2 Producing Electric Current Electric Current flow of charged particles Need a potential difference to occur Conventional Current- flow of positive charges flowing from positive plate to the negative plate Two conductors connected by a wire conductor, charges flow from higher potential difference to lower difference Flow stops when potential differences are equal Need to pump charged particles to conductors to keep flow going
3 Producing Electric Current Cont. Electric potential energy of charges have to be increased by pump, require external energy to run Electric energy can come from one of several external types of energy Voltaic or Galvanic Cell (dry cell) converts chemical energy to electric energy Battery- many voltaic or galvanic cells connected together Photovoltaic Cell- converts light energy into electric energy Generator converts kinetic energy into electric energy (water, steam, wind)
4 Potential Difference =Voltage=EMF n a battery, a series of chemical reactions occur in which electrons are transferred from one terminal to another. There is a potential difference (voltage) between these poles. The maximum potential difference a power source can have is called the electromotive force or (EMF),. The term isn't actually a force, simply the amount of energy per charge (J/C or V)
5 Electric Circuits Electric Circuit- charges moving in a closed loop Circuit includes: Charge pump- increases potential energy of the charges moving between points, A to B (creates flow of particles or current) A device that reduces the potential energy of charges as they move backwards between points, B to A Potential energy lost by the charges, qv, in moving through the device is converted to some other form of energy Ex. Motor converts electric energy to kinetic energy Ex. Lamp changes electric energy into light
6 A Basic Circuit All electric circuits have three main parts:. A source of energy 2. A closed path. A device which uses the energy f ANY part of the circuit is open the device will not work!
7 Electricity can be Symbolic of Fluids Circuits are very similar to water flowing through a pipe A pump basically works on TWO MPOTANT PNCPLES concerning its flow: There is a PESSUE DFFEENCE where the flow begins and ends A certain AMOUNT of flow passes each SECOND. A circuit basically works on TWO MPOTANT PNCPLES: There is a "POTENTAL DFFEENCE aka VOLTAGE" from where the charge begins to where it ends The AMOUNT of CHAGE that flows PE SECOND is called CUENT.
8 ates of Flow & Energy Transfer Power measures the rate at which energy is transferred P= V, unit is watts (W) f generator transfers one joule of KE to electric energy each second= Watt Energy carried by electric current depends on the charge transferred & potential difference across which it moves, E =qv (electric charge = coulomb) Electric Current () is the flow of electrical charge (rate of flow) Coulombs/second, C/s = ampere, A
9 Current Current is defined as the rate at which charge flows through a surface. The current is in the same direction as the flow of positive charge Note: The stands for intensity
10 There are 2 types of Current DC = Direct Current - current flows in one direction Example: Battery AC = Alternating Current- current reverses direction many times per second. This suggests that AC devices turn OFF and ON. Example: Wall outlet (progress energy)
11 esistance esistance () is defined as the restriction of electron flow. (property that determines how much current will flow) t is due to interactions that occur at the atomic scale. For example, as electrons move through a conductor they are attracted to the protons on the nucleus of the conductor itself. This attraction doesn t stop the electrons, just slows them down a bit and cause the system to waste energy. = V The unit for resistance is the OHM,
12 Ohm s Law (Georg Simon Ohm) The voltage (potential difference, emf) is directly related to the current, when the resistance is constant V 0 Voltage vs. Current 9 8 V Voltage(V) Voltage(V) 2 Since =V/, the resistance is the SLOPE of a V vs. graph Current(Amps)
13 esistance & Ohms Law Cont. Wires used to connect electrical devices have a very small resistance, means almost no potential drop across them To produce potential differences, need large resistance concentrated into small volume esistors devices designed to have specific resistance are used Larger potential diff. placed across a resistor, larger the current that will pass through it. Potentiometer, or rheostat, is a variable resistor allow for control 2 ways to control current in circuit: Vary either V or, or both
14 Other useful power formulas These formulas can also be used! They are simply derivations of the POWE formula with different versions of Ohm's law substituted in.
15 POWE t is interesting to see how certain electrical variables can be used to get POWE. Let s take Voltage and Current for example.
16 Using Electric Energy Energy supplied to a circuit can be used in many different ways All electrical devices convert electrical energy into to another form of energy (Law of Conservation) Heating a esistor- (ex. space heater, hot plate)- convert electric energy to thermal Thermal E, E= Pt = 2 t Transmission of Electric Energy power is dissipated in wires Power P, P= 2
17 Electrical POWE We have already learned that POWE is the rate at which work (energy) is done. Circuits that are a prime example of this as batteries only last for a certain amount of time AND we get charged an energy bill each month based on the amount of energy we used over the course of a month aka POWE. Power company uses Kilowatt-hours (energy unit) - equal to 000 watts delivered continuously for 600s (hr) =.6 x 0 6 J
18 Ways to Wire Circuits There are 2 basic ways to wire a circuit. Keep in mind that a resistor could be ANYTHNG ( bulb, toaster, ceramic material etc) Series One after another Parallel between a set of junctions & parallel to each other
19 Schematic Symbols Before you begin to understand circuits you need to be able to draw what they look like using a set of standard symbols understood anywhere in the world For the battery symbol, the LONG line is considered to be the POSTVE terminal and the SHOT line, NEGATVE. The VOLTMETE and AMMETE are special devices you place N or AOUND the circuit to measure the VOLTAGE and CUENT.
