# EVAPORATION YUSRON SUGIARTO

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1 EVAPORATION YUSRON SUGIARTO

2 Evaporation: - Factors affecting evaporation - Evaporators - Film evaporators - Single effect and multiple effect evaporators - Mathematical problems on evaporation Principal reference: Chapter 8 in C.J. Geankoplis, Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3 rd Edition, Prentice-Hall of India

3 Evaporation - Suppose that we have a dilute solution of a solute (say, sugar) dissolved in a solvent (say, water) - We need to remove part of the solvent (water) to produce a concentrated solution - This can be achieved by heating the solution so as to evaporate the solvent (water) - This process is known as evaporation. - The industrial equipment used for this purpose in known as an evaporator.

4 Types of evaporators Open kettle or pan evaporator:

5 Types of evaporators Open kettle or pan evaporator: Pan Pressure gauge Steam Boiler Jacket Condensate Concentrate

6 Types of evaporators Open kettle or pan evaporator: - simplest form of evaporators - inexpensive - simple to operate - very poor heat economy - in some cases paddles and scrapers for agitation are used

7 Types of evaporators Horizontal-tube evaporator: Vapour Dilute feed Condensate Steam inlet Concentrated product

8 Types of evaporators Horizontal-tube evaporator: - relatively cheap - used for non-viscous liquids having high heat-transfer coefficients and liquids that do not deposit scales - poor liquid circulation (and therefore unsuitable for viscous liquids)

9 Types of evaporators Vertical-type short-tube evaporator: - Liquid is inside the tubes - Steam condenses outside the tubes - used for non-viscous liquids having high heat-transfer coefficients and liquids that do not deposit scales

10 Types of evaporators Vertical-type short-tube evaporator: Vapour Dilute feed Condensate Steam inlet Concentrated product

11 Types of evaporators Falling-film-type evaporator:

12 Types of evaporators More types are given in additional handouts uploaded at the course website.

13 Factors effecting evaporation: Concentration in the liquid: - Liquid feed to an evaporator is relatively dilute. - So its viscosity is low, and heat-transfer coefficient high. - As evaporation proceeds, the solution becomes concentrated. - So viscosity increases and heat-transfer coefficient drops. - Density and the boiling point of solution also increase.

14 Factors effecting evaporation: Solubility: - As solution is heated, concentration of the solute in the solution increases. - In case the solubility limit of the solute in solution is exceeded, then crystals may form. - Solubility of the solute therefore determines the maximum concentration of the solute in the product stream. - In most cases, the solubility of the solute increases with temperature. This means when a hot concentrated solution from an evaporator is cooled to room temperature, crystallization may occur.

15 Factors effecting evaporation: Temperature sensitivity of materials: - Pharmaceuticals products, fine chemicals and foods are damaged when heated to moderate temperatures for relatively short times. - So special techniques are employed to reduce temperature of the liquid and time of heating during evaporation

16 Factors effecting evaporation: Foaming and frothing: - Solutions like organic compounds tend to foam and froth during vaporization. - The foam is carried away along with vapor leaving the evaporator. - Entrainment losses occur.

17 Factors effecting evaporation: Pressure and temperature: - The boiling point of the solution is related to the pressure of the system. - The higher the operating pressure of the evaporator, the higher the temperature at boiling. - Also, as the concentration of the dissolved material in solution increases by evaporation, the temperature of boiling may rise (a phenomenon known as boiling point rise/elevation). - To keep the temperatures low in heat-sensitive materials, it is often necessary to operate under atmospheric pressure (that is, under vacuum).

18 Factors effecting evaporation: Scale deposition: - Some solutions deposit solid materials (called scale) on the heating surfaces. - The result is that the overall heat-transfer coefficient (U) may drastically decrease, leading to shut down of the evaporators for cleaning purposes.

19 Factors effecting evaporation: Materials of construction: - Evaporators are made of some kind of steel. - However many solutions attack ferrous metals and are contaminated by them. - Copper, nickel, stainless steels can also be used.

