# Memory, Latches, & Registers

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1 Memory, Latches, & Registers 1) Structured Logic Arrays 2) Memory Arrays 3) Transparent Latches 4) How to save a few bucks at toll booths 5) Edge-triggered Registers L13 Memory 1

2 General Table Lookup Synthesis A B AB Fn(A,B) MUX Logic Fn(A,B) Generalizing: Remember from a few lectures ago that, in theory, we can build any 1-output combinational logic block with multiplexers. 2 N For an N-input function we need a input multiplexer. BIG Multiplexers? How about 10-input function? 20-input? L13 Memory 2

3 A Mux s Guts A decoder generates all possible product terms for a set of inputs Decoder Selector Multiplexers A B A B A B A B I 00 I 01 I 10 I 11 Y can be partitioned into two sections. A DECODER that identifies the desired input,and a SELECTOR that enables that input onto the output. Hmmm, by sharing the decoder part of the logic MUXs could be adapted to make lookup tables with any number of outputs L13 Memory 3

4 A New Combinational Device k D 1 D 2 D N DECODER: k SELECT inputs, N = 2 k DATA OUTPUTs. Selected D j HIGH; all others LOW. NOW, we are well on our way to building a general purpose table-lookup device. We can build a 2-dimensional ARRAY of decoders and selectors as follows... Have I mentioned that HIGH is a synonym for 1 and LOW means the same as 0 L13 Memory 4

5 Shared Decoding Logic There s an extra level of inversion that isn t necessary in the logic. However, it reduces the capacitive load on the module driving this one. A B C in Decoder These are just DeMorgan ized NOR gates S This ROM stores 16 bits in 8 words of 2 bits. C out Configurable Selector We can build a general purpose table-lookup device called a Read-Only Memory (ROM), from which we can implement any truth table and, thus, any combinational device Made from PREWIRED connections, and CONFIGURABLE connections that can be either connected or not connected L13 Memory 5

6 ROM Implementation Details Tiny PFETs with gates tied to ground = resistor pullup that makes wire 1 unless one of the NFET pulldowns is on. A B C in A word -line. A bit -line These transistors implement a decoder, and are independent of function. These transistors are function dependent S C out Hardwired AND logic Programmable OR logic Advantages: - Very regular design (can be entirely automated) Problems: - Active Pull-ups (Static Power) - Long metal runs (Large Caps) - Slow JARGON: Inputs to a ROM are called ADDRESSES. The decoder s outputs are called WORD LINES, and the outputs lines of the selector are called BIT LINES. Decoder Values: L13 Memory 6

7 Logic According to ROMs ROMs ignore the structure of combinational functions... Size, layout, and design are independent of function Any Truth table can be programmed by minor reconfiguration: - Metal layer (masked ROMs) - Fuses (Field-programmable PROMs) - Charge on floating gates (EPROMs)... etc. Model: LOOK UP value of function in truth table... Inputs: ADDRESS of a T.T. entry ROM SIZE = # TT entries for an N-input boolean function, size = 2 N x #outputs L13 Memory 7

8 Example: 7-sided Die What nature can t provide electronics can (and with the same number of LEDs!). We want to construct a die with the following sides: An array of LEDs, labeled as follows, can be used to display the outcome of the die: T U V W X Y Z L13 Memory 8

9 ROM-Based Design Truth Table for a 7-sided Die A B C T U V W X Y Z Once we ve written out the truth table we ve basically finished the design Possible optimizations: - Eliminate redundant outputs - Addressing tricks T U V W X Y Z L13 Memory 9

10 A Simple ROM implementation A B C A B C T/Z U/Y V/X W T U V W X Decoder Values: T/Z U/Y V/X W That was Easy! Y Z ROMs are even more flexible than MUXes, because you can design the H/W first, and figure out the logic later! This is the essence of programability: LATE-BINDING logic specification. L13 Memory 10

11 Programmable Look-up Tables Remember, EVERY combinational circuit can be expressed as a lookup table. As a result a ROM is a universal logic device. Unfortunately, the ROMs we ve built thus far are HARDWIRED. That is, the function that they compute is encoded by the pull-down transistors that are built into the OR-plane of the ROM. What we d really like is a combinational gate that could be reconfigured dynamically. For this we ll need some form of storage. The function of a ROM is determined by the presence of a transistor at the intersection of a WORD line from the AND array with a BIT line going to the OR array WORD line BIT line How to store a bit? L13 Memory 11

