# Class 11 Root Locus part I

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1 Class 11 Root Locus part I

2 Closed loop system G(s) G(s) G(s)

3 Closed loop system K The Root Locus the locus of the poles of the closed loop system, when we vary the value of K We shall assume here K >, but it is also possible to construct the Root Locus for K < or even for - < K <.

4 Root Locus is actually the locus of the poles, that is, the locus of the roots of the characteristic equation, of the closed loop system Complex plane jω imaginary axis real axis Thus, the Root Locus is drawn in the complex plane It is easy to observe that the Root Locus is SIMETRIC with respect to the real axis That is, the upper part is a reflex of the lower part

5 As we know very well by now, the closed loop transfer function (CLTF) of the system is given by F.T. 1+ G(s) G(s)H(s) and the closed loop poles of this system are the roots of the characteristic equation of the CLTF It is easy to show that these roots of the characteristic equation of the CLTF are the same roots of 1 + G(s) H(s)

6 That is, we calculate the expression 1 + G(s) H(s) and then calculate the roots of the numerator. Those will be the roots of the characteristic equation of the CLTF Without having to calculate the CLTF Actually, the characteristic equation of this CLTF is precisely the numerator of 1 + G(s) H(s)

7 Example 1: K (s + 1) (s 4) 1 s Observe that: 1 + G(s)H(s) 1 + K (s + 1) (s 4)s

8 Example 1 (continued) hence, 1 + G(s)H(s) s + (K 4)s + (s 4)s and therefore, the characteristic equation of the CLTF is given by: K s + (K 4)s + K That could also be obtained (with a little more calculation) through the denominator of the CLTF which is given by: FTMF s K (s + 1)s + (K 4)s + K

9 Example : Let us construct the Root Locus of the C.L. system K (s ) (s + 5) Observe that: 1 + G(s)H(s) K (s ) 1 + (s + 5) (K + 1)s + (5 (s + 5) K)

10 Example (continued) K (s ) (s + 5) thus, the characteristic equation of the C.L. system is: ( K + 1) s + (5 K) and the only C.L. pole is: s (K 5) (K + 1)

11 Example (continued) K (s ) (s + 5) Therefore, the Root Locus of this system is the locus of s s (K 5) (K + 1) in the complex plane, when K varies, for K >.

12 Example (continued) Observe that: if K if K s 5 s + Hence, it is easy to observe that the Root Locus of this system is the line segment in the real axis between 5 and +, that is [ 5,+]. imaginary axis x 5 o real axis

13 Example (continued) Actually, the line segment that goes from 5 to, when K goes from to. and note that K,5 when s. K K,5 K imaginary axis x 5 o real axis

14 Example (continued) Since this a 1ª ordem closed loop system, and therefore, the sole closed loop pole is real, this Root Locus is entirely located in the real axis. K K,5 K imaginary axis x 5 o real axis

15 Example (continued) The Root Locus allows us to see that for K <,5 the closed loop system is stable, since in this case the only closed loop pole will lie in the LHP, whereas for K,5 the closed loop system is not stable. K K,5 K imaginary axis x 5 o real axis

16 Example 3: s K + s 3 Observe that: 1 + G(s)H(s) K 1 + (s 1)(s + 3) s + s s + + (K 3) s 3

17 Example 3 (continued) K s + s 3 thus, the characteristic equation of the C.L. system is: s + s + (K 3) and the poles are: s 1 ± 4 K

18 Example 3 (continued) K s + s 3 So, the Root Locus of this system is the locus of s s 1 ± 4 K in the complex plane, when K varies, and for K >.

19 Example 3 (continued) Note that: if K s 3 e s 1 imaginary axis K K x 3 x 1 real axis

20 Example 3 (continued) moreover: if K < 4 if K 4 s 1 ± s 1 4 K real poles double real poles imaginary axis K K 4 K x 3 1 x 1 real axis

21 Example 3 (continued) and also: if K 3 s the Root Locus crosses the origin imaginary axis K K 4 K 3 K x 3 1 x 1 real axis

22 Example 3 (continued) But this Root Locus is not restrict to the real axis, since if K > 4 s K K K 4 1 ± j K imaginary axis K 3 4 complex conjugates with real part 1 and the imaginary part varying from to. K x 3 1 x 1 real axis K

23 Example 3 (continued) Summarizing, This Root Locus has branches K imaginary axis and now let us present the branches of this Root Locus with different colours, as the Matlab does K K 4 K 3 K x 3 1 x 1 real axis K

24 Example 3 (continued) K imaginary axis and now let us present the branches of this Root Locus with different colours, as the Matlab does K K 4 K 3 K x 3 1 x 1 real axis K

