# National 5 Physics. Electricity and Energy. Notes

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1 National 5 Physics Electricity and Energy Notes Name.

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3 Key Area Notes, Examples and Questions Page 3 Conservation of energy Page 10 Electrical charge carriers and electric fields and potential difference (voltage) Page 15 Ohm s Law Page 20 Practical electrical and electronic circuits Page 33 Electrical power Page 38 Specific heat capacity Page 42 Gas laws and kinetic model Other Notes Page 53 Quantities, Units and Multiplication Factors Page 54 Relationships Sheet Page 55 Data Sheet 2 P a g e

4 Key Area: Conservation of Energy Previous Knowledge Types of energy Rearranging mathematical relationships Success Criteria 1.1 I can understand what is meant by the terms gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. 1.2 I know the principle of conservation of energy. 1.3 I can identify and explain the loss of energy when energy is transferred. 1.4 I can use the relationship E p = mgh to solve problems involving potential energy, mass, gravitational field strength and height. 1.5 I can use the relationship E k = 1 2 mv2 to solve problems involving kinetic energy, mass and speed. 1.6 I can use the relationships for E p and E k to solve problems involving the conservation of energy. 3 P a g e

5 1.1 I can understand what is meant by the terms gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. Kinetic Energy is the energy which an object possesses due to its motion. A stationary object has zero kinetic energy. A moving object has kinetic energy. Gravitational Potential Energy is the energy an object possesses due to its height in a gravitational field Height An object on the ground has zero gravitational potential energy. An object raised above the ground has gravitational potential energy. There are many other types of energy e.g. light, heat, chemical, electrical, strain, sound, etc. 1.2 I know the principle of conservation of energy. The principle of conservation of energy states that energy is never created or destroyed. It is only converted from one form to another or transferred from one object to another. The total energy always remains the same. Example A lamp in an electrical circuit Cell Chemical Energy Lamp Electrical Energy Light and heat Energy Chemical Energy stored in the cell is converted to Electrical energy in the wiring is converted to Light and heat energy in the lamp. The total energy at any time does not change. 4 P a g e

6 All gravitational potential energy Example A van rolling down a slope A Some gravitational potential energy + some kinetic energy B All Kinetic energy C Gravitational potential energy at the top of the slope is converted to Kinetic energy as the van moves down the slope. The total energy at points A, B and C is the same. 1.3 I can identify and explain the loss of energy when energy is transferred. When energy is transformed from one form to another some of the energy is changed into useful forms of energy and some into unwanted forms. Energy changed into unwanted forms is called energy loss. Remember energy cannot be destroyed so the total energy is always the same. Example In a wind turbine the electrical energy produced is less than the kinetic energy of the wind. Turbine Blades Energy lost as heat and sound Energy lost as heat Kinetic Energy Wind Gearing Electrical Generator Electrical Energy Only some of the original kinetic energy of the wind is transferred to the turbine blades. Some energy is lost as sound. More energy is lost as heat due to the friction between the air and the blades, friction in the gearing, friction and other electrical losses in the generator. As energy is conserved, the sum of all these lost energies and the electrical energy output is the same as the original kinetic energy of the wind. Electricity and Energy Problem Book Page 37 Questions 110 to P a g e

7 1.4 I can use the relationship E p = mgh to solve problems involving potential energy, mass, gravitational field strength and height. Gravitational potential energy is related to the mass of an object, its height from the ground and the gravitational field strength. m is the mass of the object (kg) E p = mgh h is the height of object above the ground (m) E p is the gravitational potential energy (J) g is the gravitational field strength (Nkg -1 ) On the surface of the Earth g = 9.8Nkg 1 Example A 1000kg van drives up a large hill 100m high. Find the gravitational potential energy gained by the van Solution E p =? m = 1000kg g = 9.8Nkg 1 h = 100m E p = mgh E p = E p = 98,0000J 100m Example A ball of mass 1.0kg is thrown into the air is reaches a maximum height then fall back to the ground. It s gravitational potential energy at its maximum height is 490J. Find the balls maximum height. Solution E p = 490J m = 1.0kg g = 9.8Nkg 1 h =? E p = mgh 490 = h h = h = 50m Electricity and Energy Problem Book Pages 37 and 38 Questions 113 to P a g e

