M597K: Solution to Homework Assignment 7


 Kristina Harrell
 3 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 M597K: Solution to Homework Assignment 7 The following problems re on the specified pges of the text book by Keener (2nd Edition, i.e., revised nd updted version) Problems 3 nd 4 of Section 2.1 on p.94; Problem 1 of Section 3.1 on p.128; Problem 1 of Section 3.2 on p Show tht the sequence (x n ), x n = n 1 k=1 k! is cuchy sequence using the mesure of distnce d(x, y) = x y. A sequence of points x n IR is Cuchy if for every ɛ>thereexistsnn, such tht m>n>n implies x n x m <ɛ Let ɛ>begiven,choosen = 1 ɛ.thenform>n>n,wehve x n x m = 1 (n+1)! + 1 (n+2)! m! n(n+1) + 1 n(n+1)(n+2) +... n(n+1) + 1 n(n+1)(n+1) +... n(n+1) (1 + 1 n ) (n+1) 2 n(n+1) 1 = n = ɛ. 2 n+1 Therefore the sequence is Cuchy. 2. Show tht the continues functions on [, 1] form n infinite dimensionl vector spce. Find set of linerly independent vectors which is not finite. To prove the continues functions on [, 1] form vector spce is trivil, omitted. We show tht the polynomils re lredy infinite dimensionl. Functions 1,x,x 2,x 3,... is infinite nd none is liner combintion of the others. They re linerly independent becuse the only wy we cn write c 1 x n + c 2 x m + c 3 x l +... = (ssuming n>m>l> ) is if ll the coefficients re zero. Becuse otherwise we will hve polynomil of finite degree n which hs t most n roots. Thus the continues functions form n infinite dimensionl vector spce. nd 1,x,x 2,x 3,... re independent.
2 3. Verify tht the solution of u = f(x),u() = u(1) = is given by u(x) = 1 k(x, y)f(y)dy where y(x 1), y<x 1, k(x, y) = x(y 1), x<y. We should first check the boundry: u() = k(,y)f(y)dy = u(1) = k(1,y)f(y)dy = And u(x) = 1 k(x, y)f(y)dy = x y(x 1)f(y)dy + 1 x x(y 1)f(y)dy = 1 xyf(y)dy x yf(y)dy 1 x xf(y)dy u (x) = 1 yf(y)dy xf(x)+ x 1 f(y)dy + xf(x) = x 1 f(y)dy u (x) = f(x) 4. Show T (f) = f(), defined for ll continuous functions on [ 1, 1], is not bounded liner functionl in the L 2 norm, but it is bounded liner functionl with the uniform norm. For T to be bounded on continuous functions in the L 2 norm, there must exist constnt C such tht Tf C f L 2, for ll continuous f(x). The converse: i.e., for T not bounded, the sttement is: For ny finite number C, there is lwys continuous function f, which my depend on C, thusweuse f C (x) to denote it, such tht Tf >C f L 2. (1) 2
3 We prove tht such n f C (x) exists. So let C be positive number. Tke f C (x) be such tht f C (x) =C, x [ d, d], nd f C (x) = for ll other x, whered is smll number. Thus, we hve Tf C (x) = f C () = C, nd f C (x) L 2 = C 2d. If we tke d = 1 8C, then inequlity (1) 2 holds like C>C 1 2. Thus this T is not bounded liner functionl on the set of continuous functions mesured in the norm L 2. (The function f C (x) cnbemde continuous esily without chnging is primry property.) Since f() mx f(x), T is bounded with uniform norm (tke C =1). 5. Let l 2 denote ll the sequences (x 1,x 2,x 3,,x n, ) of rel numbers. Let x denote such sequence. Use vector ddition nd sclr multipliction. Then it is vector spce (no proof needed). Use the inner product <x,y>= x i y i i=1 where y =(y 1,y 2,,y n, ). Show tht this inner product is well defined in l 2 nd it stisfies the four properties of the definition of inner product. (It is clled the little l two spce. (Reference: p. 59 of text book) By CuchySchwrz inequlity: <x,y> = x i y i x 2 i yi 2 =<x,x>1 2 <y,y> 1 2 i=1 i=1 i=1 Thus <x,y> <, <x,y>is well defined in l 2. And (1) <x+ y,z >= i=1 (x i + y i )z i = i=1 x i z i + i=1 y i z i =<x,z>+ <y,z> (2) <αx,z>= α i=1 x i z i = α<x,z>. (3) <x,y>=< y,x> (4) <x,x> nd<x,x>=iffx = This <.,.>is n inner product. 6. Let f(t) be equl to 1 for t between 19 nd 2, nd equl to zero for ll other times t. This my represent Miss Universe s sttus score history of her lifetime. 3