20 Method of operation of evaporators Single-effect evaporation: - When a single evaporator is used,the vapor from the boiling liquid is condensed and discarded. This is called single effect evaporation. - It is simple but utilizes steam ineffectively. - To evaporate 1 kg of water from the solution we require kg of steam. Multiple-effect evaporation: - Increasing the evaporation per kg of steam by using a series of evaporators between the steam supply and condenser is called multiple effect evaporation

21 Calculation methods for single-effect evaporators Feed, F P Vapour, V y V, T 1, H V Feed: F mass flow rate x F mass fraction of solute in feed T F temperature of feed h F enthalpy of feed x F, T F, h F Steam, S P S, T S, H S T 1 Condensate, S P S, T S, h S Vapour leaving the evaporator: V mass flow rate y V mass fraction of solute in vapour T 1 temperature of vapour H V enthalpy of vapour Steam: S mass flow rate P S steam pressure T S steam temperature H S enthalpy of steam Prof. R. Shanthini 28 May 2012 Concentrate, L x L, T 1, h L h S enthalpy of condensate Concentrate leaving the evaporator: L mass flow rate x L mass fraction of solute in concentrate T 1 temperature of concentrate h L enthalpy of concentrate P pressure in the evaporator T 1 temperature in the evaporator

22 Calculation methods for single-effect evaporators Vapour, V y V, T 1, H V Overall material balance: F = L + V Feed, F P Solute balance: x F, T F, h F F x F = L x L + V y V Steam, S P S, T S, H S T 1 Condensate, S If the vapour is free of solute: F x F = L x L P S, T S, h S Heat balance: Concentrate, L F h F + S H S = L h L + V H V + S h S x L, T 1, h L Rewriting: F h F + S (H S - h S ) = L h L + V H V F h F + S λ = L h L + V H V where λ = H S - h S

23 Calculation methods for single-effect evaporators Vapour, V Feed, F x F, T F, h F Steam, S P S, T S, H S P T 1 y V, T 1, H V Condensate, S P S, T S, h S Energy lost by the steam q = S λ = S (H S h S ) In case of no energy loss to the environment, q amount of energy gets transferred from steam to the solution through the tube wall of area A and overall heat transfer coefficient U. Concentrate, L x L, T 1, h L Therefore, q = U A ΔT = U A (T S T 1 )

24 Example 1: A continuous single-effect evaporator concentrates 9072 kg/h of a 1.0 wt % salt solution entering at 38ºC to a final concentration of 1.5 wt %. The vapor space of the evaporator is at kpa (1.0 atm abs) and the steam supplied is saturated at 150 kpa. The overall coefficient U = 1704 W/m 2.K. Calculate the amounts of vapor and liquid products and the heat-transfer area required. Assumed that, since it its dilute, the solution has the same boiling point as water.

25 Calculation methods for single-effect evaporators Feed, F x F, T F, h F Steam, S P S, T S, H S P T 1 Vapour, V y V, T 1, H V Condensate, S P S, T S, h S Concentrate, L x L, T 1, h L Data provided: F = 9072 kg/h x F = 1 wt % = 0.01 kg solute / kg feed T F = 38ºC x L = 1.5 wt % = kg solute / kg liquid product P = kpa (1.0 atm abs) P S = 150 kpa U = 1704 W/m 2.K T 1 = saturated temperature at P (= kpa) = 100ºC T S = saturated temperature at 150 kpa = 111.4ºC

26 Effects of processing variables on evaporator operation: Effect of feed temperature: - The inlet temperature of the feed has a large effect on the evaporator operation. - When feed is not at its boiling point, steam is needed first to heat the feed to its boiling post and then to evaporate it. - Preheating the feed can reduce the size of evaporator heattransfer area.

27 Effects of processing variables on evaporator operation: Effect of pressure: - Pressure in the evaporator sets the boiling point of the solution (T 1 ). - Steam pressure determines the steam temperature (T s ) - Since q = U A (T S T 1 ), larger values of (T S T 1 ) will help reduce the heat-transfer area needed and hence the cost of evaporator. - Vacuum can be maintained in the solution side using a vacuum pump. - For example, if the pressure in Example 1 is reduced to 41.4 kpa, boiling point of water reduces to K and that would increase the (T S T 1 ) from 10 K to 33.3 K. A large decrease in heat-transfer area would be obtained.

28 Effects of processing variables on evaporator operation: Effect of steam pressure: - High pressure provides high T s values, and hence T S T 1 will increase. - High pressure steam is however more costly. - Therefore, overall economic balances must be considered to determine the optimum steam pressure.

