University of Malta G.F. Abela Junior College

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1 University of Malta G.F. Abela Junior College FIRST YEAR END-OF-YEAR TEST Subject: Physics Date: Friday 17 th June 2016 Level: Intermediate Time: 09:00-12:00 Directions to Candidates: Show ALL your working. Write down units where appropriate. Answer ALL questions in Section A Answer the single question in Section B Answer any TWO questions from Section C You have been provided with two booklets. Use one booklet for Section A and the other booklet for Section B and Section C. Write down your index number on each booklet. 1

2 List of Formulae The following equations and formulae may be useful in answering some of the questions in this test Uniformly accelerated motion v = u + at s = ut at2 v 2 = u 2 + 2as s = ( u + v ) t 2 Mechanics Momentum: p = mv Newton s second law: F = ma Kinetic Energy: KE = 1 2 mv2 Gravitational Potential Energy: P E = (mgh) Mechanical work done: W = F d Circular motion Centripetal accelaration: a = v2 r Period: T = 2πr v Vibrations and Waves Acceleration in s.h.m.: a = kx Period: T = 2π k Wavespeed: v = fλ Ray Optics Thin Lenses: 1 f 1 f = 1 u + 1 v = 1 u 1 v (real-is-positive) (Cartesian) 2 of 19

3 Magnification: m = v u = hi h o m = v u = hi h o (real-is-positive) (Cartesian) Young s double-slit experiment Fringe separation: y = λd d Materials Hooke s law: F = k x Stress: σ = F A Strain: ε = l l Young s modulus: Y = σ ε Energy stored in a stretched wire: E = 1 2 k( l)2 Gravitational Fields Force between point masses: F = GM1M2 r 2 Electric Fields Force between point charges: F = Q1Q2 4πε r 2 Electric field strength: E = F q Electric potential (uniform field): V = Ed Energy of a particle accelerated by an electric field: QV = ( ) 1 2 mv2 Physics of nuclei and atoms Activity: A = λn Half-life: T 1 2 = λ Mass-energy relation: E = mc 2 Line spectra: E = hf = hc λ. 3 of 19

4 Mathematical Formulae Surface area of a sphere: S = 4πr 2 Volume of a sphere: V = 4 3 πr3 Surface area of a cylinder: S = 2πrh + 2πr 2 Volume of cylinder V = πr 2 h List of Constant The following physical constants may be useful in solving some problems found in this test: Acceleration of free fall on and near the Earth s surface: g = 9.81 m s 2 Gravitational filed strength on and near the Earth s surface: g = 9.81 N kg 1 Coulomb s law constant k = 1 4πε = N m 2 C 2 Charge of an electron e = J Mass of an electron m e = kg Gravitational constant G = N m 2 kg 2 Permittivity of free space ε = F m 1 Permeability of free space µ = 4π 10 7 H m 1 Planck constant h = J s Speed of light in vacuum c = m s 1 Unified atomic mass unit: u = kg Electronvolt: 1 ev= J Unified atomic mass unit: 1 u= kg 4 of 19

5 Section A Answer ALL questions in this section. There are ten questions in this section and each question in this section carries 7 marks. This section carries 50% of the total marks of this test You are expected to write down the question number in the margin of your answer booklet. Question 1 (a) State Newton s first law of motion. (b) Figure 1 (a) shows a framed photograph which hangs freely by two light string P O, QO. The strings are attached to a hook O above the frame so that each string makes an angle of 40 with the top of the picture frame. The mass of the framed photograph is 1.65 kg. framed photograph Figure 1 (i) Calculate the weight of the framed photograph. (ii) Figure 1(b) shows a free-body force diagram of the framed photograph. Note that T represents the tension in each string and W is the weight. Find the value of the tension T. (3) 5 of 19

6 Question 2 (a) Figure 2(a) shows a wooden box of mass 2 kg being dragged across a rough horizontal surface by means of a rope. The rope is horizontal and at the instant shown the wooden box is accelerating at 5 m s 2. Figure 2(b) is a free-body force diagram showing all the forces acting on the wooden box at this instant. The frictional force f is 6 N, W is the weight of the wooden box, T is the tension and R is the normal reaction. Figure 2 (i) Find the value of R. (ii) Calculate the value of the T at this particular instant. (b) The rope is now held at an angle of 30 to the horizontal as shown in Figure 2(a) and the wooden box is moving with constant velocity. Figure 3(b) shows a free-body force diagram in which T, R represent the tension and the normal reaction respectively. (3) Figure 3 (i) State the value of the horizontal component of the tension T. (ii) Calculate the value of T. 6 of 19

