE Lecture Notes, Dept. of Chemicl Engineering, Univ. of TN, Knoville  D. Keffer, 5/9/98 (updted /) Lecture 8  Solution of System of Liner Eqution 8. Why is it importnt to e le to solve system of liner
More informationWe partition C into n small arcs by forming a partition of [a, b] by picking s i as follows: a = s 0 < s 1 < < s n = b.
Mth 255  Vector lculus II Notes 4.2 Pth nd Line Integrls We begin with discussion of pth integrls (the book clls them sclr line integrls). We will do this for function of two vribles, but these ides cn
More informationHow do we solve these things, especially when they get complicated? How do we know when a system has a solution, and when is it unique?
XII. LINEAR ALGEBRA: SOLVING SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS Tody we re going to tlk out solving systems of liner equtions. These re prolems tht give couple of equtions with couple of unknowns, like: 6= x + x 7=
More informationMath Calculus with Analytic Geometry II
orem of definite Mth 5.0 with Anlytic Geometry II Jnury 4, 0 orem of definite If < b then b f (x) dx = ( under f bove xxis) ( bove f under xxis) Exmple 8 0 3 9 x dx = π 3 4 = 9π 4 orem of definite Problem
More informationODE: Existence and Uniqueness of a Solution
Mth 22 Fll 213 Jerry Kzdn ODE: Existence nd Uniqueness of Solution The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus tells us how to solve the ordinry differentil eqution (ODE) du = f(t) dt with initil condition u() =
More informationDEFINITION The inner product of two functions f 1 and f 2 on an interval [a, b] is the number. ( f 1, f 2 ) b DEFINITION 11.1.
398 CHAPTER 11 ORTHOGONAL FUNCTIONS AND FOURIER SERIES 11.1 ORTHOGONAL FUNCTIONS REVIEW MATERIAL The notions of generlized vectors nd vector spces cn e found in ny liner lger text. INTRODUCTION The concepts
More informationLINEAR ALGEBRA APPLIED
5.5 Applictions of Inner Product Spces 5.5 Applictions of Inner Product Spces 7 Find the cross product of two vectors in R. Find the liner or qudrtic lest squres pproimtion of function. Find the nthorder
More informationBernoulli Numbers Jeff Morton
Bernoulli Numbers Jeff Morton. We re interested in the opertor e t k d k t k, which is to sy k tk. Applying this to some function f E to get e t f d k k tk d k f f + d k k tk dk f, we note tht since f
More information1 Nondeterministic Finite Automata
1 Nondeterministic Finite Automt Suppose in life, whenever you hd choice, you could try oth possiilities nd live your life. At the end, you would go ck nd choose the one tht worked out the est. Then you
More information20 MATHEMATICS POLYNOMIALS
0 MATHEMATICS POLYNOMIALS.1 Introduction In Clss IX, you hve studied polynomils in one vrible nd their degrees. Recll tht if p(x) is polynomil in x, the highest power of x in p(x) is clled the degree of
More informationSurface maps into free groups
Surfce mps into free groups lden Wlker Novemer 10, 2014 Free groups wedge X of two circles: Set F = π 1 (X ) =,. We write cpitl letters for inverse, so = 1. e.g. () 1 = Commuttors Let x nd y e loops. The
More informationNUMERICAL INTEGRATION. The inverse process to differentiation in calculus is integration. Mathematically, integration is represented by.
NUMERICAL INTEGRATION 1 Introduction The inverse process to differentition in clculus is integrtion. Mthemticlly, integrtion is represented by f(x) dx which stnds for the integrl of the function f(x) with
More informationAppendix 3, Rises and runs, slopes and sums: tools from calculus
Appendi 3, Rises nd runs, slopes nd sums: tools from clculus Sometimes we will wnt to eplore how quntity chnges s condition is vried. Clculus ws invented to do just this. We certinly do not need the full
More informationA BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO UNIFORM CONVERGENCE. In the study of Fourier series, several questions arise naturally, such as: c n e int
A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO UNIFORM CONVERGENCE HANS RINGSTRÖM. Questions nd exmples In the study of Fourier series, severl questions rise nturlly, such s: () (2) re there conditions on c n, n Z, which ensure
More informationCalculus Module C21. Areas by Integration. Copyright This publication The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology All Rights Reserved.
