# Algebraic cycle complexes

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1 Algebraic cycle complexes June 2, 2008

2 Outline Algebraic cycles and algebraic K-theory The Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures Bloch s cycle complexes Suslin s cycle complexes

3 Algebraic cycles and algebraic K-theory

4 Algebraic cycles X: an algebraic variety over a field k. An algebraic cycle on X is a finite Z-linear combination of irreducible reduced closed subschemes of X : Z := r n i Z i. i=1 Say Z has (co)dimension q if each Z i has (co)dimension q. z q (X ) := the group of codimenison q algebraic cycles on X. z q (X ) := the group of dimenison q algebraic cycles on X.

5 Algebraic cycles Functorialities X z q (X ) is contravariantly functorial for flat maps: f (Z) := i mult i W i. W i the irreducible components of f 1 (Z). X z q (X ) is covariantly functorial for proper maps: { 0 if dim f (Z) < dim Z f (Z) := [k(z) : k(f (Z))] f (Z) if dim f (Z) = dim Z.

6 Algebraic cycles Partially defined pull-back f : Y X a morphism of smooth varieties, Z X a subvariety. Suppose Z and f 1 (Z) both have pure codimension q. Define f (Z) := i mult i W i. W i the irreducible components of f 1 (Z), mult i = Serre s intersection multiplicity: mult i = [ ] ( 1) j l OY,Wi Tor O X,Z j (O Y,Wi, k(z)). j

7 Algebraic cycles External product Given subvarieties Z X, W Y, the product Z k W is a union of subvarieties of X k Y (with multiplicities in char. p > 0): Z k W := j m j T j This extends to the external product : z q (X ) z p (Y ) z p+q (X k Y ). External product is compatible with proper push-forward and with pull-back.

8 Algebraic cycles Adequate equivalence relations To make the groups of algebraic cycles look more like a (co)homology theory, we introduce an adequate equivalence relation, analogous to homology of singular chains. An adequate equivalence relation is given by a subgroup R q (X ) z q (X ) for each smooth X, satisfying:

9 Algebraic cycles Adequate equivalence relations 1. For f : Y X proper of codimension d, f (R q (Y )) R q+d (X ). 2. For f : Y X flat, f (R q (X )) R q (Y ). 3. For Z R (X q ), W z p (X ), Z W is in R p+q (X ) if defined. 4. Given Z z q (X ), W z p (Y X ), there is a Z z q (X ) with Z Z R (X q ) and with Y Z W defined. 5. [0] [ ] R 1 (P 1 ). Note. One often restricts to smooth projective varieties.

10 Algebraic cycles Adequate equivalence relations Set A q (X ) := z q (X )/R q (X ). Then 1. A (X ) := q A q (X ) is a commutative, graded ring with unit [X ] A 0 (X ). 2. f : A q (X ) A q (Y ) is well-defined for all f : Y X in Sm/k: f (Z) := intersect Y Z with the graph of f. 3. f (Z W ) = f (Z) f (W ) 4. f (f (Z) W ) = Z f (W ) for f proper.

11 Algebraic cycles Adequate equivalence relations Examples. 1. Rational equivalence 2. Algebraic equivalence 3. Numerical equivalence 4. Homological equivalence

12 Algebraic cycles Rational equivalence Rational equivalence is the finest adequate equivalence relation. Definition Let i 0, i 1 : X X A 1 be the 0, 1 sections. Z is in R q rat(x ) if there is a W z q (X A 1 ) 0,1 with Z = i 0 (W ) i 1 (W ). It is not at all obvious that rat is an adequate relation, this is Chow s moving lemma. A rat is usually written CH.