4 Let g(t) be equl to 85 for t between 35 nd 116, nd equl to zero for ll other times t. This might represent nother person s socil sttus score history, who t ge 35 invented perpetul mchine nd enjoyed the fme he got throughout his lifetime. (Unfortuntely he lived only to 116. Thus his perpetul mchine ws just somewht perpetul, nd tht explins the score 85 insted of higher number.) Now pnel wnt to select one from the two to put into Hll of Fme nd wnt you to give the pnel single mesurement number from ech of the two so tht the pnel cn decide. Do the mximum norm nd the L 2 norm clcultion (serious prt) nd decide which norm you wnt to use to give to the pnel ( decision tht is purely up to you). 1, 19 t 2, f(t) =, else, 85, 35 t 16, g(t) =, else, f(t) = 1, g(t) =85 f(t) L 2=( dx) 1 2 = 1, g(t) L 2=( dx) 1 2 = Solve Problem 5, p. 94, of the text book, where L 2 is replced by L 1. As f n (t) =when t< n,ndf n(t) =1whent> n Suppose n<m, f n (t) f m (t) =when t< n or t> n nd f n (t) f m (t) f n (t) + f m (t) 2 Thus f n (t) f m (t) L 2=( 1 (f n(t) f m (t)) 2 ) 1 2 ( n 1 (f n (t) f m (t)) 2 ) 1 2 ( n 1 2 (2) 2 ) = 8 n sn n Tht implies it is Cuchy in L n 8. Show tht the functionl T on the Bnch spce C[, 1] defined by is liner nd bounded. Tf = 1 f(x) x dx, f(x) C[, 1] 4
5 T (αf + βg) = 1 αf(x)+βg(x) x dx = α 1 f(x) x dx + β 1 f(x) x dx = αt (f)+βt(g). Thus T is liner. And Tf = 1 Thus T is bounded. f(x) x dx mx f(x) 1 1 x dx =2 mx f(x) 9. Let nd b be two points in the intervl [, 1]. Show tht the functionl T on the Bnch spce C[, 1] defined by Tf = f() f(b), f(x) C[, 1] is liner nd bounded. (This functionl is generlly written s δ(x ) δ(x b).) (Hint: Lecture notes might help.) T (αf + βg) =α(f()) + βg() (α(f(b)) + βg(b)) = α(f() f(b)) + β(g() g(b)) = αt (f)+βt(g). Thus T is liner. And Tf = f() f(b) f() + f(b) 2 mx f(x) Thus T is bounded. 1. Find the djoint opertor T for the opertor T defined on the Hilbert spce L 2 [, b] by b Tu(x) =w(x) k(x, y)u(y)dy where k(x, y) L 2 ([, b] [, b]) nd w(x) C[, b] re both given functions nd u is n rbitrry member in L 2 [, b]. (Hint: Red text book p.17.) Strting with the definition of Tu(x) =w(x) b k(x, y)u(y)dy nd the definition of T we formulte <Tu,v> = b (w(x) b k(x, y)u(y)dy)v(x)dx = b b w(x)k(x, y)v(x)u(y) dx dy = b ( b k(x, y)w(x)v(x) dx)u(y) dy =< T v, u >. Thus T v(y) = b k(x, y)w(x)v(x)dx or equivlently but more stndrd: T u(x) = b k(y,x)w(y)u(y) dy. 5
6 11. Verify tht λ =(nπ) 2 nd u =cos(nπx) re eigenvlues nd corresponding eigenfunctions for the SturmLiouville eigenvlue problem: d 2 u dx 2 + λu =, ( <x<1); u () = u (1) = for ll positive integer n. From λ =(nπ) 2 nd u =cos(nπx), we cn get du dx = nπ sin(nπx), nd d 2 u + λu =, ( <x<1) dx2 And s u (x) = nπ sin(nπx), u () =, u (1) =. 6
MATH34032: Green s Functions, Integral Equations and the Calculus of Variations 1
MATH34032: Green s Functions, Integrl Equtions nd the Clculus of Vritions 1 Section 1 Function spces nd opertors Here we gives some brief detils nd definitions, prticulrly relting to opertors. For further
More informationVariational Techniques for SturmLiouville Eigenvalue Problems
Vritionl Techniques for SturmLiouville Eigenvlue Problems Vlerie Cormni Deprtment of Mthemtics nd Sttistics University of Nebrsk, Lincoln Lincoln, NE 68588 Emil: vcormni@mth.unl.edu Rolf Ryhm Deprtment
More informationTheoretical foundations of Gaussian quadrature
Theoreticl foundtions of Gussin qudrture 1 Inner product vector spce Definition 1. A vector spce (or liner spce) is set V = {u, v, w,...} in which the following two opertions re defined: (A) Addition of
More informationMath Solutions to homework 1
Mth 75  Solutions to homework Cédric De Groote October 5, 07 Problem, prt : This problem explores the reltionship between norms nd inner products Let X be rel vector spce ) Suppose tht is norm on X tht
More informationAbstract inner product spaces
WEEK 4 Abstrct inner product spces Definition An inner product spce is vector spce V over the rel field R equipped with rule for multiplying vectors, such tht the product of two vectors is sclr, nd the
More informationThe Regulated and Riemann Integrals
Chpter 1 The Regulted nd Riemnn Integrls 1.1 Introduction We will consider severl different pproches to defining the definite integrl f(x) dx of function f(x). These definitions will ll ssign the sme vlue
More informationSTURMLIOUVILLE BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS
STURMLIOUVILLE BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS Throughout, we let [, b] be bounded intervl in R. C 2 ([, b]) denotes the spce of functions with derivtives of second order continuous up to the endpoints. Cc 2
More informationSTURMLIOUVILLE THEORY, VARIATIONAL APPROACH