8 1.5 I can use the relationship E k = 1 2 mv2 to solve problems involving kinetic energy, mass and speed. The kinetic energy of an object is related to its mass and its speed. Kinetic energy is given by m is the mass of the object (kg) E k = 1 2 mv2 E k is the kinetic energy (J) v is the speed of the object (ms -1 ) Example A 1000kg van accelerates from rest to 10ms -1. Find the kinetic energy of the moving van. At rest, v = 0ms 1 v = 10ms 1 Solution E k =? m = 1000kg v = 10ms 1 E k = 1 2 mv2 E k = E k = 50,000J Electricity and Energy Problem Book Pages 38 and 39 Questions 119 to P a g e

9 1.6 I can use the relationships for E p and E k to solve problems involving the conservation of energy. When an object falls through a height its gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy as it falls. All Gravitational potential energy Some Gravitational potential energy and some kinetic energy h All kinetic energy Ground Ground Example A 1.0kg ball is dropped from a height of 2.0m. a. Find the gravitational potential energy of the ball before it is dropped. b. Find the kinetic energy of the ball as it strikes the ground c. Find the speed of the ball as it hits the ground. Ground Solution a. E p =? m = 1.0kg g = 9.8Nkg 1 h = 2.0m E p = mgh E p = E p = 20J (19.6J) b. As all the gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy E k = E p = 20J (19.6J) c. E k = 19.6J m = 1.0kg v =? E k = 1 2 mv = v2 2 v 2 = v = 39.2 v = 6.3ms 1 OR mgh = 1 2 mv2 Mass cancels gh = 1 2 v2 v = 2gh v = v = 6.3ms 1 8 P a g e

10 Example A 50kg wrecking ball is suspended from a crane. When dropped the ball swings through an arc and strikes a wall. The ball drops 6.0m is it swings. a. Find the initial gravitational potential energy of the ball. b. What is the kinetic energy of the ball as it strikes the wall? c. Calculate the speed of the ball as it hits the wall. 6.0m Solution a. E p =? m = 50kg g = 9.8Nkg 1 h = 6.0m E p = mgh E p = E p = 2900J (2940J) b. As all the gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy E k = E p = 2900J (2940J) c. E k = 2940J m = 50kg v =? E k = 1 2 mv = 1 50 v2 2 v 2 = v = v = 11ms 1 (10.8ms 1 ) OR mgh = 1 2 mv2 gh = 1 2 v2 v = 2gh v = v = 11ms 1 (10.8ms 1 ) Electricity and Energy Problem Book Pages 40 to 42 Questions 127 to P a g e

11 Key Areas: Electrical charge carriers, electric fields and potential difference (voltage) Previous Knowledge Positive and negative charges Current and voltage Success Criteria 2.1 I can define electric current as the electric charge transferred per unit time. 2.2 I can use the relationship Q = It to solve problems involving charge, current and time. 2.3 I understand what is meant by an electric field. 2.4 I know that an electric field produces a force on a charged particle and can find the direction of this force. 2.5 I know that the potential difference (voltage) of an electrical supply is a measure of the energy given to the charge carriers in a circuit. 2.6 I know the difference between direct current (d.c.) and an alternating current (a.c.). 10 P a g e

12 2.1 I can define electric current as the electric charge transferred per unit time. Electrons carry electrical charge. When electrons move through a wire they transfer charge from one place to another. Electrical current is defined as the electric charge transferred per unit time (i.e. per second). Electrons carrying negative charge Current is the flow of electrical charges 2.2 I can use the relationship Q = It to solve problems involving charge, current and time. The charge transferred by and electric current is given by the relationship Q = It t is the time (s) Q is the charge (C) I is the current (A) Example Find the time for a charge of 0.50C to be transferred by an electric current of 0.80A. Solution Q = 0.50C I = 0.80A t =? Q = It 0.50 = 0.80 t t = t = 0.63s (0.625s) Electricity and Energy Problem Book Pages 1 and 2 Questions 1 to 8 11 P a g e

13 2.3 I understand what is meant by an electric field. 2.4 I know that an electric field produces a force on a charged particle and I can find the direction of this force. An electrical charge will produce an electric field in the space around it. This electric field will produce a force on a charged particle. The electric field is represented by lines with an arrow showing the direction of the force produced on a positive particle. The force on negative particles will be in the opposite direction. F F F F Single positive charge The force on a negative particle is in the opposite direction to the arrow on the field lines. i.e. away from a negative charge and towards a positive charge. Single negative charge The force on a positive particle is in the same direction to the arrow on the field lines. i.e. away from a positive charge and towards a negative charge. F F + - Parallel changed plates produce a uniform electric field between the plates. Electricity and Energy Problem Book Pages 2 and 3 Questions 12 to P a g e

14 + - Two opposite charges A positively charged particle will follow a path given by the direction of the arrows on the field lines. A negatively charged particle will follow a path in the opposite direction to the arrows on the field lines. - - Two negative charges + + Two positive charges 13 P a g e