13 Algebraic cycles Rational equivalence Example. CH n (P N ) = Z for 0 n N, with generator a P N n P N. For Z z n (P N ) we have [Z] [P N n ] = n Z [pt], defining the degree n Z := deg(z) of Z. Note that since [P n ] [P N n ] = 1 [pt]. [Z] = deg(z)[p n ] This gives us Bezout s theorem: For Z z n (P N ), W z N n (P N ), [Z] [W ] = deg(z) deg(w )[pt]

14 Algebraic cycles Algebraic equivalence Definition Z is in R q alg (X ) if there is a smooth curve C, k-points a, b in C and W z q (X C) a,b with Z = ia (W ) ib (W ). Note. If X P N is projective, there are projective schemes C r,d,x parametrizing all effective dimension r, degree d cycles on X. For k = k, this gives the description of alg on X as Z alg W a cycle T on X with Z + T, W + T in the same connected component of C r,d,x. Thus alg is topological in nature: A alg r (X ) = π 0 ([ d C r,d,x ] + ).

15 Algebraic cycles Numerical equivalence We have the degree map deg : z 0 (X ) Z; deg( j n j z j ) = j n j [k(z j ) : k]. Since z 0 (Spec k) = Z[pt], deg = p X. For X projective, p X passes to deg = p X : CH 0 (X ) Z = CH 0 (pt). Definition Let X be smooth and projective over k. Z z q (X ) is num 0 if for all W z q (X ), deg(z W ) = 0.

16 Algebraic cycles Numerical equivalence We have surjections CH A alg A num In fact, num is the coarsest (non-zero) adequate equivalence relation on smooth projective varieties. Example CH (P N ) = A alg (PN ) = A num(p N ) and similarly for other cellular varieties, such as Grassmann varieties or flag varieties.

17 Algebraic cycles Cellular varieties This follows from the right-exact localization sequence for CH : Theorem Let i : W X be a closed immersion, j : U = X \ W X the open complement. Then the sequence is exact, CH (W ) i CH (X ) j CH (U) 0 and the homotopy property for CH : Theorem The projection p : X A 1 X induces an isomorphism p : CH (X ) CH +1 (X A 1 ).

18 Algebraic cycles cellular varieties For instance, the known structure of the Schubert varieties give a stratification of a Grassmann variety X := Gr(n, N) with F j X \ F j 1 X = i A j. = F 1 X F 0 X... F D X = X Localization and homotopy imply that the closures of the A j s give generators for CH j (X ); the classical Schubert calculus says that these classes are independent modulo num.

19 Weil cohomology The fourth type of equivalence relation, homological equivalence, requires the notion of a Weil cohomology, a formal version of singular cohomology for smooth projective varieties. We ll discuss this further in the second lecture.

20 Algebraic K-theory Besides using algebraic cycles as an algebraic substitute for singular homology, one can use algebraic vector bundles (locally free coherent sheaves) to give an algebraic version of topological K-theory. Definition Let X be a scheme, P X the category of locally free coherent sheaves on X. The Grothendieck group of algebraic vector bundles on X, K 0 (X ), is the free abelian group on the isomorphism classes in P X, modulo relations for each exact sequence in P X. [E] = [E ] + [E ] 0 E E E 0

21 Algebraic K-theory Coherent sheaves Replacing P X with the entire category M X of coherent sheaves on X gives the Grothendieck group of coherent sheaves G 0 (X ) with the map K 0 (X ) G 0 (X ) Theorem (Regularity) If X is regular, K 0 (X ) G 0 (X ) is an isomorphism. Proof. Resolve a coherent sheaf F by vector bundles 0 E n... E 0 F 0 Sending [F] G 0 (X ) to i ( 1)i [E i ] K 0 (X ) gives the inverse.

22 Algebraic K-theory Properties 1. of sheaves makes K 0 (X ) a commutative ring and G 0 (X ) a K 0 (X )-module. 2. For f : Y X, sending [E] K 0 (X ) to [f E] K 0 (Y ) makes K 0 a contravariant functor. 3. For f : Y X flat, sending [F] G 0 (X ) to [f F] G 0 (Y ) makes G 0 a contravariant functor for flat maps. 4. For f : Y X projective, sending [F] G 0 (Y ) to i ( 1)i [R i f F] makes G 0 a functor for projective maps. 5. Using regularity, we have f on K 0 for projective maps of smooth varieties, and f on G 0 for all maps of smooth varieties.