STURMLIOUVILLE THEORY, VARIATIONAL APPROACH XIAOBIAO LIN. Qudrtic functionl nd the EulerJcobi Eqution The purpose of this note is to study the SturmLiouville problem. We use the vritionl problem s
More informationBest Approximation in the 2norm
Jim Lmbers MAT 77 Fll Semester 111 Lecture 1 Notes These notes correspond to Sections 9. nd 9.3 in the text. Best Approximtion in the norm Suppose tht we wish to obtin function f n (x) tht is liner combintion
More informationSturmLiouville Eigenvalue problem: Let p(x) > 0, q(x) 0, r(x) 0 in I = (a, b). Here we assume b > a. Let X C 2 1
Ch.4. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS AND GREEN S FUNCTIONS Ronld B Guenther nd John W Lee, Prtil Differentil Equtions of Mthemticl Physics nd Integrl Equtions. Hildebrnd, Methods of Applied Mthemtics, second edition
More informationPhysics 116C Solution of inhomogeneous ordinary differential equations using Green s functions
Physics 6C Solution of inhomogeneous ordinry differentil equtions using Green s functions Peter Young November 5, 29 Homogeneous Equtions We hve studied, especilly in long HW problem, second order liner
More informationSOLUTIONS FOR ANALYSIS QUALIFYING EXAM, FALL (1 + µ(f n )) f(x) =. But we don t need the exact bound.) Set
SOLUTIONS FOR ANALYSIS QUALIFYING EXAM, FALL 28 Nottion: N {, 2, 3,...}. (Tht is, N.. Let (X, M be mesurble spce with σfinite positive mesure µ. Prove tht there is finite positive mesure ν on (X, M such
More informationInnerproduct spaces
Innerproduct spces Definition: Let V be rel or complex liner spce over F (here R or C). An inner product is n opertion between two elements of V which results in sclr. It is denoted by u, v nd stisfies:
More informationMATH 423 Linear Algebra II Lecture 28: Inner product spaces.
MATH 423 Liner Algebr II Lecture 28: Inner product spces. Norm The notion of norm generlizes the notion of length of vector in R 3. Definition. Let V be vector spce over F, where F = R or C. A function
More informationFunctional Analysis I Solutions to Exercises. James C. Robinson
Functionl Anlysis I Solutions to Exercises Jmes C. Robinson Contents 1 Exmples I pge 1 2 Exmples II 5 3 Exmples III 9 4 Exmples IV 15 iii 1 Exmples I 1. Suppose tht v α j e j nd v m β k f k. with α j,
More informationNotes on the Eigenfunction Method for solving differential equations
Notes on the Eigenfunction Metho for solving ifferentil equtions Reminer: WereconsieringtheinfiniteimensionlHilbertspceL 2 ([, b] of ll squreintegrble functions over the intervl [, b] (ie, b f(x 2
More informationAnalytical Methods Exam: Preparatory Exercises
Anlyticl Methods Exm: Preprtory Exercises Question. Wht does it men tht (X, F, µ) is mesure spce? Show tht µ is monotone, tht is: if E F re mesurble sets then µ(e) µ(f). Question. Discuss if ech of the
More information1 1D heat and wave equations on a finite interval
1 1D het nd wve equtions on finite intervl In this section we consider generl method of seprtion of vribles nd its pplictions to solving het eqution nd wve eqution on finite intervl ( 1, 2. Since by trnsltion
More informationg i fφdx dx = x i i=1 is a Hilbert space. We shall, henceforth, abuse notation and write g i f(x) = f
1. Appliction of functionl nlysis to PEs 1.1. Introduction. In this section we give little introduction to prtil differentil equtions. In prticulr we consider the problem u(x) = f(x) x, u(x) = x (1) where
More informationLecture 3. Limits of Functions and Continuity
Lecture 3 Limits of Functions nd Continuity Audrey Terrs April 26, 21 1 Limits of Functions Notes I m skipping the lst section of Chpter 6 of Lng; the section bout open nd closed sets We cn probbly live
More informationMATH 174A: PROBLEM SET 5. Suggested Solution
MATH 174A: PROBLEM SET 5 Suggested Solution Problem 1. Suppose tht I [, b] is n intervl. Let f 1 b f() d for f C(I; R) (i.e. f is continuous relvlued function on I), nd let L 1 (I) denote the completion
More information2 Fundamentals of Functional Analysis
Fchgruppe Angewndte Anlysis und Numerik Dr. Mrtin Gutting 22. October 2015 2 Fundmentls of Functionl Anlysis This short introduction to the bsics of functionl nlysis shll give n overview of the results
More informationMATH1050 CauchySchwarz Inequality and Triangle Inequality