25 Example 3 (continued) The Root Locus allows us to see that K 3 the closed loop system is not stable, Whereas for K > 3 the closed loop system is stable, since in that case the closed loop poles will lie in the LHP K imaginary axis K K 4 K 3 K x 3 1 x 1 real axis K

26 Note that the Root Locus depends only on the product G(s) H(s) and not on G(s) or on H(s) separately Hence, if the closed loop systems below satisfy G 1 (s) H 1 (s) G (s) H (s) Then the Root Locus of these systems are the same

27 The expression Is called the transfer function of the system in open loop (OLTF). It is as if the loop had been broken here, becoming open G(s) H(s) G(s) H(s) (FTMA)

28 Therefore, the poles and zeroes of G(s) H(s) are called the open loop poles and zeroes Let us call by n and m the number of poles and zeroes of G(s) H(s), respectively that is: n the number of open loop poles m the number of open loop zeroes

29 Rules for the construction of the Root Locus We shall present here 8 rules that will be very helpful to draw the Root Locus for a close loop system with OLTF given by G(s) H(s).

30 Rule #1 Number of branches

31 Rule #1 Number of branches The number of branches n of a Root Locus is the number of open loop poles, that is, the number of poles of G(s) H(s). n nº branches nº poles of G(s) H(s)

32 Rule # Intervals with and without Root Locus in the real axis

33 Rule # Intervals with and without Root Locus in the real axis A point s in the real axis belongs to the Root Locus if i has an odd number of open loop poles and zeroes to the right of s that is, if there is an odd number of poles and zeroes of G(s) H(s) to the right of s.

34 Example 4: Application of Rule # Intervals with and without Root Locus in the real axis x x o x x o x o x o real axis x x o o o x x real axis

35 Example 4 (continued) Application of Rule # x x o x o x o real axis x x o x o o x o o x x real axis

36 Example 5: Application of Rule # Intervals with and without Root Locus in the real axis Considere o sistema de M.F. no qual G(s)H(s) K (s + 1)(s + )(s + 3) x x x 3 1 real axis

37 Rule #3 Beginning and ending points of the branches of the Root Locus

38 Rule #3 Beginning and ending points of the branches of the Root Locus The n branches of the Root Locus start in the n open loop poles that is, they start in the n poles of G(s) H(s) m of the n branches of the Root Locus end in the m open loop zeroes that is, they end in the m zeroes of G(s) H(s) and the remainders: (n m) branches of the Root Locus end in infinite ( )

39 Rule #3 Beginning and ending points of the branches of the Root Locus (continued) Note that (n m) is the difference between the number of open loop poles n and the number of open loop zeroes m i.e., the difference between the number of poles and zeroes of G(s) H(s) If n m then (n m), and therefore no branch ends in infinite ( ) Hence, if the number of open loop poles is equal to the number of open loop zeroes, then no branch ends in infinite ( )

40 Rule #4 Asymptotes in the infinite

41 Rule #4 Asymptotes in the infinite For the (n m) branches of the Root Locus that do not end in the m open loop zeroes, that is, the m finite zeroes of G(s) H(s), we can determine the direction which they are going to infinite in the complex plane γ angle of the asymptote with the real axis γ 18º (i + 1) (n m) i,1,, L

42 Rule #4 Asymptotes in the infinite (continued) Applying the formula we obtain the table below: n m γ angle of the asymptote with the real axis 1 18º 9º and 9º 3 6º, 6º and 18º 4 45º, 45º, 135º and 135º 5 36º, 36º, 18º, 18º and 18º 6 3º, 3º, 9º, 9º, 15º and 15º : : : : : :

43 Rule #5 Interception points of the asymptotes with the real axis

44 Rule #5 Interception points of the asymptotes with the real axis The (n m) asymptotes in the infinite are well determined by its directions (angles γ) and by the point where they meet in the real axis, σ o given by the expression: σ o n Re(p ) i i 1 j 1 (n m) m Re(z j )

45 Rule #6 Points in the real axis where there are branch encounters

46 Rule #6 Points in the real axis where there are branch encounters Firstly we write the equation 1 + G(s) H(s), and then we obtain an expression for K as a function of s: K(s) thus, we calculate the derivative of K with respect to s, dk/ds Now, using the equation below which depends on s dk ds We obtain the points s in the real axis where there are meetings of branches

47 Rule #6 Points in the real axis where there are branch encounters (continued) This equation in s dk ds May have a number of solutions which are greater than the number of points where branches meet in the real axis s s 1 s s s s 3 s s 4 s s 5 It will be necessary to cancel solutions that are not points belonging to the Root Locus s s 1 s s s s 3 s s 4 s s 5