7 Question 3 Figure 4 shows a typical step-index optical fibre used for data transfer. The refractive index of air is Figure 4 (a) Show that the refractive index of the core is (b) The refracted ray strikes the core-cladding boundary at an angle exactly equal to the critical angle. Calculate the critical angle. (c) Calculate the refractive index of the cladding. (d) The angle of incidence in air is decreased to 10.5 as shown in Figure 5. Describe what happens when the refracted ray strikes the core-cladding boundary? Figure 5 7 of 19

8 Question 4 (a) Distinguish between transverse and longitudinal waves. (b) Sound is a longitudinal wave. The speed of sound in air is 343 m s 1. Figure 6 shows a displacement-distance graph for a sound wave travelling in air. displacement/ cm distance/ m Figure 6 (i) What is the amplitude of the sound wave? Express your answer in metres. (ii) What is the wavelength of this particular sound wave? (iii) The sound wave forces air molecules to vibrate. What is the period T of these oscillations? (iv) Assume that points P, Q (which are marked on the graph shown in Figure 6) represent the respective equilibrium positions of two specific oscillating particles. What is the phase difference between the oscillations of these two particles? Express your answer as a fraction of the periodic time T. 8 of 19

9 Question 5 (a) Sketch a ray diagram to show how a converging lens can act as a magnifying glass. On your diagram, clearly label the focal length f and the image distance v. (b) Figure 7 shows a chess piece, namely the queen, which is part of a miniature chess set comprising 32 pieces. It is a rare collector s item. The queen, which is 63.3 mm high, is placed 9 cm away from the optical centre of a converging lens of focal length 18 cm. (3) Figure 7 (i) Calculate the image distance. (ii) Calculate the height of the image formed. Express your answer in cm. Question 6 (a) Write down the SI units of density. (b) The unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa). Find an expression for the pascal in terms of the base SI units. (c) The speed v of sound in air is given by the formula γ P v = ρ where P is the air pressure, ρ is the density and γ is a constant. Express the given formula with γ as its subject and hence show that the constant γ has no units. (d) A student suggests that the period T of a vibrating particle is given by: T = λ v where λ is the wavelength and v is the wavespeed. Show that the equation is homogeneous. 9 of 19

10 Question 7 (a) Define simple harmonic motion. (b) The oscillations of a given particle P are simple harmonic. When the displacement of the particle from its equilibrium position is 22.0 mm, its acceleration is 5 m s 2. (i) State the acceleration of the particle as it passes through the equilibrium position. (ii) Calculate the acceleration of the particle when its displacement from the equilibrium position is 0.65 cm. (c) Draw a sketch-graph to show how the kinetic energy (KE) of a system oscillating in simple harmonic motion varies with its displacement x from the equilibrium position. Question 8 (a) Americium-241 ( Am) nucleus decays by emitting an α-particle. The daughter nucleus is found to correspond to that of the element neptunium (Np). Copy and complete the following radioactive decay equation; Am Np + He (b) Protactinium is a rare and expensive element that is present in uranium ores in very small amounts. It was in 1931 that Göhring and Fajans identified protactinium-234 which is also known as brevium. The half-life of protactinium-234 was found to be about 70 seconds. A newly-prepared sample has an activity of 640 Bq. (i) Calculate the decay constant of protactinium. (ii) Calculate the number of atoms of protactinium initially present in the sample. (iii) Find an estimate for the activity of the sample 280 s after preparation. 10 of 19

11 Question 9 (a) A small steel sphere of mass m is dropped from a height h above the floor. (i) Describe the energy change taking place from the moment the sphere is released to just before it hits the ground. Ignore air resistance. (ii) Assuming that air resistance is negligible, show that the maximum speed v of the sphere just before it hits the ground is given by v = 2gh where g is the acceleration due to gravity. (iii) As the height h is increased, the actual speed of the sphere just before it hits the ground becomes significantly smaller than the maximum speed v predicted by the equation presented in (ii). Give a reason for this observation. (b) Stanley and Oliver could not find their favourite toy car and so they decided to use a soap bar instead. Figure 8 shows the soap bar being held at the top of a toy slide AB. The soap bar is then released from rest and slides down to reach the end B of the toy slide. Figure 8 Calculate the maximum possible speed v max of the soap bar at the instant it reaches B. 11 of 19