MATH050 CuchySchwrz Inequlity nd Tringle Inequlity 0 Refer to the Hndout Qudrtic polynomils Definition (Asolute extrem for relvlued functions of one rel vrile) Let I e n intervl, nd h : D R e relvlued
More informationMath 61CM  Solutions to homework 9
Mth 61CM  Solutions to homework 9 Cédric De Groote November 30 th, 2018 Problem 1: Recll tht the left limit of function f t point c is defined s follows: lim f(x) = l x c if for ny > 0 there exists δ
More informationPhil Wertheimer UMD Math Qualifying Exam Solutions Analysis  January, 2015
Problem 1 Let m denote the Lebesgue mesure restricted to the compct intervl [, b]. () Prove tht function f defined on the compct intervl [, b] is Lipschitz if nd only if there is constct c nd function
More informationProperties of the Riemann Integral
Properties of the Riemnn Integrl Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University Februry 15, 2018 Outline 1 Some Infimum nd Supremum Properties 2
More information7.2 Riemann Integrable Functions
7.2 Riemnn Integrble Functions Theorem 1. If f : [, b] R is step function, then f R[, b]. Theorem 2. If f : [, b] R is continuous on [, b], then f R[, b]. Theorem 3. If f : [, b] R is bounded nd continuous
More informationAMATH 731: Applied Functional Analysis Fall Additional notes on Fréchet derivatives
AMATH 731: Applied Functionl Anlysis Fll 214 Additionl notes on Fréchet derivtives (To ccompny Section 3.1 of the AMATH 731 Course Notes) Let X,Y be normed liner spces. The Fréchet derivtive of n opertor
More informationu t = k 2 u x 2 (1) a n sin nπx sin 2 L e k(nπ/l) t f(x) = sin nπx f(x) sin nπx dx (6) 2 L f(x 0 ) sin nπx 0 2 L sin nπx 0 nπx
Chpter 9: Green s functions for timeindependent problems Introductory emples Onedimensionl het eqution Consider the onedimensionl het eqution with boundry conditions nd initil condition We lredy know
More informationChapter 3. Vector Spaces
3.4 Liner Trnsformtions 1 Chpter 3. Vector Spces 3.4 Liner Trnsformtions Note. We hve lredy studied liner trnsformtions from R n into R m. Now we look t liner trnsformtions from one generl vector spce
More information38 Riemann sums and existence of the definite integral.
38 Riemnn sums nd existence of the definite integrl. In the clcultion of the re of the region X bounded by the grph of g(x) = x 2, the xxis nd 0 x b, two sums ppered: ( n (k 1) 2) b 3 n 3 re(x) ( n These
More informationNOTES ON HILBERT SPACE
NOTES ON HILBERT SPACE 1 DEFINITION: by Prof CI Tn Deprtment of Physics Brown University A Hilbert spce is n inner product spce which, s metric spce, is complete We will not present n exhustive mthemticl
More informationPresentation Problems 5
Presenttion Problems 5 21355 A For these problems, ssume ll sets re subsets of R unless otherwise specified. 1. Let P nd Q be prtitions of [, b] such tht P Q. Then U(f, P ) U(f, Q) nd L(f, P ) L(f, Q).
More informationp(x) = 3x 3 + x n 3 k=0 so the right hand side of the equality we have to show is obtained for r = b 0, s = b 1 and 2n 3 b k x k, q 2n 3 (x) =
Norwegin University of Science nd Technology Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Pge 1 of 5 Contct during the exm: Elen Celledoni, tlf. 73593541, cell phone 48238584 PLESE NOTE: this solution is for the students
More informationMath 270A: Numerical Linear Algebra
Mth 70A: Numericl Liner Algebr Instructor: Michel Holst Fll Qurter 014 Homework Assignment #3 Due Give to TA t lest few dys before finl if you wnt feedbck. Exercise 3.1. (The Bsic Liner Method for Liner
More informationRegulated functions and the regulated integral
Regulted functions nd the regulted integrl Jordn Bell jordn.bell@gmil.com Deprtment of Mthemtics University of Toronto April 3 2014 1 Regulted functions nd step functions Let = [ b] nd let X be normed
More information(9) P (x)u + Q(x)u + R(x)u =0
STURMLIOUVILLE THEORY 7 2. Second order liner ordinry differentil equtions 2.1. Recll some sic results. A second order liner ordinry differentil eqution (ODE) hs the form (9) P (x)u + Q(x)u + R(x)u =0
More informationProblem Set 4: Solutions Math 201A: Fall 2016
Problem Set 4: s Mth 20A: Fll 206 Problem. Let f : X Y be onetoone, onto mp between metric spces X, Y. () If f is continuous nd X is compct, prove tht f is homeomorphism. Does this result remin true
More informationLecture 1. Functional series. Pointwise and uniform convergence.