29 Boiling point rise of solutions: - In example 1, the solution is assumed to be dilute enough to be considered to have the same thermal properties as water. It is not true always. - For concentrated solutions, heat capacity and boiling point are quire different from that of water. - Duhring s rule is an empirical law that relates the boiling point of a solution to the boiling point of the solvent at different pressures for a solution of given concentration.

30 Boiling point rise of solutions (an example): - Duhring plot for boiling point of sodium chloride solutions

31 Enthalpy-concentration charts of solutions: - See the handout.

32 Example 2: An evaporator is used to concentrate 4536 kg/h of a 20% NaOH solution entering at 60ºC to a product of 50% solids. The pressure of the saturated steam used is 170 kpa and the vapor space pressure of the evaporator is at 12 kpa. The overall coefficient U is 1560 W/m 2.K. Calculate the steam used, the steam economy (in kg vapourized / kg steam used) and the heating surface area.

33 Calculation methods for single-effect evaporators Feed, F x F, T F, h F Steam, S P S, T S, H S P T 1 Vapour, V y V, T 1, H V Condensate, S P S, T S, h S Concentrate, L x L, T 1, h L Data provided: F = 4536 kg/h x F = 20 wt % = 0.2 kg solute / kg feed T F = 60ºC x L = 50 wt % = 0.5 kg solute / kg liquid product P = 12 kpa = 0.12 bar P S = 170 kpa = 1.7 bar U = 1560 W/m 2.K T 1 saturated temperature at P (= 0.12 bar) = 49.4 o C T S = saturated steam temperature at 1.7 bar = o C

34 Example 3 (Repeat Example 2 assuming that the thermal properties of the liquid in the evaporator can be approximated by those of water): An evaporator is used to concentrate 4536 kg/h of a 20% NaOH solution entering at 60ºC to a product of 50% solids. The pressure of the saturated steam used is 170 kpa and the vapor space pressure of the evaporator is at 12 kpa. The overall coefficient U is 1560 W/m 2.K. Calculate the steam used, the steam economy (in kg vapourized / kg steam used) and the heating surface area.

35 Calculation methods for single-effect evaporators Feed, F x F, T F, h F Steam, S P S, T S, H S P T 1 Vapour, V y V, T 1, H V Condensate, S P S, T S, h S Concentrate, L x L, T 1, h L Data provided: F = 4536 kg/h x F = 20 wt % = 0.2 kg solute / kg feed T F = 60ºC x L = 50 wt % = 0.5 kg solute / kg liquid product P = 12 kpa = 0.12 bar P S = 170 kpa = 1.7 bar U = 1560 W/m 2.K T 1 = saturated temperature at P (= 0.12 bar) = 49.4 o C T S = saturated steam temperature at 1.7 bar = o C

36 Double-effect evaporators

37 Calculation methods for double-effect evaporators If liquid is to be evaporated in each effect, and if the boiling point of this liquid is unaffected by the solute concentration, then writing a heat balance for the first evaporator: q 1 = U 1 A 1 ΔT 1 = U 1 A 1 (T S T 1 ) Similarly, in the second evaporator, remembering that the "steam" in the second is the vapour from the first evaporator and that this will condense at approximately the same temperature as it boiled, since pressure changes are small, q 2 = U 2 A 2 ΔT 2 = U 2 A 2 (T 1 T 2 ) If the evaporators are working in balance, then all of the vapours from the first effect are condensing and in their turn evaporating vapours in the second effect. Also assuming that heat losses can be neglected, there is no appreciable boiling-point elevation of the more concentrated solution, and the feed is supplied at its boiling point, q1 = q2

38 Calculation methods for double-effect evaporators If the evaporators are working in balance, then all of the vapours from the first effect are condensing and in their turn evaporating vapours in the second effect. Also assuming that heat losses can be neglected, there is no appreciable boiling-point elevation of the more concentrated solution, and the feed is supplied at its boiling point, q 1 = q 2 That is, U 1 A 1 ΔT 1 = U 2 A 2 ΔT 2 Further, if the evaporators are so constructed that A 1 = A 2, the foregoing equations can be combined. U 2 / U 1 = ΔT 1 / ΔT 2 That is, the temperature differences are inversely proportional to the overall heat transfer coefficients in the two effects. This analysis may be extended to any number of effects operated in series, in the same way.

39 THANK YOU

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