15 2.5 I know that the potential difference (voltage) of an electrical supply is a measure of the energy given to the charge carriers in a circuit. In an electrical circuit the potential difference of an electrical supply is the energy given to each coulomb of change which passes through the supply. E.g. For the 6.0V supply shown 6.0J of energy is transferred from the supply to each coulomb of charge passing through the power supply. This energy is converted to heat energy in the resistors V I know the difference between direct current (d.c.) and alternating current (a.c.). - + In a d.c. circuit the current flows in one direction only ~ In an a.c. circuit the current alternates its direction of flow. d.c. On an oscilloscope screen an a.c. signal appears as a sine wave. A d.c signal appears as horizontal line. a.c. Electricity and Energy Problem Book Page 2 Questions 9 to P a g e

16 Key Area: Ohm s Law Previous Knowledge Current and voltage and resistance Success Criteria 3.1 I can use Ohm s Law to solve problems involving potential difference (voltage), current and resistance. 3.2 I can describe an experiment to verify Ohm s Law 3.3 I can use a voltage current graph to determine resistance. 3.4 I know the relationship between the temperature and resistance of a conductor. 15 P a g e

17 3.1 I can use Ohm s Law to solve problems involving potential difference (voltage), current and resistance. The relationship between voltage, current and resistance in circuits which contain resistors is given by Ohm s Law. V = IR R is the resistance (Ω) V is the voltage (V) I is the current (A) Example An element in an electric cooker draws 10A from a 230V mains supply. Calculate the resistance of the heating element in the cooker. Solution V = 230V I = 10A R =? V = IR 230 = 10 R R = R = 23Ω Electricity and Energy Problems Book Pages 6 and 7 Questions 22 to 29 Page 8 Question P a g e

18 Voltmeter Reading/V Voltmeter Reading/V 3.2 I can describe an experiment to verify Ohm s Law the circuit shown below can be used to verify Ohm s Law. Adjusting the variable resistor to change the total circuit resistance will change the current in the circuit. A R The gradient of the straight line, V I gives V 0 resistance. Ohm s Law can be written as 0 Ammeter Reading/A V = RI y = mx + c Comparing Ohm s Law to the straight line equation it can be seen that when V is plotted against I a straight line through the origin should be obtained. When the experiment is performed the voltage across R against I is plotted a straight line through the origin will be obtained, verifying Ohm s Law. 3.3 I can use a voltage current graph to determine resistance. Ohm s Law V = IR can be rearranged for resistance giving R = V. From the best fit line on I the graph any voltage divided by its corresponding current will give the resistance. From the best fit line on the graph in section 3.2 the gradient of the best fit line will also give the resistance. Higher gradient means higher resistance. Lower gradient means lower resistance. 0 0 Ammeter Reading/A 17 P a g e

19 Voltmeter Reading/V Example The circuit shown above was setup, results obtained and a line graph drawn. a. Using the graph below find the resistance of resistor R when the current is 1A, 3A, 5A and 7A. b. State what happens to the size of the resistance as the current increases Solution a. Resistance = V I At 1A, Resistance = = 1.4Ω At 3A, Resistance = = 1.4Ω At 5A, Resistance = = 1.4Ω At 7A, Resistance = 10 7 = 1.4Ω Ammeter Reading/A b. Resistance is constant. Electricity and Energy Problem Book Page 8 Question 31 Page 9 Question 33 Pages 5 and 6 Questions 20 and P a g e

20 Voltmeter Reading/V 3.4 I know the relationship between the temperature and resistance of a conductor. In the circuit shown below, adjusting the variable resistor to change the total circuit resistance will change the current in the circuit. As a greater current passes through the lamp the temperature of the conducting filament in the lamp will increase. When the voltage across the lamp against I is plotted the line graph shown will be obtained. A V 0 0 Ammeter Reading/A The gradient of the graph increases as the current through the lamp increases. This means that the resistance of the conducting filament increases when its temperature is increased. Temperature increases Resistance increases Electricity and Energy Problems Book Page 5 Question 19. Page 7 Question P a g e

