Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography


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1 Number Theory and Group Theory for PublicKey Cryptography TDA352, DIT250 Wissam Aoudi Chalmers University of Technology November 21, 2017 Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography
2 Outline Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 2 / 30
3 Outline Euler's Totient Function What is the group of invertible elements mod N? or what is a group to begin with? Group Theory Operating modulo integers: modular arithmetics How to speedup decryption? Chinese Remainder Theorem Where does this come from? Euler's Theorem Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 2 / 30
4 Outline Euler's Totient Function What is the group of invertible elements mod N? or what is a group to begin with? Group Theory Operating modulo integers: modular arithmetics How to speedup decryption? Chinese Remainder Theorem Where does this come from? Euler's Theorem Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 2 / 30
5 Preliminaries: some facts about divisibility and primes Euclidean Division Let a, b Z with a > 0, then there exist unique integers q, r such that a = qb + r, with 0 r < b. Example a = 13, b = 6, then 13 = , (q = 2, r = 1) Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 3 / 30
6 Preliminaries: some facts about divisibility and primes Definition (Prime Numbers) A positive integer p > 1 is said to be a prime if it is divisible by 1 and itself only. Example 3, 5, 13, 19, 37, 83. Facts Prime numbers are the building blocks of the natural numbers: any natural number N > 1 can be uniquely written as N = n i=1 p a i i = p a 1 1 pa 2 2 pan n where p 1 < p 2 < < p n and a i N (Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetics). Integer factorization is in general a hard problem. Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 4 / 30
7 Preliminaries: Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EEA) Greatest Common Divisor The Greatest Common Divisor of two integers is the largest integer that divides both of them. Definition (GCD) The GCD of two positive integers a and b, is the positive integer d such that i) d a and d b (Common Divisor). ii) if e a and e b, then e d (Greatest such divisor). Euclidean Algorithm function gcd(a,b) if b = 0 return a; else return gcd(b, a mod b); Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 5 / 30
8 Preliminaries: Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EEA) Definition (Relative Primality) If GCD(a, b) = 1, then a and b are said to be relatively prime (or coprime). Definition (Bézout Identity) Let a, b be two positive integers and d = GCD(a, b), then there exist integers s, t Z such that d = as + bt. In other words, d can be written as a linear combination of a, b. One way to find a pair (s, t) is by using the Extended Euclidean Algorithm. Example Find the GCD of 456 and 100 and write it as a linear combination (using Extended Euclidean Algorithm) Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 6 / 30
9 Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EEA) Remainder s + 100t Quotient Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 7 / 30
10 Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EEA) = 4 Remainder s + 100t Quotient 4 Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 7 / 30
11 Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EEA) Remainder 456s + 100t Quotient Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 7 / 30
12 Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EEA) 4564*100 = 56 Remainder s + 100t Quotient 4 Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 7 / 30
13 Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EEA) Remainder 456s + 100t Quotient Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 7 / 30
14 Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EEA) 14*0 = 1 Remainder 456s + 100t Quotient 4 Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 7 / 30
15 Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EEA) Remainder 456s + 100t Quotient Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 7 / 30
16 Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EEA) 04*1 = 4 Remainder 456s + 100t Quotient 4 Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 7 / 30
17 Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EEA) Remainder 456s + 100t Quotient Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 7 / 30
18 Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EEA) = 1 Remainder 456s + 100t Quotient Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 7 / 30
19 Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EEA) 4 = 456*9100*41 GCD Remainder 456s + 100t Quotient Bézout coefficients Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 7 / 30