23 Algebraic K-theory K 0 and cycles Grothendieck defined the Chern character ch : K 0 (X ) CH (X ) Q a natural ring homomorphism (for X smooth). Theorem (Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch) 1. ch : K 0 (X ) Q CH (X ) Q is an isomorphism. 2. For f : Y X projective, x K 0 (Y ), f (ch(x)) = ch(f (x Td(T f ))) Here Td is the Todd class and T f is the formal vertical tangent bundle, T f := [T Y ] f [T X ] K 0 (Y ).

24 Algebraic K-theory Higher algebraic K-theory Quillen s construction of the K-theory of an exact category, applied to P X, extended the Grothendieck group construction to give higher algebraic K-theory: X K n (X ) := K n (P X ); n = 0, 1,... and theory built on coherent sheaves M X : X G n (X ) := K n (M X ); n = 0, 1,... The basic structures: product and pull-back on K (X ), flat pull-back and projective push-forward for G (X ), natural map K (X ) G (X ) and the regularity theorem, all extend.

25 Algebraic K-theory Homotopy and localization In addition, one has Theorem (Homotopy invariance) p : G n (X ) G n (X A 1 ) is an isomorphism. Theorem (Localization) Let i : W X be a closed immersion, j : U := X \ W X to open complement. There is a long exact sequence... G n (W ) i G n (X ) j G n (U) G n 1 (W )... G 0 (X ) j G 0 (U) 0 This yields e.g. a Mayer-Vietoris sequence for G-theory. For regular schemes, the regularity theorem gives analogous properties for K-theory.

26 Cycles revisited Since we have the Chern character isomorphism ch : K 0Q CH Q and a right-exact localization sequence CH (W ) CH (X ) CH (U) 0 it is natural to ask: Can one extend the Chow groups to a larger theory, that after Q gives all of algebraic K-theory, and extends the right-exact sequence for CH to a long exact sequence? In fact, much more was conjectured and turned out to be true.

27 The Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures

28 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures Beilinson-Lichtenbaum complexes In the early 80 s Beilinson and Lichtenbaum gave conjectures for versions of universal cohomology which would arise as hypercohomology (in the Zariski, resp. étale topology) of certain complexes of sheaves. The conjectures describe sought-after properties of these representing complexes. The complexes are supposed to explain values of L-functions and at the same time incorporate Milnor K-theory into the picture.

29 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures K-theory of rings of integers Theorem (Quillen) Let F be a number field with ring of integers O F. Then the K-groups K n (O F ) are finitely generated abelian groups for all n 0. Let F be a number field. By the theorem of Bass-Milnor-Serre, K 1 (O F ) = O F, and thus by Dirichlet s unit theorem, K 1(O F ) is a finitely generated abelian group of rank r 1 + r 2 1. This computation is generalized in Borel s theorem:

30 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures K-theory of rings of integers Theorem Let F be a number field. Then K 2m (O F ) Q = 0 for m 1, and K 2m 1 (O F ) Q = Q r(m), where r 1 + r 2 1 for m = 1 r(m) = r 1 + r 2 for m > 1 odd, for m > 1 even. r 2

31 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures K-theory of rings of integers By comparing these ranks with the known orders of vanishing of the zeta function, we have ord s=1 m ζ F (s) = rankk 2m 1 (O F ). (1) Furthermore, by comparing two different Q structures on the real cohomology of SL(O F Q R), Borel defined regulators R m (F ). These are also related to the zeta function, by ζ F (1 m) R m (F ) mod Q, where ζ F (1 m) is the leading term ζ F (1 m) := lim (s + m s 1 m 1) r(m) ζ F (s).

32 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures K-theory and values of zeta functions What about an integral statement? Conjecture (Lichtenbaum) For F totally real and for m even, ζ F (1 m) l = #H2 ét (O F, j Z l (m)) #H 1 ét (O F, j Z l (m)) This follows (at least for odd l) from the main conjecture of Iwasawa theory, proved by Mazur-Wiles for F abelian, and for F arbitrary by Wiles. Note that, if F is totally real (r 2 = 0) and m is even, then r(m) = 0, and R m (F ) = 1.