48 Rule #6 Points in the real axis where there are branch encounters (continued) real axis When there are branches encounter in the real axis, it may be branches that meet and ENTER the real axis or branches that meet and LEAVE the real axis

49 Rule #6 Points in the real axis where there are branch encounters (continued) For a point s s where there are branch encounters in the real axis, we calculate the second derivative of K(s) at s s d K ds s s'

50 Rule #6 Points in the real axis where there are branch encounters (continued) If d K ds s s' < s real axis branches that meet and LEAVE the real axis

51 Rule #6 Points in the real axis where there are branch encounters (continued) If d K ds s s' > s real axis branches that meet and ENTER the real axis

52 Rule #6 Points in the real axis where there are branch encounters (continued) If d K ds s s' s real axis more than branches that meet in this point we follow to Rule #7 Encounter of more than two branches

53 Example 6: Application of Rule #6 Points in the real axis where there are branch encounters Returning to Example 1, let then we have: and therefore: K (s + 1) 1 + G(s)H(s) 1 + (s 4)s dk ds (s 4)s K (s + 1) (s + s ) (s + 1) s 1 s thus, s 1 and s are the points where there are branches meeting

54 Example 6 (continued) Application of Rule #6 In order to know the value of K in each of these points It is necessary to substitute (s 1 e s ) in the expression of K Thus, the points where there are encounter of branches are K (s 4)s (s + 1) s 1 1 s 1 (K 1) and K (s 4)s (s + 1) s 4 s (K 4)

55 Example 6 (continued) Application of Rule #6 the points where there are meting of branches are s 1 (K 1) and s (K 4) K 4 K 1 s s 1 real axis

56 Example 6 (continued) Application of Rule #6 Now, in order to find if each of these branch encounters are ENTERING branches or LEAVING branches, it is necessary to calculate the second derivative d K ds 18 (s + 1) 3 substituting by the points where branches meet: s 1 and s d K ds s 1 18 (s + 1) 3 s 1 3 < branches that LEAVE the real axis d K ds s 18 (s + 1) 3 s + 3 > branches that ENTER the real axis

57 Example 6 (continued) Application of Rule #6 Thus, the points where there are branches meeting are: s 1 (K 1) branches that LEAVE the real axis s (K 4) branches that ENTER the real axis K 4 K 1 s s 1 real axis

58 Example 7: Application of Rule #6 Points in the real axis where there are branches meeting Returning to Example 5 hence G(s)H(s) K (s + 1)(s + )(s + 3) K 1 + G(s)H(s) 1+ (s + 1) (s + ) (s + 3) K (s + 1)(s + )(s s 3 6s 11s + 6 3) dk 3s ds 1s 11

59 Example 7 (continued) Application of Rule #6 thus, setting dk ds 3s 1s 11 s,58 s 1,43 now, observing the intervals with and without Root Locus in the real axis (example 5) We conclude that only one of the solutions, s 1,43 lies in a interval with Root Locus x x x 3 1 real axis

60 Rule #7 Encounter of more than two branches

61 Rule #7 Encounter of more than two branches When applying the previous rule, if d K ds s s' this means that there are encounter of more than two branches and we have to keep on the differentiation on K(s), to higher order derivatives until we get k d K k ds η d K η ds s s' k 3, 4,5,L for someη

62 Rule #7 Encounter of more than two branches If η d K η ds s s' and k d K k ds s s' this means that there is an encounter of η branches at s that is, η branches ENTER and η branches LEAVE at s (continued) for k < η The meeting of 3 branches or more it is not much common Certainly occurs with less frequency than the meeting of branches (Rule #6) Thus, this Rule #7 is not always used. Only in those cases where, by applying Rule #6, we find d K ds s s'

63 Rule #7 Encounter of more than two branches (continued) A meeting of 3 branches at s can have the following aspect 3 ENTERING branches and 3 LEAVING branches at s s real axis

64 Rule #7 Encounter of more than two branches (continued) A meeting of 4 branches at s can have the following aspect 4 ENTERING branches and 4 LEAVING branches at s s real axis

65 Example 8: Application of Rule #7 Encounter of more than two branches G(s)H(s) (s K 3 1) 1 + G(s)H(s) K s dk 3s ds s d K ds s 6s s apply Rule #7 (starting with the 3 rd order derivative)

66 Example 8 (continued) Application of Rule #7 3 d K 3 ds s 6 3 branches ENTER and 3 branches LEAVE at s K This example only illustrate the application of Rule #7 To sketch the complete Root Locus it is necessary to apply all the rules meeting of 3 branches at s,5 +,866j K x K 1 K x s 1 K x,5,866j K K real axis

67 Departamento de Engenharia Eletromecânica Thank you! Felippe de Souza

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