20 Modular Arithmetics Definition (Congruence) Let a, b, n be positive integers such that a, b have the same remainder upon dividing by n, then we say that a is congruent to b modulo n, written a b (mod n). Facts 1 a b (mod n) n a b. 2 kn 0 (mod n) (for any k Z). 3 a b (mod n) a = kn + b (for some k Z). Examples 23 8 (mod 5), since 23 = (mod 6), since = (mod 3), since = 1 (here means does not divide ). Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 8 / 30
21 Modular Arithmetics Definition (Linear Congruence) A congruence of the form ax b (mod n) is called a linear congruence, which has a solution if and only if there exists x 0 {0, 1,..., n 1} such that ax 0 b (mod n). Note that a linear congruence is like a linear equation except that it is solved modulo n. Lemma The linear congruence ax 1 (mod n) is solvable (i.e., has a solution) if and only if GCD(a, n) = 1 (i.e., a and n are relatively prime). Very useful for computing modular inverses for RSA! Recall: in RSA we choose an encryption exponent e, and then compute the decryption exponent d such that d = e 1 (mod ϕ(n)) e d 1 (mod ϕ(n)). That is, given e, we solve the linear congruence e x 1 (mod ϕ(n)), the solution to which is exactly d, the modular inverse of e in Z ϕ(n). Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 9 / 30
22 Modular Arithmetics To find the modular inverse of an integer a (mod n): GCD(a, n) = 1 (previous lemma) ax + kn = 1 (Bézout lemma) ax = 1 (mod n) (kn = 0 (mod n)) x = a 1 (mod n). We can find x using EEA! Example Find the modular inverse of 2017 (mod 397). Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 10 / 30
23 Modular Arithmetics Remainder x 1 0 Quotient Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 11 / 30
24 Modular Arithmetics = 5 Remainder x 1 0 Quotient 5 Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 11 / 30
25 Modular Arithmetics Remainder x Quotient Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 12 / 30
26 Modular Arithmetics *397 = 32 Remainder x 1 0 Quotient 5 Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 12 / 30
27 Modular Arithmetics Remainder x Quotient Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 13 / 30
28 Modular Arithmetics 15*0 = 1 Remainder x Quotient 5 Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 13 / 30
29 Modular Arithmetics Remainder x Quotient Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 14 / 30
30 Modular Arithmetics = 12 Remainder x Quotient Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 14 / 30
31 Modular Arithmetics Remainder x Quotient Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 15 / 30
32 Modular Arithmetics GCD Remainder x Quotient Modular inverse Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 15 / 30
33 Outline Euler's Totient Function What is the group of invertible elements mod N? or what is a group to begin with? Group Theory Operating modulo integers: modular arithmetics How to speedup decryption? Chinese Remainder Theorem Where does this come from? Euler's Theorem Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 15 / 30
34 Euler s Totient Function Definition (Totient Function) The totient function (or Euler Phi function) ϕ( ) : N N, is defined to be the number of positive integers less than n and relatively prime to n. That is, ϕ(n) = {k N, such that k < n and GCD(n, k) = 1}. Facts (important for RSA!) if p is prime, then ϕ(p) = p 1. if N = pq, where p, q are primes, then ϕ(n) = (p 1)(q 1). Why? ϕ is a multiplicative function, meaning that, if GCD(a, b) = 1, then ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b). As p, q are primes, ϕ(p) = p 1 and ϕ(q) = q 1. Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 16 / 30
35 Euler s Totient Function Example ϕ(10) = {1, 3, 7, 9} = 4. ϕ(7) = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} = 6. Is there a formula for ϕ(n)? Yes! Formula for ϕ(n) We have ϕ(p a ) = p a 1 (p 1). ϕ is multiplicative, hence ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b) N = p a 1 1 pa 2 2 pan n Thus ϕ(n) = ϕ(p a 1 1 pa 2 2 pan n ) = ϕ(p a 1 1 )ϕ(pa 2 2 ) ϕ(pan n ) Example = p a (p 1 1)p a (p 2 1) p an 1 n (p n 1). ϕ(600) = ϕ( ) = ϕ(2 3 ) ϕ(3) ϕ(5 2 ) = 2 2 (2 1) (3 1) 5(5 1) = 160. Note that to compute ϕ(n), we need to know the prime decomposition of N. Good news for RSA! Finding ϕ(n) (without knowing p or q) is as hard as factoring N. Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 17 / 30
36 Outline Euler's Totient Function What is the group of invertible elements mod N? or what is a group to begin with? Group Theory Operating modulo integers: modular arithmetics How to speedup decryption? Chinese Remainder Theorem Where does this come from? Euler's Theorem Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 17 / 30