33 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures K-theory and values of zeta functions Lichtenbaum extended his conjecture to cover the case of all m 1 and all number fields, and at the same time used K-theory to remove the dependence on l: Conjecture Let F be a number field, m 1 an integer. Then ζ F (1 m) R m (F ) = ± #K 2m 2(O F ) K 2m 1 (O F ) tor This is classical for m = 1, but turned out to be false in general: For F = Q, m = 2, K 2 (Z) = Z/2, K 3 (Z) = Z/48, but ζ( 1) = 1/12

34 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures Universal cohomology To correct, Lichtenbaum suggested breaking up K-theory by weights. Adams operations act on K-theory, giving the decomposition K n (X ) Q = q K n (X ) (q) ; K n (X ) (q) := k q -eigenspace for ψ k. Beilinson reindexed to conform with other cohomology theories and defined the universal rational cohomology of X as H p (X, Q(q)) := K 2q p (X ) (q). An integral version, H p (O F, Z(q)), could possibly replace K 2q p (O F ) in a formula for ζ F (1 q).

35 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures Milnor K-theory The second ingredient is Milnor K-theory. Definition Let F be a field. The graded-commutative ring K M (F ) is defined as the quotient of the tensor algebra T (F ) := n 0 (F ) n by the two-sided ideal generated by elements a (1 a), a F \ {0, 1}: K M (F ) := n 0 (F ) n / {a (1 a)}. This was introduced by Milnor in his study of quadratic forms.

36 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures Milnor K-theory Since F = K 1 (F ), products in K-theory induce (F ) n K n (F ). Elements a (1 a) go to zero in K 2 (F ) (the Steinberg relation), so we have ρ n : K M n (F ) K n (F ). Suslin showed that the kernel of ρ n is killed by (n 1)!. For n = 1, 2, ρ n is an isomorphism (n = 2 is Matsumoto s theorem), but in general ρ n is far from surjective. Example. For F a number field, K M n (F ) is 2-torsion for n 3, but K 3 (F ) has rank r 2.

37 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures Milnor K-theory Milnor K-theory is closely related to Galois cohomology. To start, use the Kummer sequence (n prime to the characteristic) 1 µ n G m n G m 1 which gives (since H 0 Gal (F, G m) = F, H 1 Gal (F, G m) = 0) H 1 Gal (F, µ n) = F /(F ) n = K M 1 (F )/n. Extend by taking products and showing the Steinberg relation holds in Galois cohomology to give θ F,q,n : Kq M (F )/n H q Gal (F, µ q n ). Conjecture (Bloch-Kato) θ F,q,n is an isomorphism for all F, q and n prime to char(f ).

38 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures Milnor K-theory θ F,q,n : Kq M (F )/n H q Gal (F, µ q n ) is an isomorphism for all F, q and n prime to char(f ). Case Solved by Date q = 1 Kummer q = 2 Tate (for number fields)1970 s q = 2 Merkurjev-Suslin 1983 q = 3 Rost 1990 s q > 2, n = 2 ν Voevodsky 1996 general Voevodsky, Rost,

39 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures The idea was that one should get the right values for zeta functions by replacing K-theory with universal cohomology H p (X, Z(q)), that would give an integral version of the eigenspaces of Adams operations on higher K-theory, with the weight q motivic cohomology contributing to ζ(1 q). At the same time, the work of Merkurjev-Suslin on K 2 and Galois cohomology made clear the importance of the Bloch-Kato conjecture in giving the link between universal cohomology and values of zeta functions. This led Beilinson and Lichtenbaum (independently) to conjecture that universal cohomology should arise as hypercohomology of complexes of sheaves with certain properties.

