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1 Chapter 2

2 The Bohr atom The Bohr atom is useful for visualizing atomic structure. The nucleus is positively charged and has the protons and neutrons. Electrons are negatively charged and in discrete shells. The atomic number is the number of protons and determines the particular element. In the neutral atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons. Electron Proton Neutron

3 The valence shell The outer shell is called the valence shell. Electrons in this shell are involved in chemical reactions and they account for electrical and thermal conductivity in metals. A neutral Si atom is shown. There are 4 electrons in the valence shell. Is Si a conductor, insulator, or semiconductor? Semiconductor + Shell 1 Shell 2 Shell 3

4 Electrical charge There is a force (F) between electrical charges. Like charges repel; unlike charges attract. The force is directly proportional to charge. The force is inversely proportional to square of distance. _ + + +

5 Voltage Force is required to move a charge against the electric field. When force is applied over a distance, work is done. Work done in moving a charge against the electric e - field leads to the definition of voltage: Voltage is the work per charge done against the electric field.

6 Voltage The defining equation for voltage is V W = Q One volt is the potential difference (voltage) between two points when one joule of energy is used to move one coulomb of charge from one point to the other.

7 Voltage Voltage is responsible for establishing current. Sources of voltage include batteries, solar cells, and generators. A Cu-Zn battery, such as you might construct in a chemistry class, is shown. Zn 2+ Zinc (anode) Zn + 2e ZnSO 4 solution Porous barrier e - Copper (cathode) Cu e e - CuSO 4 solution Cu

8 Voltage Ideally, a voltage source can provide a constant voltage for any current required by a circuit. The IV curve for an ideal voltage source has a constant voltage for all current. In practice, ideal sources do not exist, but they can be closely approximated by actual sources. I V

9 Current Current (I) is the amount of charge (Q) that flows past a point in a unit of time (t). The defining equation is: I Q = t One ampere is a number of electrons having a total charge of 1 C moving through a given cross section in 1 s. What is the current if 2 C passes a point in 5 s? 0.4 A

10 Current Ideally, a current source can provide a constant current for any load. The IV curve for an ideal current source has a constant current as indicated by the straight line. I V

11 Resistance Resistance is the opposition to current. One ohm (1 Ω) is the resistance if one ampere (1 A) is in a material when one volt (1 V) is applied. Conductance is the reciprocal of resistance. G 1 = R Components designed to have a specific amount of resistance are called resistors. Color bands Resistance material (carbon composition) Insulation coating Leads

12 Resistance color-code Color Black Digit 0 Multiplier 10 0 To l erance Resistance value, first three bands: Brown Red % (five band) 2% (five band) First band 1 st digit Orange Yellow Second band 2 nd digit Green Blue *Third band Multiplier (number of zeros following second digit) Violet Gray White Fourth band - tolerance Gold Silver ±5% ± 10% % (four band) 10% (four band) No band ± 20% * For resistance values less than 10 Ω, the third band is either gold or silver. Gold is for a multiplier of 0.1 and silver is for a multiplier of 0.01.

13 What is the resistance and tolerance of each of the four-band resistors? 5.1 kω ± 5% 820 kω ± 5% 47 Ω ±10% 1.0 Ω ±5%

14 Alphanumeric Labeling Two or three digits, and one of the letters R, K, or M are used to identify a resistance value. The letter is used to indicate the multiplier, and its position is used to indicate decimal point position.

15 Variable resistors Variable resistors include the potentiometer and rheostat. The center terminal of a variable resistor is connected to the wiper. R Shaft Wiper Resistive element Variable resistor (potentiometer) R To connect a potentiometer as a rheostat, one of the outside terminals is connected to the wiper. Variable resistor (rheostat)

16 Wire resistance Sometimes, the resistance of wires must be accounted for. The equation for wire resistance is: ρl R = A where ρ = resistivity in CM-Ω/ft l = length in feet A = cross sectional area in circular mils (CM) What is the resistance of 400 feet of 22 gage copper wire? The area is 642 CM and the resistivity of copper is CM-Ω/ft. The table value for resistance/1000 feet of 22 gage wire is Ω/1000 feet. By proportion, the resistance of 400 feet is 0.4 x Ω = 6.46 Ω By the equation, ρl ( Ω-CM/ft)( 400 ft) R = = = 6.46 Ω A 642 CM

17 The electric circuit A basic electric circuit consists of 1) a voltage source 2) a path 3) a load. An example of a basic circuit is a flashlight, which has each of these plus a control element the switch. Switch Metal strip Metal reflector Spring

18 The electric circuit Circuits are described pictorially with schematics. For example, the flashlight can be represented by Switch Battery (2 cells) Lamp

19 Switches Switches are commonly used to control circuits by either mechanical or electronic means. The pole refers to the movable arm of a switch. The throw refers to the number of contacts that are affected by a single switch action. SPST SPDT DPST DPDT

20 The DMM The DMM (Digital Multimeter) is an important multipurpose instrument which can measure voltage, current, and resistance. Many include other measurement options. OFF A 10 A 40 ma V H Hz V H mv H V VΩ COM

21 Analog meters An analog multimeter is also called a VOM (voltohm-milliammeter). Analog meters measure voltage, current, and resistance. The user must choose the range and read the proper scale. Photo courtesy of Triplett Corporation

22 Ampere AWG Charge Circuit Selected Key Terms The unit of electrical current. (American Wire Gauge) A standardization based on wire diameter. An electrical property of matter that exists because of an excess or a deficiency of electrons. Charge can be either + or. An interconnection of electronic components designed to produce a desired result. A basic circuit consists of a source, a load, and an interconnecting path.

23 Conductance Coulomb Current Electron Ground Ohm (Ω) Selected Key Terms The ability of a circuit to allow current. The unit is the siemans (S). The unit of electrical charge. The rate of flow of electrical charge. A basic particle of electrical charge in matter. The electron possesses a negative charge. The common or reference point in a circuit. The unit of resistance.

24 Potentiometer Resistance Rheostat Siemens Volt Voltage Selected Key Terms A three-terminal variable resistor. The opposition to current. The unit is the ohm (Ω). A two-terminal variable resistor. The unit of conductance. The unit of voltage or electromotive force. The amount of energy per charge available to move electrons from one point to another in an electric circuit.

25 Quiz 1. The atomic number is the number of a. protons in the nucleus b. neutrons in the nucleus c. protons plus neutrons in the nucleus d. electrons in the outer shell

26 Quiz 2. Valence electrons are a. in the outer shell b. involved in chemical reactions c. relatively loosely bound d. all of the above

27 Quiz 3. The atomic particle responsible for electrical current in solid metallic conductors is the a. proton b. electron c. neutron d. all of the above

28 Quiz 4. The symbol for charge is a. C b. Ω c. Q d. W

29 Quiz 5. The definition for voltage is a. b. c. V = Q t W V = t W V = Q d. V = It

30 Quiz 6. A battery stores a. electrons b. protons c. ions d. chemical energy

31 Quiz 7. The unit of conductance is the a. ohm b. coulomb c. siemen d. ampere

32 Quiz 8. A four-color resistor with the color bands gray-redblack-gold is a. 73 Ω b. 82 Ω c. 680 Ω d. 820 Ω

33 Quiz 9. A 330 kω ± 5% resistor has the color bands a. red-red-brown-gold b. orange-orange-yellow-gold c. yellow-yellow-red-gold d. yellow-yellow-green-gold

34 Quiz 10. The circular mil is a unit of a. length b. area c. volume d. resistance

35 Quiz Answers: 1. a 6. d 2. d 7. c 3. b 8. b 4. c 9. b 5. c 10. b

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