37 Fermat s Theorem & Euler s Theorem Fermat s Theorem Let a be a positive integer, and p a prime such that p does not divide a, then a p 1 1 (mod p). Example 5 38? (mod 13). a = 5, p = 13 (note that 13 5) (5 12 ) (1) (mod 13). Euler s Theorem Let a, n be two relatively prime positive integers with n > 1, then a ϕ(n) 1 (mod n). Exercise: Find the remainder of 3 35 when divided by 20. Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 18 / 30
38 Fermat s Theorem & Euler s Theorem Correctness Property Why m ed = m (mod N)? d = e 1 (mod ϕ(n)) e d = 1 (mod ϕ(n)) e d = kϕ(n) + 1 m ed (mod N) = m kϕ(n)+1 (mod N) = m kϕ(n) m (mod N) = (m ϕ(n) ) k m (mod N) = (1) k m (mod N) = m (mod N) Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 19 / 30
39 Outline Euler's Totient Function What is the group of invertible elements mod N? or what is a group to begin with? Group Theory Operating modulo integers: modular arithmetics How to speedup decryption? Chinese Remainder Theorem Where does this come from? Euler's Theorem Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 19 / 30
40 Chinese Remainder Theorem Chinese Remainder Theorem (a special case) Let N = pq, where p, q are distinct primes, and let a, b be any two integers, then the system of linear congruences { x a (mod p) x b (mod q) is solvable, and has a unique solution modulo pq. Moreover, the unique solution x is given by x = atq + bsp, where s, t are the Bézout coefficients of p, q respectively (i.e., s, t satisfy sp + tq = 1). Motivation The importance of CRT is that if the prime factors p, q of an integer N are known, then computations modulo N can be reduced to computations modulo p and q separately. In RSA, p, q are chosen to be of roughly the same size ( N), and for a sufficiently large value of N, N is much smaller than N, and consequently arithmetics modulo p and q are much cheaper to perform. Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 20 / 30
41 Outline Euler's Totient Function What is the group of invertible elements mod N? or what is a group to begin with? Group Theory Operating modulo integers: modular arithmetics How to speedup decryption? Chinese Remainder Theorem Where does this come from? Euler's Theorem Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 20 / 30
42 Group Theory Consider the group of all integers Z = {, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, }. For all a, b Z, a + b Z (we say Z is closed under addition). For all a, b, c Z, (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) (Z is associative). For every element a Z, a + 0 = 0 + a = a (0 is the identity in Z). For every element a Z, there exists an element b = a Z, such that a + b = b + a = 0 (every element in Z has an additive inverse). We say that Z is a Group Under Addition. Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 21 / 30
43 Group Theory Definition (Group Under Addition) A group G is a set, together with an operation +, satisfying the following properties 1 CLOSURE For all a, b G, the result of the operation +, i.e., a + b, is also in G. 2 ASSOCIATIVITY For all a, b, c G, it holds that, (a + b) + c = a + (b + c). 3 IDENTITY ELEMENT There exists an element e G, such that, for every element a G, it holds that a + e = e + a = a. 4 INVERSE ELEMENT For each a G, there exists an element b G, such that a + b = b + a = e (the inverse of a is usually denoted as a). Definition (Group Under Multiplication) A group G is a set, together with an operation, satisfying the following properties 1 CLOSURE For all a, b G, the result of the operation, i.e., a b, is also in G. 2 ASSOCIATIVITY For all a, b, c G, it holds that, (a b) c = a (b c). 3 IDENTITY ELEMENT There exists an element e G, such that, for every element a G, it holds that a e = e a = a. 4 INVERSE ELEMENT For each a G, there exists an element b G, such that a b = b a = e (the inverse of a is usually denoted as a 1 ). Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 21 / 30
44 Group Theory We showed that Z is a group under addition. But Z is not a group under multiplication, because although closed, associative, and has identity 1, there exists an element (in fact all elements except for 1 and 1) that has no inverse. For instance, 5 is in Z, but 5 x = 1 has no solution in Z. On the other hand, the set of rational numbers Q (without the element 0), is a group under multiplication, since it is closed, associative, has identity 1, and for every element a Q, the linear equation a x = 1 always has the solution x = a 1 = 1/a (in particular, 5 1 = 1/5). Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 22 / 30
45 Group Theory Group of Integers Modulo N Define Z N as the set of integers modulo N (e.g., Z 6 = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}), then Z N is a group under addition. Let us prove this for N = 3, i.e., for Z 3 = {0, 1, 2} 1 CLOSURE = 0 (mod 3) = 2 (mod 3) = 3 = 0 (mod 3) = 1 (mod 3) = 2 (mod 3) = 4 = 1 (mod 3) 2 ASSOCIATIVITY 3 IDENTITY ELEMENT (0 + 1) + 2 = 0 + (1 + 2) (mod 3) 4 INVERSES = 0 (mod 3) = 1 (mod 3) = 2 (mod 3) = 0 (mod 3) 1 + ( 1) = = 3 = 0 (mod 3) 2 + ( 2) = = 3 = 0 (mod 3) But Z 6 is not a group under multiplication because not every element has an inverse (e.g., there exists no x Z 6 such that 4 x = 1 (mod 6)). Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 23 / 30