1 Introduction. Lecture 1. Functionl series. Pointwise nd uniform convergence. In this course we study mongst other things Fourier series. The Fourier series for periodic function f(x) with period 2π is
More informationGreen function and Eigenfunctions
Green function nd Eigenfunctions Let L e regulr SturmLiouville opertor on n intervl (, ) together with regulr oundry conditions. We denote y, φ ( n, x ) the eigenvlues nd corresponding normlized eigenfunctions
More informationThe Banach algebra of functions of bounded variation and the pointwise Helly selection theorem
The Bnch lgebr of functions of bounded vrition nd the pointwise Helly selection theorem Jordn Bell jordn.bell@gmil.com Deprtment of Mthemtics, University of Toronto Jnury, 015 1 BV [, b] Let < b. For f
More informationMath Theory of Partial Differential Equations Lecture 29: SturmLiouville eigenvalue problems (continued).
Mth 412501 Theory of Prtil Differentil Equtions Lecture 29: SturmLiouville eigenvlue problems (continued). Regulr SturmLiouville eigenvlue problem: d ( p dφ ) + qφ + λσφ = 0 ( < x < b), dx dx β 1 φ()
More informationChapter 14. Matrix Representations of Linear Transformations
Chpter 4 Mtrix Representtions of Liner Trnsformtions When considering the Het Stte Evolution, we found tht we could describe this process using multipliction by mtrix. This ws nice becuse computers cn
More information(4.1) D r v(t) ω(t, v(t))
1.4. Differentil inequlities. Let D r denote the right hnd derivtive of function. If ω(t, u) is sclr function of the sclrs t, u in some open connected set Ω, we sy tht function v(t), t < b, is solution
More informationMATH 409 Advanced Calculus I Lecture 19: Riemann sums. Properties of integrals.
MATH 409 Advnced Clculus I Lecture 19: Riemnn sums. Properties of integrls. Drboux sums Let P = {x 0,x 1,...,x n } be prtition of n intervl [,b], where x 0 = < x 1 < < x n = b. Let f : [,b] R be bounded
More informationu(t)dt + i a f(t)dt f(t) dt b f(t) dt (2) With this preliminary step in place, we are ready to define integration on a general curve in C.
Lecture 4 Complex Integrtion MATHGA 2451.001 Complex Vriles 1 Construction 1.1 Integrting complex function over curve in C A nturl wy to construct the integrl of complex function over curve in the complex
More informationReview of Gaussian Quadrature method
Review of Gussin Qudrture method Nsser M. Asi Spring 006 compiled on Sundy Decemer 1, 017 t 09:1 PM 1 The prolem To find numericl vlue for the integrl of rel vlued function of rel vrile over specific rnge
More informationLecture 19: Continuous Least Squares Approximation
Lecture 19: Continuous Lest Squres Approximtion 33 Continuous lest squres pproximtion We begn 31 with the problem of pproximting some f C[, b] with polynomil p P n t the discrete points x, x 1,, x m for
More informationBest Approximation. Chapter The General Case
Chpter 4 Best Approximtion 4.1 The Generl Cse In the previous chpter, we hve seen how n interpolting polynomil cn be used s n pproximtion to given function. We now wnt to find the best pproximtion to given
More informationMORE FUNCTION GRAPHING; OPTIMIZATION. (Last edited October 28, 2013 at 11:09pm.)