Clculus Module C Ares Integrtion Copright This puliction The Northern Alert Institute of Technolog 7. All Rights Reserved. LAST REVISED Mrch, 9 Introduction to Ares Integrtion Sttement of Prerequisite
More informationSections 5.2: The Definite Integral
Sections 5.2: The Definite Integrl In this section we shll formlize the ides from the lst section to functions in generl. We strt with forml definition.. The Definite Integrl Definition.. Suppose f(x)
More informationMath& 152 Section Integration by Parts
Mth& 5 Section 7.  Integrtion by Prts Integrtion by prts is rule tht trnsforms the integrl of the product of two functions into other (idelly simpler) integrls. Recll from Clculus I tht given two differentible
More informationPhysics 116C Solution of inhomogeneous ordinary differential equations using Green s functions
Physics 6C Solution of inhomogeneous ordinry differentil equtions using Green s functions Peter Young November 5, 29 Homogeneous Equtions We hve studied, especilly in long HW problem, second order liner
More informationCMDA 4604: Intermediate Topics in Mathematical Modeling Lecture 19: Interpolation and Quadrature
CMDA 4604: Intermedite Topics in Mthemticl Modeling Lecture 19: Interpoltion nd Qudrture In this lecture we mke brief diversion into the res of interpoltion nd qudrture. Given function f C[, b], we sy
More informationCalculus 2: Integration. Differentiation. Integration
Clculus 2: Integrtion The reverse process to differentition is known s integrtion. Differentition f() f () Integrtion As it is the opposite of finding the derivtive, the function obtined b integrtion is
More informationAQA Further Pure 1. Complex Numbers. Section 1: Introduction to Complex Numbers. The number system
Complex Numbers Section 1: Introduction to Complex Numbers Notes nd Exmples These notes contin subsections on The number system Adding nd subtrcting complex numbers Multiplying complex numbers Complex
More informationMath 360: A primitive integral and elementary functions
Mth 360: A primitive integrl nd elementry functions D. DeTurck University of Pennsylvni October 16, 2017 D. DeTurck Mth 360 001 2017C: Integrl/functions 1 / 32 Setup for the integrl prtitions Definition:
More informationContinuous Random Variables Class 5, Jeremy Orloff and Jonathan Bloom
Lerning Gols Continuous Rndom Vriles Clss 5, 8.05 Jeremy Orloff nd Jonthn Bloom. Know the definition of continuous rndom vrile. 2. Know the definition of the proility density function (pdf) nd cumultive
More informationLecture 3. Limits of Functions and Continuity
Lecture 3 Limits of Functions nd Continuity Audrey Terrs April 26, 21 1 Limits of Functions Notes I m skipping the lst section of Chpter 6 of Lng; the section bout open nd closed sets We cn probbly live
More informationNetwork Analysis and Synthesis. Chapter 5 Two port networks
Network Anlsis nd Snthesis hpter 5 Two port networks . ntroduction A one port network is completel specified when the voltge current reltionship t the terminls of the port is given. A generl two port on
More informationSection 6.1 Definite Integral
Section 6.1 Definite Integrl Suppose we wnt to find the re of region tht is not so nicely shped. For exmple, consider the function shown elow. The re elow the curve nd ove the x xis cnnot e determined
More informationSection 3.2: Negative Exponents
Section 3.2: Negtive Exponents Objective: Simplify expressions with negtive exponents using the properties of exponents. There re few specil exponent properties tht del with exponents tht re not positive.
More informationSuppose we want to find the area under the parabola and above the x axis, between the lines x = 2 and x = 2.
Mth 43 Section 6. Section 6.: Definite Integrl Suppose we wnt to find the re of region tht is not so nicely shped. For exmple, consider the function shown elow. The re elow the curve nd ove the x xis cnnot
More informationLecture 08: Feb. 08, 2019
4CS46:Theory of Computtion(Closure on Reg. Lngs., regex to NDFA, DFA to regex) Prof. K.R. Chowdhry Lecture 08: Fe. 08, 2019 : Professor of CS Disclimer: These notes hve not een sujected to the usul scrutiny
More informationFundamental Theorem of Calculus
Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Recll tht if f is nonnegtive nd continuous on [, ], then the re under its grph etween nd is the definite integrl A= f() d Now, for in the intervl [, ], let A() e the re under
More informationW. We shall do so one by one, starting with I 1, and we shall do it greedily, trying
Vitli covers 1 Definition. A Vitli cover of set E R is set V of closed intervls with positive length so tht, for every δ > 0 nd every x E, there is some I V with λ(i ) < δ nd x I. 2 Lemm (Vitli covering)
More informationCS667 Lecture 6: Monte Carlo Integration 02/10/05
CS667 Lecture 6: Monte Crlo Integrtion 02/10/05 Venkt Krishnrj Lecturer: Steve Mrschner 1 Ide The min ide of Monte Crlo Integrtion is tht we cn estimte the vlue of n integrl by looking t lrge number of
More information