12 Question 10 (a) What do you understand by resonance? (b) Figure 9 shows an arrangement known as Melde s apparatus. One end of a stretched string is connected to an oscillator. The frequency f of the vibrations of the oscillator is controlled through the use of a signal generator attached to it. The transverse waves generated by the oscillator travel along the string of length 1.20 m and are reflected back at the pulley. The wave generated by the oscillator and the reflected wave overlap to form what is known as standing wave. Figure 9 illustrates a situation in which there is resonance which makes it is easy to observe the standing wave formed. Figure 9 (i) Find the wavelength of the standing wave shown in Figure 9. (ii) Calculate the speed of the transverse waves along the string if the frequency f is 75 Hz. (iii) What is the fundamental frequency? (iv) Draw a diagram to illustrate the effect of increasing the frequency f to 125 Hz. 12 of 19

13 Section B Attempt the question in this section. This question in this section carries 20 marks. Please start a NEW BOOKLET. Use this new booklet for Section B and Section C. You are expected to write down the question number in the margin of your answer booklet. Question 11 A student was asked to carry out an experiment in order to find a value for the acceleration due to gravity. Figure 10 The apparatus illustrated in Figure 10 enables the student to measure the time t of free fall of the steel ball directly with a timing device. The distance s can be varied over a range from 0.20 m to 1.40 m. The results obtained by the student are presented in the table below. s / m t / s t 2 / s (a) Copy the table into your booklet. Complete the table by including the values for t 2. (b) Plot a graph of s in m (y-axis) against t 2 in s 2 (x-axis) and draw the best straight line that fits this data. (c) Calculate the gradient of the graph. State the units of the gradient. (d) If air-resistance is negligible, the height s (m) is related to t (s) by the equation: (4) (6) (3,2) s = 1 2 g t2 where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Use the gradient to find a value for g. (3) (e) It is very likely that your answer is slightly smaller than expected. Give a possible reason. 13 of 19

14 Section C You are to attempt only TWO questions from this section. Each question in this section carries 25 marks. Please continue writing on the same booklet used for Section B. You are expected to write down the question number in the margin of your answer booklet. Question 12 (a) When stating a physical law it is important to include the condition under which it holds. (i) State Newton s second law of motion. (ii) State the law of conservation of linear momentum. (iii) What is the main difference between elastic collisions and inelastic collisions? (b) Figure 11 (a) shows a tennis ball of mass 58 g travelling at a speed of 35 m s 1 along the horizontal about to hit a vertical wall. After hitting the wall, it bounces off with a speed of 25 m s 1 along the horizontal as shown in Figure 11 (b). Figure 11 (i) Calculate the change of momentum of the ball (ii) What is the force exerted by the wall on the tennis ball if the time of impact is 0.05 s? (iii) What is the force exerted by the tennis ball on the wall? Explain how you obtained your answer. (iv) Calculate the difference between the kinetic energy of the tennis-ball before the collision and that after the collision. (v) Account for the difference between the kinetic energy before the collision and the kinetic energy after the collision. (1,1) 14 of 19

15 (c) Figure 12(a) shows a loaded supermarket trolley of mass M about to link with stationary stack of two empty trolleys. The mass of an empty trolley is 7.5 kg. The speed of the loaded trolley before the trolleys link together is 2.3 m s 1. The speed of the linked trolleys after the collision is 0.9 m s 1. Figure 12 (i) Calculate the net mass of the objects inside the loaded trolley. (4) (ii) Hence or otherwise, find the mass M of the loaded trolley. (d) The impulse of a force F is defined as the product F. t where t is the time taken for the resulting change in momentum. (i) State the unit of impulse. (ii) Calculate the impulse needed to increase the velocity of a body of mass 4 kg from 3.5 m s 1 to 5.5 m s 1. (iii) A tennis ball of mass 58 g falls vertically downwards. After hitting the ground with a speed of 6 m s 1, it bounces off vertically with a speed of 3.5 m s 1. Find the impulse. 15 of 19