20 The Voltmeter and Ammeter Current goes THOUGH the ammeter The voltmeter and ammeter cannot be just placed anywhere in the circuit. They must be used according to their DEFNTON. Since a voltmeter measures voltage or POTENTAL DFFEENCE it must be placed ACOSS the device you want to measure. That way you can measure the CHANGE on either side of the device. Voltmeter is drawn ACOSS the resistor Since the ammeter measures the current or FLOW it must be placed in such a way as the charges go THOUGH the device.
21 Simple Circuit When you are drawing a circuit it may be a wise thing to start by drawing the battery first, then follow along the loop (closed) starting with positive and drawing what you see.
22 Series Circuit n in series circuit, the resistors are wired one after another. Since they are all part of the SAME LOOP they each experience the SAME AMOUNT of current. n figure, however, you see that they all exist BETWEEN the terminals of the battery, meaning they SHAE the potential (voltage). V ( series) Total ( series) Total V 2 V 2 V
23 Series Circuit V ( series) Total ( series) Total V 2 V 2 V As the current goes through the circuit, the charges must USE ENEGY to get through the resistor. So each individual resistor will get its own individual potential voltage). We call this VOLTAGE DOP. V ( ( series) Total T series s T ) series i V V 2 2 V 2 ; 2 V Note: They may use the terms effective or equivalent to mean TOTAL!
24 Example A series circuit is shown to the left. a) What is the total resistance? (series) = = 6 b) What is the total current? V= 2=(6) = 2A c) What is the current across EACH resistor? They EACH get 2 amps! d) What is the voltage drop across each resistor?( Apply Ohm's law to each resistor separately) V 2 V V =(2)()= 6V V 2 =(2)(2)= 4V Notice that the individual VOLTAGE DOPS add up to the TOTAL!!
25 Parallel Circuit n a parallel circuit, we have multiple loops. So the current splits up among the loops with the individual loop currents adding to the total current Junctions t is important to understand that parallel circuits will all have some position where the current splits and comes back together. We call these JUNCTONS. The current going N to a junction will always equal the current going OUT of a junction. ( parallel) Total 2 egarding Junctions : N OUT
26 Parallel Circuit Notice that the JUNCTONS both touch the POSTVE and NEGATVE terminals of the battery. That means you have the SAME potential difference down EACH individual This junction touches the POSTVE terminal V This junction touches the NEGATVE terminal branch of the parallel circuit. This means that the individual voltages drops are equal. V ( parallel) Total ( parallel) Total V ( P P T T ) Parallel i V V 2 V V V ; V V
27 Example To the left is an example of a parallel circuit. a) What is the total resistance? P p P b) What is the total current? 2.20 V 8 ( ).64 A V c) What is the voltage across EACH resistor? 8 V each! d) What is the current drop across each resistor? (Apply Ohm's law to each resistor separately).6 A.4 A 0.90 A Notice that the individual currents ADD to the total.
28 esistors in Series and Parallel
29 Compound (Complex) Circuits Many times you will have series and parallel in the SAME circuit. Solve this type of circuit from the inside out. WHAT S THE TOTAL ESSTANCE? P s ; P.
30 Compound (Complex) Circuits P s ; P. Suppose the potential difference (voltage) is equal to 20V. What is the total current? V T T 20 T T T (.).06 A What is the VOLTAGE DOP across the 80 resistor? V V V (.06)(80) 84.8 V
31 Compound (Complex) Circuits V V V V T T T &. 20V.06A T ( parallel) T ( series) 84.8V.06A What is the VOLTAGE DOP across the 00 and 50 resistor? V V 2 V V V V 2& 2& What is the current across the 00 and 50 resistor? V Each! T ( parallel) T ( series) & 0.52 A A Add to.06a
32 Applications of Circuits Safety Devices Fuse- short piece of metal that melts is too large of current passes through the circuit, stops flow of electricity flow (like a switch) Circuit Breaker automatic switch that opens when the current reaches a set value, if current exceeds value, then circuit is said to be overloaded, and opens switch to stop flow of electricity Ground-Fault nterrupter- contains an electronic circuit that detects small diff. s in current caused by an extra path & opens circuit, stops flow and prevents shocks- ex. hair dryer in bath & gets wet
33 Applications of Circuits Ammeter- used to measure the current in a branch or part of a circuit Has low resistance Connected in series Voltmeter- used to measure the potential difference (voltage) across an part or combination of parts of a circuit Has high resistance Connected in parallel with the part of circuit being measured
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