40 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures Beilinson complexes Conjecture (Beilinson-letter to Soulé 1982) For X Sm/k there are complexes Γ Zar (q), q 0, in the derived category of sheaves of abelian groups on X Zar, (functorial in X ) with functorial graded product, and (0) Γ Zar (0) = Z, Γ Zar (1) = G m [ 1] (1) Γ Zar (q) is acyclic outside [1, q] for q 1. (2) Γ Zar (q) L Z/n = τ q Rαµ q n if n is invertible on X, where α : Xét X Zar is the change of topology morphism. (3) K n (X ) (q) = H 2q n (X Zar, Γ Zar (q)) Q (or up to small primes) (4) H q (Γ Zar (q)(f )) = K M q.

41 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures Lichtenbaum complexes Conjecture (Lichtenbaum LNM 1068) For X Sm/k there are complexes Γét (r), r 0, in the derived category of sheaves of abelian groups on Xét, (functorial in X ) with functorial graded product, and (0) Γét (0) = Z, Γét (1) = G m [ 1] (1) Γét (q) is acyclic outside [1, q] for q 1. (2) R q+1 α Γét (q) = 0 (Hilbert Theorem 90) (3) Γét (q) L Z/n = µ q n if n is invertible on X. (4) K n (q)ét = H 2q n (Γ(q)) (up to small primes), where K (q)ét n H 2q n (Γét (q)) are the respective Zariski sheaves. (5) For a field F, H q (Γét (q)(f )) = K M q (F ). and

42 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures The two constructions should be related by τ q Rα Γét (q) = Γ Zar (q); Γét (q) = α Γ Zar (q). These conjectures, somewhat reinterpreted for motivic cohomology, are now known as the Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures. The translation is H p (X, Z(q)) := H p (X Zar, Γ Zar (q)) = H p (X Zar, τ q Rα Γét (q)). The relation with the Chow groups is CH p (X ) = H 2p (X, Z(p)) = H p (X, K M p ).

43 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures Implications The relations (2) and (4) in Beilinson s conjectures and (2), (3) and (5) in Lichtenbaum s version imply the Bloch-Kato conjectures. In fact, they say: There is a natural map H p (X, Z/n(q)) H ṕ et (X, µ q n ) which is an isomorphism for p q. For p > q, H p (F, Z(q)) = 0, so H q (F, Z/n(q)) = K M q (F )/n.

44 Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures Current status Remarkably, the Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures have all been verified, with the exception of the boundedness result (1). This is the Beilinson-Soulé vanishing conjecture: H p (X, Z(q)) = 0 if p 0 and q 0. The first successful candidate for the motivic complexes was constructed by Bloch.

45 Bloch s cycle complexes

46 Bloch s cycle complexes The main idea Roughly speaking, Bloch starts with the presentation for CH q (X ): z q (X A 1 i0 ) i 1 0,1 z q (X ) CH q (X ) 0 and extends to the left by using the algebraic n-simplices. The resulting complex is a good candidate for Γ(q)(X ).

47 Bloch s cycle complexes n-simplices The standard n-simplex is n := {(t 0,..., t n ) R n+1 i t i = 1, t i 0}. These fit together to form a cosimplicial space: Let Ord be the category with objects the ordered sets n := {0,..., n} and maps the order-preserving maps of sets. For i n, we have the ith vertex v i of n, with t i = 1, t j = 0 for j i. Given g : n m define (g) : n m to be the convex-linear extension of the map v i v g(i).

48 Bloch s cycle complexes n-simplices Explicitly (g)(t 0,..., t n ) = ( (g)(t) 0,..., (g)(t) m ) with (g)(t) j := t i. i g 1 (j) This gives us the functor : Ord Spaces i.e., a cosimpicial space.

49 Bloch s cycle complexes Singular simplices If now T is a topological space, let Cn sing (T ) be the free abelian group on the set of continuous maps σ : n T. Composition with the maps (g) defines the simplicial abelian group C sing (T ) := Z[Maps(, T )] : Ord op Ab. As usual, we form the complex (C sing (T ), d), with d n := i ( 1) i δ i n where δ i n : n n+1 is the coface map : C sing sing n+1 (T ) Cn (T ) δ i n(t 0,..., t n ) := (t 0,..., t i 1, 0, t i,..., t n ). (C sing (T ), d) is the singular chain complex of T and H n (T, Z) := H n (C sing (T ), d).