MORE FUNCTION GRAPHING; OPTIMIZATION FRI, OCT 25, 203 (Lst edited October 28, 203 t :09pm.) Exercise. Let n be n rbitrry positive integer. Give n exmple of function with exctly n verticl symptotes. Give
More informationNotes on length and conformal metrics
Notes on length nd conforml metrics We recll how to mesure the Eucliden distnce of n rc in the plne. Let α : [, b] R 2 be smooth (C ) rc. Tht is α(t) (x(t), y(t)) where x(t) nd y(t) re smooth rel vlued
More informationPartial Derivatives. Limits. For a single variable function f (x), the limit lim
Limits Prtil Derivtives For single vrible function f (x), the limit lim x f (x) exists only if the righthnd side limit equls to the lefthnd side limit, i.e., lim f (x) = lim f (x). x x + For two vribles
More informationSeptember 13 Homework Solutions
College of Engineering nd Computer Science Mechnicl Engineering Deprtment Mechnicl Engineering 5A Seminr in Engineering Anlysis Fll Ticket: 5966 Instructor: Lrry Cretto Septemer Homework Solutions. Are
More informationODE: Existence and Uniqueness of a Solution
Mth 22 Fll 213 Jerry Kzdn ODE: Existence nd Uniqueness of Solution The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus tells us how to solve the ordinry differentil eqution (ODE) du = f(t) dt with initil condition u() =
More informationLinearity, linear operators, and self adjoint eigenvalue problems
Linerity, liner opertors, nd self djoint eigenvlue problems 1 Elements of liner lgebr The study of liner prtil differentil equtions utilizes, unsurprisingly, mny concepts from liner lgebr nd liner ordinry
More informationACM 105: Applied Real and Functional Analysis. Solutions to Homework # 2.
ACM 05: Applied Rel nd Functionl Anlysis. Solutions to Homework # 2. Andy Greenberg, Alexei Novikov Problem. RiemnnLebesgue Theorem. Theorem (G.F.B. Riemnn, H.L. Lebesgue). If f is n integrble function
More informationW. We shall do so one by one, starting with I 1, and we shall do it greedily, trying
Vitli covers 1 Definition. A Vitli cover of set E R is set V of closed intervls with positive length so tht, for every δ > 0 nd every x E, there is some I V with λ(i ) < δ nd x I. 2 Lemm (Vitli covering)
More informationCalculus of Variations
Clculus of Vritions Com S 477/577 Notes) YnBin Ji Dec 4, 2017 1 Introduction A functionl ssigns rel number to ech function or curve) in some clss. One might sy tht functionl is function of nother function
More informationLine Integrals. Partitioning the Curve. Estimating the Mass
Line Integrls Suppose we hve curve in the xy plne nd ssocite density δ(p ) = δ(x, y) t ech point on the curve. urves, of course, do not hve density or mss, but it my sometimes be convenient or useful to
More informationMAT612REAL ANALYSIS RIEMANN STIELTJES INTEGRAL
MAT612REAL ANALYSIS RIEMANN STIELTJES INTEGRAL DR. RITU AGARWAL MALVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, JAIPUR, INDIA302017 Tble of Contents Contents Tble of Contents 1 1. Introduction 1 2. Prtition
More informationSTUDY GUIDE FOR BASIC EXAM
STUDY GUIDE FOR BASIC EXAM BRYON ARAGAM This is prtil list of theorems tht frequently show up on the bsic exm. In mny cses, you my be sked to directly prove one of these theorems or these vrints. There
More informationHilbert Spaces. Chapter Inner product spaces
Chpter 4 Hilbert Spces 4.1 Inner product spces In the following we will discuss both complex nd rel vector spces. With L denoting either R or C we recll tht vector spce over L is set E equipped with ddition,
More informationLecture 4: Piecewise Cubic Interpolation
Lecture notes on Vritionl nd Approximte Methods in Applied Mthemtics  A Peirce UBC Lecture 4: Piecewise Cubic Interpoltion Compiled 5 September In this lecture we consider piecewise cubic interpoltion
More informationDifferential Equations 2 Homework 5 Solutions to the Assigned Exercises
Differentil Equtions Homework Solutions to the Assigned Exercises, # 3 Consider the dmped string prolem u tt + 3u t = u xx, < x , u, t = u, t =, t >, ux, = fx, u t x, = gx. In the exm you were supposed
More informationChapter 3 Polynomials
Dr M DRAIEF As described in the introduction of Chpter 1, pplictions of solving liner equtions rise in number of different settings In prticulr, we will in this chpter focus on the problem of modelling
More informationMain topics for the First Midterm
Min topics for the First Midterm The Midterm will cover Section 1.8, Chpters 23, Sections 4.14.8, nd Sections 5.15.3 (essentilly ll of the mteril covered in clss). Be sure to know the results of the
More informationBases for Vector Spaces