46 Group Theory So, to make the set of integers modulo N a group under multiplication, we should only choose the elements a that have inverses, i.e., for which there exists x such that a x 1 (mod N). Recall the lemma: a x 1 (mod N) if and only if GCD(a, N) = 1. Multiplicative Group of Integers Modulo N Define Z N to be the set of integers modulo N and relatively prime to N, that is, Z N = {a Z N, such that GCD(a, N) = 1}. Then, Z N is a group under multiplication. Example Z N Z 6 Z 14 Z 11 = {1, 5}. = {1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13}. = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}. is a fundamental group for RSA! It is an algebraic structure where the correctness property of RSA holds. Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 24 / 30
47 Group Theory Definition (Order of a Group) The order of a group G is its cardinality, i.e., the number of elements in its set. It is denoted as ord(g) or G. Example ord(z 4 ) = {0, 1, 2, 3} = 4 ord(z N ) = {0, 1,..., N 1} = N ord(z N ) =? Lemma The order of Z N is ϕ(n). [recall the definition of ϕ(n)] Example Z 15 = ϕ(15) = ϕ(3 5) = (3 1) (5 1) = 8. [recall that ϕ(p q) = (p 1)(q 1) if p, q are primes] Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 25 / 30
48 Group Theory Definition (Order of an Element in a Group) The order of an element a in a (multiplicative) group G is the smallest positive integer n such that a n = e, where e is the (multiplicative) identity element of G. Example Z 9 = {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8} [note: In Z N, the identity is always 1] What is the order of 2 in Z 9? 2 1 = 2 1 in Z = 16 = 7 1 in Z = 4 1 in Z = 32 = 5 1 in Z = 8 1 in Z = 64 = 1 in Z 9 Note: ord(2) = ord(z 9 ) 2 is a generator of Z 9, which means that Z 9 is a cyclic group (definition in a couple of slides). Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 26 / 30
49 Group Theory Lemma For every element a of a group G, it holds that the order of a divides the order of G, i.e., ord(a) ord(g). Example Z 9 = {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8}, Z 9 = ϕ(9) = 6 What is the order of 2 in Z 9? 2 1 = 2 1 in Z = 16 = 7 1 in Z = 4 1 in Z = 32 = 5 1 in Z = 8 1 in Z = 64 = 1 in Z 9 since 2 in Z 9 must be a divisor of 6, i.e., 1, 2, 3, or 6. This means that we do not need to check 2 4, 2 5 since 4, 5 are not divisors of 6. Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 27 / 30
50 Group Theory Definition (Subgroups) A nonempty subset H of a group G is said to be a subgroup of G, if H is itself a group under the same operation of G. Definition (Subgroup generated by an element) Let G be a group and a G. Define < a >= {a i, i N}, then, < a > is a subgroup of G, called the subgroup generated by a. Lemma (Group Generator) An element a of a group G is called a generator of G if < a >= G. That is, every element g of G can be written as a power of a, i.e., for all g G, g = a k (k N). Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 28 / 30
51 Group Theory Definition (Cyclic Groups) A group G is said to be a cyclic group if it has a group generator, i.e., if there exists an element a G such that < a >= G. Moreover, a is a generator of G if and only if < a > = a = G. Example In Z 11, 2 is a generator since: [recall first that 2 divides Z 11 ] we have Z 11 = ϕ(11) = 10, and in Z = = 32 = = = 1024 = 1 Thus, 2 = 10 = Z 11. Therefore 2 is a generator of Z 11 and Z 11 is cyclic. Indeed Z 11 = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} = {20, 2 1, 2 8, 2 2, 2 4, 2 9, 2 7, 2 3, 2 6, 2 5 }. Exercise: Show that Z 8 is not cyclic and list all its subgroups. In fact, Z N is cyclic if and only if N = 2, 4, pa, 2p a (p > 2 a prime, a N). Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 29 / 30
52 Group Theory Lemma Let G be a group with identity element e, and let a G, then a G = e. Revisiting Euler s and Fermat s Theorems Let a Z N, then a is relatively prime to N, i.e., GCD(a, N) = 1. Z N = ϕ(n). Therefore by the previous lemma, a Z N = a ϕ(n) = 1 in Z N, or equivalently a ϕ(n) 1 (mod N). [Euler stheorem!] Fermat s theorem is a special case where a Z p, where p is prime, so that a ϕ(p) = a p 1 1 (mod p). Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 30 / 30
53 References 1 Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and practice (Chapters 4.4, , 8.5, 9.2). 2 Introduction to Modern Cryptography, Lindell and Katz (Chapter 7.1.1, 7.1.3, 7.1.4, 7.2). Thank you for your attention! Wissam Aoudi Number Theory and Group Theoryfor PublicKey Cryptography 30 / 30
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