50 Bloch s cycle complexes Algebraic n-simplices We now make an algebraic analog. Definition The algebraic n-simplex over k, n k, is the hyperplane i t i = 1 in A n+1 k. For g : n m let (g) : n k m k be the affine linear map t ( (g)(t) 0,..., (g) m ) with (g)(t) j := t i. i g 1 (j) This defines the cosimplicial scheme k : Ord Sm/k. A face of n k is a subscheme defined by t i 1 =... = t ir = 0.

51 Bloch s cycle complexes Good cycles Noting that (A 1, 0, 1) = ( 1, δ 1 0 ( 0 ), δ 0 0 ( 0 )), we extend our presentation of CH q (X ) by defining z q (X, n) := Z{irreducible, codimension q subvarieties where good position means: for all faces F n. W X n in good position}. codim X F W X F q

52 Bloch s cycle complexes Good cycles The good position condition implies that we have a well-defined pull-back (g) : z q (X, n) z q (X, m) for every g : n m in Ord, giving us the simplicial abelian group n z q (X, n) and the complex (z q (X, ), d). Explicitly, this is... z q (X, n + 1) dn z q (X, n)... z q (X, 1) = z q (X A 1 i0 ) i 1 0,1 z q (X ) so H 0 (z q (X, ), d) = CH q (X ).

53 Bloch s cycle complexes Higher Chow groups Definition The complex (z q (X, ), d) is Bloch s cycle complex. The higher Chow groups of X are CH q (X, n) := H n (z q (X, ), d).

54 Bloch s cycle complexes Properties The complexes z q (X, ) inherit the properties of z q (X ) (more or less): 1. For f : Y X flat, we have f : z q (X, ) z q (Y, ) 2. For f : Y X proper, we have f : z q (Y, ) z q (X, ) (z q (Y, ) := z dim Y q (Y, )). 3. Cycle product induces a product in D (Ab). : z q (X, ) L z p (Y, ) z p+q (X k Y, ) 4. For arbitrary f : Y X in Sm/k there is f : z q (X, ) z q (Y, ) in D (Ab). These induce corresponding operations on the homology CH (, n).

55 Bloch s cycle complexes Properties Two important results: Theorem (Homotopy invariance) For any X p : z q (X, ) z q+1 (X, ) is a quasi-isomorphism, i.e. p : CH q (X, n) CH q+1 (X A 1, n) is an isomorphism.

56 Bloch s cycle complexes Properties Theorem (Localization) Let i : W X be a closed immersion, j : U := X \ W X the open complement. Then the sequence z q (W, ) i z q (X, ) j z q (U, ) extends canonically to a distinguished triangle in D (Ab), i.e., there is a long exact localization sequence... CH q (W, n) i CH q (X, n) j CH q (U, n) CH q (W, n 1)... CH q (U, 1) CH q (W ) i CH q (X ) j CH q (U) 0.

57 Bloch s cycle complexes Properties Corollary (Mayer-Vietoris) If X = U V, U, V open, we have a long exact Mayer-Vietoris sequence... CH q (X, n) CH q (U, n) CH q (V, n) CH q (U V, n) CH q (X, n 1)... CH q (U V, 1) CH q (X ) CH q (U) CH q (V ) CH q (U V ) 0.

58 Bloch s cycle complexes Properties Theorem (Totaro, Nestorenko-Suslin) For a field F and integer q 0, there is a natural isomorphism K M q (F ) = CH q (F, q). Note. CH q (F, n) = 0 for n > q for dimensional reasons. Finally, we have a Chern character isomorphism: ch n : K n (X ) Q q 0 CH q (X, n) Q identifying K n (X ) (q) with CH q (X, n) Q.