16 Question 13 (a) For an elastic specimen subjected to variable tension there is, under certain conditions, a simple relation between the tensile stress and the strain produced. (i) Define stress and strain. (2,2) (ii) State the relation between the tensile stress and the strain produced. (iii) Indicate two conditions that must be fulfilled for this relation to hold. (2,2) (b) Kevin and Martin want to verify that the Young modulus of copper is about Pa. Figure 13 shows the apparatus they intend to use. (i) Explain why it is advantageous for them to use wires that are very thin and long. (ii) What is the purpose of using a reference wire? (iii) Suggest one precaution which is necessary for obtaining an accurate value of the cross-sectional area A of the wire. (iv) Martin measures the original length l of the wire and Kevin determines its of cross-sectional area A before they start to vary the load and measure the corresponding extension. Then they plot a graph of stretching force F against extension e. Explain how they can use their graph in order to find the Young s modulus of copper. (v) Kevin and Martin find that the Young modulus of copper is Pa as expected. A copper wire is 2.8 m long and has a diameter of 3 mm. Find the extension produced if the load applied is 30 N. (4) Figure 13 (c) Draw a sketch-graph of stress against strain to describe the behaviour of copper under increasing stress until it breaks. (3) 16 of 19

17 Question 14 (a) State Newton s law of gravitation. (4) (b) Express the units of the universal gravitational constant G in terms of the base SI units. (c) Define gravitational field strength. (d) Draw a graph showing how the acceleration due to gravity g varies with distance from the centre of the Earth. Start the x-axis of your graph from the Earth s radius. Assume that the acceleration due to gravity g = 9.81 m s 2 at the surface of the Earth. (e) The radius of the Earth is m. What is the magnitude of the gravitational field strength at height of 8720 km above the Earth s surface? (f) The planet Mars has a mass of kg. Deimos is the smaller of its two moons. It orbits at a distance of km from the centre of Mars. (i) Calculate the orbital speed of Demios in m s 1. (ii) Find the centripetal acceleration of Demios. (g) The mass M E of planet Earth is 81 times the mass M M of the Moon. The distance between the centre of the Earth and the centre of the Moon is m. Refer to Figure 14. At a point P which is at a distance x E from the centre of the Earth and at a distance x M from the centre of the Moon, the combined gravitational field strength due to the Earth and the Moon is zero. (4) (3) (3) Figure 14 (i) Find the ratio x E : x M. (ii) Hence or otherwise, calculate the value of the distance x E (3) 17 of 19

18 Question 15 (a) A narrow beam of monochromatic light is incident normally on two parallel slits (Young s double-slit) as shown in Figure 15. Figure 15 (i) Explain the meaning of monochromatic. (ii) What happens to the light as it passes through slits S 1 and S 2? (iii) A fringe pattern consisting of a series of bright and dark fringes is observed on a screen placed a few meters away from the double slit. What change you would expect to observe if the slits S 1 and S 2 are moved closer together? (b) In a Young s double-slit experiment, the distance between the centre of two successive bright fringes observed on a screen is 0.64 mm, the separation of the slits is 0.9 mm and the distance from the double-slit to the screen is 1.20 m. Calculate the wavelength of the monochromatic light incident on the slits. (c) In a Young s double-slit experiment, green light of wavelength 500 nm was used. A fringe pattern is observed on a screen and the fringe separation was found to be 0.80 mm. Calculate the fringe separation if red light of wavelength 650 nm is used instead of green light. (The distance between Young s double-slit and the screen is not changed.) (d) A ripple tank is a shallow glass tank used to demonstrate the basic properties of waves. In a ripple tank, two point generators S 1 and S 2 are placed 6.0 cm apart. Each generator produces waves of a wavelength of 2 cm and an amplitude of 5 mm. The two generators S 1 and S 2 operate in phase. P is a point 8 cm away from S 1 and 10 cm away from S 2. Q is a point which is equidistant from S 1 and S 2. (i) What is the path difference at P? (ii) What type of interference occurs at P? Explain. (iii) What is the amplitude of the oscillations at P? (3) (4) (1,2) 18 of 19

19 (iv) What type of interference occurs at Q? Explain. (v) If S 1 and S 2 are set to operate in antiphase, state the type of interference which occurs at P and Q respectively. (1,2) (1,1) c UoM JC Physics Department of 19

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