Bses for Vector Spces 22625 A set is independent if, roughly speking, there is no redundncy in the set: You cn t uild ny vector in the set s liner comintion of the others A set spns if you cn uild everything
More informationAM1 Mathematical Analysis 1 Oct Feb Exercises Lecture 3. sin(x + h) sin x h cos(x + h) cos x h
AM Mthemticl Anlysis Oct. Feb. Dte: October Exercises Lecture Exercise.. If h, prove the following identities hold for ll x: sin(x + h) sin x h cos(x + h) cos x h = sin γ γ = sin γ γ cos(x + γ) (.) sin(x
More informationProf. Girardi, Math 703, Fall 2012 Homework Solutions: 1 8. Homework 1. in R, prove that. c k. sup. k n. sup. c k R = inf
Knpp, Chpter, Section, # 4, p. 78 Homework For ny two sequences { n } nd {b n} in R, prove tht lim sup ( n + b n ) lim sup n + lim sup b n, () provided the two terms on the right side re not + nd in some
More informationMath 554 Integration
Mth 554 Integrtion Hndout #9 4/12/96 Defn. A collection of n + 1 distinct points of the intervl [, b] P := {x 0 = < x 1 < < x i 1 < x i < < b =: x n } is clled prtition of the intervl. In this cse, we
More informationConsequently, the temperature must be the same at each point in the cross section at x. Let:
HW 2 Comments: L13. Derive the het eqution for n inhomogeneous rod where the therml coefficients used in the derivtion of the het eqution for homogeneous rod now become functions of position x in the
More informationConvex Sets and Functions
B Convex Sets nd Functions Definition B1 Let L, +, ) be rel liner spce nd let C be subset of L The set C is convex if, for ll x,y C nd ll [, 1], we hve 1 )x+y C In other words, every point on the line
More informationLecture 3 ( ) (translated and slightly adapted from lecture notes by Martin Klazar)
Lecture 3 (5.3.2018) (trnslted nd slightly dpted from lecture notes by Mrtin Klzr) Riemnn integrl Now we define precisely the concept of the re, in prticulr, the re of figure U(, b, f) under the grph of
More information4402 Geometry/Topology: Differentiable Manifolds Northwestern University Solutions of Practice Problems for Final Exam
4402 Geometry/Topology: Differentible Mnifolds Northwestern University Solutions of Prctice Problems for Finl Exm 1) Using the cnonicl covering of RP n by {U α } 0 α n, where U α = {[x 0 : : x n ] RP
More informationChapter 28. Fourier Series An Eigenvalue Problem.
Chpter 28 Fourier Series Every time I close my eyes The noise inside me mplifies I cn t escpe I relive every moment of the dy Every misstep I hve mde Finds wy it cn invde My every thought And this is why
More information1 Probability Density Functions
Lis Yn CS 9 Continuous Distributions Lecture Notes #9 July 6, 28 Bsed on chpter by Chris Piech So fr, ll rndom vribles we hve seen hve been discrete. In ll the cses we hve seen in CS 9, this ment tht our
More information1 E3102: a study guide and review, Version 1.0
1 E3102: study guide nd review, Version 1.0 Here is list of subjects tht I think we ve covered in clss (your milege my vry). If you understnd nd cn do the bsic problems in this guide you should be in very
More informationSummary: Method of Separation of Variables
Physics 246 Electricity nd Mgnetism I, Fll 26, Lecture 22 1 Summry: Method of Seprtion of Vribles 1. Seprtion of Vribles in Crtesin Coordintes 2. Fourier Series Suggested Reding: Griffiths: Chpter 3, Section
More informationThe Riemann Integral
Deprtment of Mthemtics King Sud University 20172018 Tble of contents 1 Antiderivtive Function nd Indefinite Integrls 2 3 4 5 Indefinite Integrls & Antiderivtive Function Definition Let f : I R be function
More informationSection 17.2 Line Integrals
Section 7. Line Integrls Integrting Vector Fields nd Functions long urve In this section we consider the problem of integrting functions, both sclr nd vector (vector fields) long curve in the plne. We
More informationLecture 2e Orthogonal Complement (pages )
Lecture 2e Orthogonl Complement (pges ) We hve now seen tht n orthonorml sis is nice wy to descrie suspce, ut knowing tht we wnt n orthonorml sis doesn t mke one fll into our lp. In theory, the process
More informationReview of basic calculus
Review of bsic clculus This brief review reclls some of the most importnt concepts, definitions, nd theorems from bsic clculus. It is not intended to tech bsic clculus from scrtch. If ny of the items below
More informationPHYSICS 116C Homework 4 Solutions
PHYSICS 116C Homework 4 Solutions 1. ( Simple hrmonic oscilltor. Clerly the eqution is of the SturmLiouville (SL form with λ = n 2, A(x = 1, B(x =, w(x = 1. Legendre s eqution. Clerly the eqution is of
More informationMath 2142 Homework 2 Solutions. Problem 1. Prove the following formulas for Laplace transforms for s > 0. a s 2 + a 2 L{cos at} = e st.