59 Bloch s cycle complexes Universal cohomology Definition 1. Integral universal cohomology of X Sm/k is H p (X, Z(q)) := CH q (X, 2q p). 2. The sheaf of complexes Γ Bl (q) is U z q (U, 2q ) Remark It follows from the Mayer-Vietoris property that the natural map is an isomorphism. Thus H p (Γ Bl (q)(x )) H p (X Zar, Γ Bl (q)) H p (X, Z(q)) = H p (Γ Bl (q)(x )) = H p (X Zar, Γ Bl (q)).

60 Bloch s cycle complexes Universal cohomology From our comments, the complexes Γ Bl (q) satisfy all requirements of Beilinson, except 1. The functoriality and products are only in D (Ab), not as complexes (technical issue). 2. Γ Bl (q) is not known to be cohomologically supported in [1, q], although Γ Bl (q) is supported in (, q]. 3. Note that the mod n properties rely on the Bloch-Kato conjecture.

61 Suslin s cycle complexes

62 Suslin s cycle complexes Homology and the Dold-Thom theorem Suslin s construction of cycle complex is more closely related to constructions in topology than Bloch s version. We have seen that the singular chain complex of a space T can be written as C sing (T ) = Z[Maps(, T )] with the differential induced by the cosimplicial structure in. Why not try the same, replacing with k X? and T with a variety Answer. It fails miserably! There are usually very few maps n k X.

63 Suslin s cycle complexes Homology and the Dold-Thom theorem Instead, use the Dold-Thom theorem as starting point: Theorem (Dold-Thom) Let (T, ) be a pointed CW complex. There is a natural isomorphism H n (T, ) = π n (Sym T ). Here Sym T = lim [T Sym 2 T... Sym n T...] with Sym n T Sym n+1 T the map add to the sum.

64 Suslin s cycle complexes Homology and the Dold-Thom theorem: an algebraic version What is the algebraic analog? A simple answer is given by finite cycles Definition For X, Y varieties, X smooth and irreducible, set z fin (Y )(X ) := Z[{irreducible, reduced W X k Y with W X finite and surjective}]. Think of such a W X Y as a map from X to Sym d Y, d = deg W /X : x X (x Y ) W = i n i y i Sym d Y.

65 Suslin s cycle complexes Homology and the Dold-Thom theorem: an algebraic version Note that z fin (Y ) is a presheaf on Sm/k: Given f : X X and W X Y finite over X, the pull-back (f id Y ) 1 (W ) X Y is still finite over X. Thus the cycle pull-back is defined, giving f : z fin (Y )(X ) z fin (Y )(X ). In particular, we can evaluate z fin (Y ) on k, giving us the simplicial abelian group n z fin (Y )( n k ).

66 Suslin s cycle complexes Suslin homology Definition For a k-scheme Y, the Suslin complex of Y, C Sus (Y ), is the complex associated to the simplicial abelian group The Suslin homology of Y is H Sus n n z fin (Y )( n k ). (Y, A) := H n (C Sus (Y ) A). Since z fin (Y )(X ) is covariantly functorial in Y (for arbitrary maps), Suslin homology is covariantly functorial, as it should be.

67 Suslin s cycle complexes Comparison results One beautiful result on Suslin homology (proved before Bloch-Kato) is Theorem (Suslin-Voevodsky) Let Y be a finite type scheme over C. Then there is a natural isomorphism H Sus (Y, Z/n) = H (Y (C), Z/n).

68 Suslin s cycle complexes Comparison results Since a cycle in z fin (Y )( n ) is a cycle on Y n, obviously in good position, we have a natural inclusion C Sus (Y ) z d (Y, ); d = dim k Y, Theorem (Suslin-Voevodsky) For Y smooth and projective, C Sus (Y ) z d (Y, ) is a quasi-isomorphism. Thus Hn Sus (Y, Z) = H 2d n (Y, Z(d)) for Y smooth and projective of dimension d (Poincaré duality).

