# Electric Current. Equilibrium: Nonequilibrium: Electric current: E = 0 inside conductor. Mobile charge carriers undergo random motion.

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1 Electric Current Equilibrium: E = 0 inside conductor. Mobile charge carriers undergo random motion. Nonequilibrium: E 0 inside conductor. Mobile charge carriers undergo random motion and drift. Positive charge carriers drift from high toward low electric potential and negative charge carriers from low toward high electric potential. Electric current: Net charge flowing through given cross-sectional area per unit time. I = dq dt. SI unit: 1C/s = 1A (one Ampère) I E + + V 18/9/2015 [tsl131 1/17]

2 Current and Current Density Consider drift of Na + and Cl ions in a plastic pipe filled with salt water. v 1 > 0, v 2 < 0: drift velocities q 1 > 0, q 2 < 0: charge on ions n 1, n 2 : number of charge carriers per unit volume A Na + v 1 + q 1 E v 2 Cl q 2 Net charge flowing through area A in time dt: dq = n 1 q 1 v 1 Adt + n 2 q 2 v 2 Adt Electric current through area A: I dq dt = A(n 1q 1 v 1 + n 2 q 2 v 2 ) [A] Current density: J = n 1 q 1 v 1 + n 2 q 2 v 2 [A/m 2 ] Z Current equals flux of current density: I = J da [C] 18/9/2015 [tsl132 2/17]

3 Current Direction positive charge carriers negative charge carriers current I flowing toward left in both cases 18/9/2015 [tsl451 3/17]

4 Resistance and Resistivity Resistor: device (material object with two terminals) Resistance: attribute of device Resistivity: attribute of conducting material A voltage V provided by some source is applied to the terminals of a resistor and a current I is observed flowing through the resistor. Resistance: R = V I [1Ω=1V/A] (1 Ohm) The current density J in a resistor depends on the local electric field E and on the resistivity ρ of the resistor material. Resistivity: ρ = E» 1V/m J 1A/m 2 = 1Ωm Conductivity: σ = 1 ρ [1(Ωm) 1 ] Vector relations: E = ρ J, J = σ E 18/9/2015 [tsl134 4/17]

5 Resistivity of Materials α = (ρ ρ 20)/ρ 20 t C 20 C α: temperature coefficient at 20 C in K 1 ρ: resistivity near 20 C ρ 20 : resistivity at 20 C t C : temperature in C 18/9/2015 [tsl139 5/17]

6 Ohm s Law V = RI with R = const satisfied violated 18/9/2015 [tsl452 6/17]

7 Calculating the Resistance of a Wire Uniform cross section Length of wire: L Area of cross section: A Resistivity of material: ρ Current density: J = E [A/m 2 ] ρ Current: I = JA [A] Voltage: V = EL [V] Resistance: R V I = ρl A [Ω] Variable cross section Cross-sectional profile: A(x) Resistance of slice: dr = ρdx A(x) Resistance of wire: R = ρ dx A x L Z L 0 dx A(x) x 18/9/2015 [tsl136 7/17]

8 Radial Current in Coaxial Cable dr = ρdr A, A = 2πrL R = ρ 2πL Z b a dr r = ρ 2πL ln b a 18/9/2015 [tsl453 8/17]

9 Electric Current Application (1) A steady current I is flowing through a wire from left to right. The wire first doubles its diameter and then splits into two wires of the original diameter. Both branches on the right carry the same current. I 1 I 2 I 3 2cm 2cm 4cm I 4 2cm Rank the current densities J 1, J 2, J 3 = J 4 in the three segments. 18/9/2015 [tsl133 9/17]

10 Electric Current Application (2) Two wires are formed into (a) an equilateral triangle, (b) a regular pentagon. A voltage between points 1 and 2 produces a current of 12mA along the shorter path. (a) (b) 12mA mA 1 2 What is the current along the longer path in each case? 18/9/2015 [tsl137 10/17]

11 Electric Current Application (3) Consider three wires made of the same material. Wire 1 of length 2m and diameter 2mm has a resistance 18Ω. (a) What resistance does wire 2 of length 4m and diameter 4mm have? (b) How long is wire 3 of diameter 6mm with a resistance of 18Ω? 18/9/2015 [tsl147 11/17]

12 Resistor: Material and Device Perspectives Material E: electric field J: current density ρ: resistivity a E J da b σ = 1/ρ: conductivity E = ρ J, J = σ E + Device V : voltage I: electric current R: resistance a I R b V = RI Current from current density: I = Z J d A V Voltage from electric field: V = Z b a E d s 18/9/2015 [tsl135 12/17]

13 Power Dissipation in Resistor Consider a resistor in the form of a uniform wire. Voltage between ends: V V a V b = E(x b x a ) Displaced charge: q = I t q a R b x a E x b I Work done by electric field E on displaced charge q: W E = F(x b x a ) = E q (x b x a ) = V q = V I t V = V a V b Power dissipated in resistor: P = W E t = V I = I2 R = V 2 R SI unit: 1V 1A = (1J/C) (1C/s) = 1J/s = 1W (Watt) 18/9/2015 [tsl140 13/17]

14 Electric Heating Element 18/9/2015 [tsl426 14/17]

15 Incandescent Light Bulb voltage drives electric current through filament electric current heats up filament hot filament emits radiation radiation has significant intensity in visible range around 4000 degrees Fahrenheit. most energy is emitted in the form of heat (infrared radiation) inert gas (e.g. argon) regulates heat transport and prevents oxidation tungsten has high melting point 18/9/2015 [tsl454 15/17]

16 Resistor Problem (1) A heating element is made of a wire with a cross-sectional area A = m 2 and a resistivity ρ = Ωm. (a) If the element dissipates 5000W when operating at a voltage V 1 = 75.0V, what is its length L 1, its resistance R 1, and the current I 1 running through it? (b) What must be the voltage V 2, the resistance R 2, and the length L 2 of a heating element made of the same wire if the same power should be generated with half the current? 18/9/2015 [tsl141 16/17]

17 Resistor Problem (2) A 1250W radiant heater is constructed to operate at 115V. (a) What will be the current in the heater? (b) What is the resistance of the heating coil? (c) How much thermal energy is generated in one hour by the heater? 18/9/2015 [tsl142 17/17]

University of Rhode Island DigitalCommons@URI PHY 204: Elementary Physics II Physics Course Materials 2015 09. Resistors I Gerhard Müller University of Rhode Island, gmuller@uri.edu Creative Commons License

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