Mth 2142 Homework 2 Solution Problem 1. Prove the following formul for Lplce trnform for >. L{1} = 1 L{t} = 1 2 L{in t} = 2 + 2 L{co t} = 2 + 2 Solution. For the firt Lplce trnform, we need to clculte:
More information3 Mathematics of the Poisson Equation
3 Mthemtics of the Poisson Eqution 3. Green functions nd the Poisson eqution () The Dirichlet Green function stisfies the Poisson eqution with deltfunction chrge 2 G D (r, r o ) = δ 3 (r r o ) (3.) nd
More informationEigenfunction Expansions for a Sturm Liouville Problem on Time Scales
Interntionl Journl of Difference Equtions (IJDE). ISSN 09736069 Volume 2 Number 1 (2007), pp. 93 104 Reserch Indi Publictions http://www.ripubliction.com/ijde.htm Eigenfunction Expnsions for Sturm Liouville
More informationNumerical integration
2 Numericl integrtion This is pge i Printer: Opque this 2. Introduction Numericl integrtion is problem tht is prt of mny problems in the economics nd econometrics literture. The orgniztion of this chpter
More informationExam 2, Mathematics 4701, Section ETY6 6:05 pm 7:40 pm, March 31, 2016, IH1105 Instructor: Attila Máté 1
Exm, Mthemtics 471, Section ETY6 6:5 pm 7:4 pm, Mrch 1, 16, IH115 Instructor: Attil Máté 1 17 copies 1. ) Stte the usul sufficient condition for the fixedpoint itertion to converge when solving the eqution
More informationElementary Linear Algebra
Elementry Liner Algebr Anton & Rorres, 1 th Edition Lecture Set 5 Chpter 4: Prt II Generl Vector Spces 163 คณ ตศาสตร ว ศวกรรม 3 สาขาว ชาว ศวกรรมคอมพ วเตอร ป การศ กษา 1/2555 163 คณตศาสตรวศวกรรม 3 สาขาวชาวศวกรรมคอมพวเตอร
More information1. GaussJacobi quadrature and Legendre polynomials. p(t)w(t)dt, p {p(x 0 ),...p(x n )} p(t)w(t)dt = w k p(x k ),
1. GussJcobi qudrture nd Legendre polynomils Simpson s rule for evluting n integrl f(t)dt gives the correct nswer with error of bout O(n 4 ) (with constnt tht depends on f, in prticulr, it depends on
More informationRiemann is the Mann! (But Lebesgue may besgue to differ.)
Riemnn is the Mnn! (But Lebesgue my besgue to differ.) Leo Livshits My 2, 2008 1 For finite intervls in R We hve seen in clss tht every continuous function f : [, b] R hs the property tht for every ɛ >
More informationUnit #9 : Definite Integral Properties; Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Unit #9 : Definite Integrl Properties; Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Gols: Identify properties of definite integrls Define odd nd even functions, nd reltionship to integrl vlues Introduce the Fundmentl
More informationPartial Differential Equations
Prtil Differentil Equtions Notes by Robert Piché, Tmpere University of Technology reen s Functions. reen s Function for OneDimensionl Eqution The reen s function provides complete solution to boundry
More informationdf dt f () b f () a dt
Vector lculus 16.7 tokes Theorem Nme: toke's Theorem is higher dimensionl nlogue to Green's Theorem nd the Fundmentl Theorem of clculus. Why, you sk? Well, let us revisit these theorems. Fundmentl Theorem
More informationGreen s functions. f(t) =
Consider the 2nd order liner inhomogeneous ODE Green s functions d 2 u 2 + k(t)du + p(t)u(t) = f(t). Of course, in prctice we ll only del with the two prticulr types of 2nd order ODEs we discussed lst
More informationCalculus of Variations: The Direct Approach
Clculus of Vritions: The Direct Approch Lecture by Andrejs Treibergs, Notes by Bryn Wilson June 7, 2010 The originl lecture slides re vilble online t: http://www.mth.uth.edu/~treiberg/directmethodslides.pdf
More informationMath Lecture 23
Mth 8  Lecture 3 Dyln Zwick Fll 3 In our lst lecture we delt with solutions to the system: x = Ax where A is n n n mtrix with n distinct eigenvlues. As promised, tody we will del with the question of
More informationMath 473: Practice Problems for the Material after Test 2, Fall 2011
Mth 473: Prctice Problems for the Mteril fter Test, Fll SOLUTION. Consider the following modified het eqution u t = u xx + u x. () Use the relevnt 3 point pproximtion formuls for u xx nd u x to derive
More information10 Elliptic equations
1 Elliptic equtions Sections 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.7.1, An Introduction to Prtil Differentil Equtions, Pinchover nd Ruinstein We consider the twodimensionl Lplce eqution on the domin D, More generl eqution
More informationCMDA 4604: Intermediate Topics in Mathematical Modeling Lecture 19: Interpolation and Quadrature
CMDA 4604: Intermedite Topics in Mthemticl Modeling Lecture 19: Interpoltion nd Qudrture In this lecture we mke brief diversion into the res of interpoltion nd qudrture. Given function f C[, b], we sy
More information