69 Suslin s cycle complexes Relations with universal cohomology One can recover all the universal cohomology groups from the Suslin homology construction, properly modified. For this, we recall how the Dold-Thom theorem gives a model for cohomology. Since S n has only one non-trivial reduced homology group, H n (S n, Z) = Z, the Dold-Thom theorem tells us that Sym S n is a K(Z, n), i.e. { π m (Sym S n 0 for m n ) = Z for m = n. Obstruction theory tells us that for m n. H m (X, Z) = π m n (Maps(X, Sym S n )).

70 Suslin s cycle complexes Relations with universal cohomology To rephrase this in the algebraic setting, we need a good replacement for the n-spheres. It turns out we get a very good replacement for the 2-sphere by taking P 1, pointed by, and thus we use (P 1 ) n for S 2n. The wedge product doesn t make much sense, but since we are going to apply this to finite cycles, we just take a quotient by the cycles at infinity : z fin ((P 1 ) n )(X ) := z fin ((P 1 ) n )(X )/ n i,j (z fin ((P 1 ) n 1 )(X )), j=1 where i,j : (P 1 ) n 1 (P 1 ) n inserts in the jth spot. This leads to

71 Suslin s cycle complexes Relations with universal cohomology Definition The Friedlander-Suslin weight q cycle complex of X is Γ FS (q) (X ) := z fin ((P 1 ) q )(X 2q ). This gives us the complex of sheaves U Γ FS (q)(u). Restriction from X n (P 1 ) q X n A q defines the inclusion Γ FS (q) (X ) z q (X A q, 2q ) = Γ Bl (q) (X A q )

72 Suslin s cycle complexes Relations with universal cohomology Theorem (Friedlander-Suslin-Voevodsky) For X smooth and quasi-projective, the maps Γ FS (q) (X ) Γ Bl (q) (X A q ) p Γ Bl (q) (X ) are quasi-isomorphisms. In particular, we have natural isomorphisms H p (X Zar, Γ FS (q)) = H p (Γ FS (q)(x ) ) = H p (X, Z(q)).

73 Suslin s cycle complexes Relations with universal cohomology Since X Γ FS (q) (X ) := z fin ((P 1 ) q )(X 2q ) is functorial in X, the Friedlander-Suslin complex gives a functorial model for Bloch s cycle complex. Products for Γ FS (q) are similarly defined on the level of complexes. This completes the Beilinson-Lichtenbaum program, with the exception of the vanishing conjectures.

74 Concluding remarks

75 Computations One can make some computations. Proposition Let X be a smooth quasi-projective variety. Then 1. H n (X, Z(q)) = 0 for n > 2q. 2. H 2q (X, Z(q)) = CH q (X ) 3. H 1 (X, Z(1)) = Γ(X, O X ); Hn (X, Z(1)) = 0 for n 1, 2 For a field F : 1. H n (F, Z(q)) = 0 for n > q 2. H q (F, Z(q)) = K M q (F ) 3. H 1 (F, Z(2)) = K 3 (F )/K M 3 (F ).

76 Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence Theorem (Bloch-Lichtenbaum/Friedlander-Suslin) Let X be smooth. There is a strongly convergent spectral sequence E p,q 2 = H p q (X, Z( q)) = K p q (X ) Adams operations act on the spectral sequence, with ψ k acting by k q on E p, q 2, so one can refine the Q-isomorphism of universal cohomology with K-theory, limiting the primes one needs to invert.

77 Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence Combining with the mod n information furnished by the Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures, the known computations of K-theory of finite fields and of number rings yield similar computations for universal cohomology. Conversely, the Beilinson-Lichtenbaum conjectures plus the AH spectral sequence allow one to compare mod n algebraic K-theory with mod n topological (étale) K-theory, giving a proof of the Quillen-Lichtenbaum conjecture: Theorem The natural map K p (X ; Z/n) K ét p (X, Z/n) is an isomorphism for p cd n (X ) 1 and injective for p = cd n (X ) 2.

78 An advertisement In the next lecture, we show how the theory of universal cohomology acquires a categorical foundation, becoming motivic cohomology via Voevodsky s triangulated category of motives.

79 Thank you!

### x X p K i (k(x)) K i 1 (M p+1 )

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