12 Analog Storage: Using Capacitors We ve chosen to encode information using voltages and we know from physics that we can store a voltage as charge on a capacitor: bit line word line V REF N-channel FET serves as an access switch To write: Drive bit line, turn on access fet, force storage cap to new voltage To read: precharge bit line, turn on access fet, detect (small) change in bit line voltage Pros: compact! Cons: it leaks! refresh complex interface reading a bit, destroys it (you have to rewrite the value after each read) it s NOT a digital circuit This storage circuit is the basis for commodity DRAMs L13 Memory 12

13 Dynamic Memory TiN top electrode (V REF ) Ta 2 O 5 dielectric poly word line access FET L13 Memory 13

14 A Digital Storage Element It s also easy to build a settable DIGITAL storage element (called a latch) using a MUX and FEEDBACK: Here s a feedback path, so it s no longer a combinational circuit. state signal appears as both input and output A 0 G D Q IN Q OUT B D G S 1 Y Q Q stable Q follows D L13 Memory 14

15 Looking Under the Covers Let s take a quick look at the equivalent circuit for our MUX when the gate is LOW (the feedback path is active) D G=0 0 1 Q G=0 D Q 1 1 Q This storage circuit is the basis for commodity SRAMs Advantages: 1) Maintains remembered state for as long as power is applied. 2) State is DIGITAL Disadvantage: 1) Requires more transistors L13 Memory 15

16 Why Does Feedback = Storage? BIG IDEA: use positive feedback to maintain storage indefinitely. Our logic gates are built to restore marginal signal levels, so noise shouldn t be a problem! V IN V OUT Result: a bistable storage element VTC for inverter pair Feedback constraint: V IN = V OUT Not affected by noise V OUT Three solutions: two end-points are stable middle point is unstable V IN We ll get back to this! L13 Memory 16

17 Static D Latch D Q D Q G G Positive latch Q follows D Negative latch What is the difference? D G Q D G Q stable 1 0 Q static means latch will hold data (i.e., value of Q) while G is inactive, however long that may be. L13 Memory 17

18 A DYNAMIC Discipline Design of sequential circuits MUST guarantee that inputs to sequential devices are valid and stable during periods when they may influence state changes. This is assured with additional timing specifications. >t PULSE G D >t SETUP >t HOLD t PULSE : minimum pulse width guarantee G is active for long enough for latch to capture data t SETUP : setup time guarantee that D value has propagated through feedback path before latch closes t HOLD : hold time guarantee latch is closed and Q is stable before allowing D to change L13 Memory 18

19 Does this work? start button 0 button 1 button Current state ROM 64x4 unlock Next state 3 3 Q D G Hmm. Hard to get pulse width exactly right! L13 Memory 19

20 Flakey Control Systems Here s a strategy for saving 2 bucks the next time you find yourself at a toll booth! L13 Memory 20

21 Escapement Strategy The Solution: Add two gates and only open one at a time. L13 Memory 23

22 Escapement Strategy The Solution: Add two gates and only open one at a time. (Psst Don t tell the toll folks) KEY: At no time is there an open path through both gates L13 Memory 38

23 Edge-triggered Flip Flop logical escapement D D Q D Q master slave G G CLK CLK Q D D Q Q Transitions mark instants, not intervals Observations: only one latch transparent at any time: master closed when slave is open (CLK is high) slave closed when master is open (CLK is low) no combinational path through flip flop Q only changes shortly after 0 1 transition of CLK, so flip flop appears to be triggered by rising edge of CLK L13 Memory 39

24 Flip Flop Waveforms D D Q D Q Q D D Q master slave G G CLK CLK D CLK Q master closed slave open slave closed master open Q L13 Memory 40

25 Two Issues D D Q D Q Q master slave G G CLK Must allow time for the input s value to propagate to the Master s output while CLK is LOW. This is called SET-UP time Must keep the input stable, just after CLK transitions to HIGH. This is insurance in case the SLAVE s gate opens just before the MASTER s gate closes. This is called HOLD-TIME Can be zero (or even negative!) Assuring set-up and hold times is what limits a computer s performance L13 Memory 41

26 Flip-Flop Timing Specs D D Q Q CLK Q CLK <t PD D t PD : maximum propagation delay, CLK Q >t SETUP >t HOLD t SETUP : setup time guarantee that D has propagated through feedback path before master closes t HOLD : hold time guarantee master is closed and data is stable before allowing D to change L13 Memory 42

27 Summary Regular Arrays can be used to implement arbitrary logic functions ROMs decode every input combination (fixed-and array) and compute the output for it (customized-or array) PLAs decode an minimal set of input combinations (both AND and OR arrays customized) Memories ROMs are HARDWIRED memories RAMs include storage elements at each WORD-line and BIT-line intersection dynamic memory: compact, only reliable short-term static memory: controlled use of positive feedback Level-sensitive D-latches for static storage Dynamic discipline (setup and hold times) L13 Memory 43

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