21 Key Area: Practical Electrical and Electronic Circuits Previous Knowledge Current Voltage Resistance Ohm s Law Success Criteria 4.1 I know the circuit symbols for meters used to measure current, voltage and resistance and can and place them correctly in circuits. 4.2 I know the circuit symbol and function of the following components; cell, battery, lamp, switch, resistor, variable resistor, LED, motor, microphone, loudspeaker, photovoltaic cell, fuse, diode, capacitor, thermistor, LDR, relay, npn transistor, MOSFET. 4.3 I know the current and voltage relationships in series and parallel circuits. 4.4 I know the relationships between light level and resistance of an LDR and temperature and resistance of a thermistor. 4.5 I know that an NPN transistor and an n-channel enhancement MOSFET are used as switches in electronic circuits. 4.6 I can explain the function of a transistor in switching circuits. 4.7 I can use the relationships R T = R 1 + R 2 + and 1 R T = 1 R R 2 + to solve problems involving the total resistance of resistors in series and parallel circuits. 4.8 I can solve problems involving resistors in a combination of series and parallel. 20 P a g e

22 4.1 I know the circuit symbols for meters used to measure current, voltage and resistance and can place them correctly in circuits. A An ammeter has the circuit symbol Ammeters are connected in series. A Ammeters measure current in amperes (A). A voltmeter has the circuit symbol V Voltmeters are connected in parallel. Voltmeters measure voltage in volts (V). V Ω An ohmmeter has the circuit symbol Ω Ohmmeters measure resistance in ohms (Ω). 21 P a g e

23 4.2 I know the circuit symbol and function of the following components; cell, battery, lamp, switch, resistor, variable resistor, LED, motor, microphone, loudspeaker, photovoltaic cell, fuse, diode, capacitor, thermistor, LDR, relay, npn transistor, MOSFET. Electronics Components Name Symbol Function Cell Provides electrical energy Battery Provides electrical energy Lamp Converts electrical energy to light energy Switch Opens and closes a gap in the circuit Resistor Reduces the current in a circuit Variable Resistor Varies the current in a circuit LED Motor Microphone M Converts electrical energy into light energy Changes electrical energy into kinetic energy Converts sound energy into electrical energy 22 P a g e

24 Loudspeaker Converts electrical energy into sound energy Photovoltaic cell Converts light energy into electrical energy Fuse Melts and creates a gap in the circuit when the current reaches a specified value Diode Allows current to flow in one direction only Capacitor Stores electrical energy Thermistor Changes resistance with changing temperature LDR Changes resistance with changing light level Relay Used to switch on and off one circuit from another circuit Transistor (npn) Electrically operated switch Transistor (mosfet) Gate Drain Source Electrically operated switch Electricity and Energy Problems Book Page 4 Questions 17 and P a g e

25 4.3 I know the current and voltage relationships in series and parallel circuits. Series Circuit Parallel Circuit A series circuit consists of a single loop (branch). The current is the same at all points. The voltage across each of the components adds up to the supply voltage. A parallel circuit consists of more than one loop (branch) The current in each of the branches add up to the supply current. The voltage in each of the branches is the same as the supply voltage. In solving problems first identify which type of circuit you are dealing with; series or parallel. Then determine whether it is the current or voltage rule you will be using. Example In the circuit shown there are three identical bulbs. When V 4 = 12V What are the voltage readings on V 1, V 2, and V 3 V4 Solution The circuit is a series circuit so the voltages across each bulb must add up to the supply voltage. As the bulbs are identical the voltage across each must be the same. V1 V2 V3 V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = 12 3 = 4V 24 P a g e

26 Example In the circuit shown the reading on the ammeters A1, A2 and A3 are A 1 = 4.0A A 2 = 1.5A A 3 = 1.0A Find the reading on A 4. Solution The circuit is a parallel circuit so the current in the branches must add up to the supply current. A1 A2 A3 A4 A 1 = A 2 + A 3 + A = A 4 A 4 = 4.0 ( ) A 4 = 1.5A Electricity and Energy Problems Book Pages 10 and 11 Questions 34 and P a g e

27 4.4 I know the relationships between; light level and resistance of an LDR, temperature and resistance of a thermistor. In a thermistor, an increase in temperature causes a decrease in resistance. Temperature up Resistance Down In an LDR, an increase in light level causes a decrease in resistance. Light level up Resistance Down 4.5 I know that an NPN transistor and an n-channel enhancement MOSFET are used as switches in electronic circuits You need to be familiar with two types of transistor; the npn transistor and the n-channel enhancement MOSFET. Both act as switches in electronic circuits. A switch opens or closes a gap in a circuit allowing a current to flow when closed. Base Collector Emitter For an NPN transistor applying 0.7V or more to the base switches the transistor on. This allows current to flow between the collector and the emitter. Gate Drain Source For a MOSFET applying 2.0V or more to the gate switches the transistor on. This allows current to flow between the drain and the source. Electricity and Energy Problems Book Page 24 Questions 62 and 63. Pages 25 and 26 Questions 65 and P a g e

28 4.6 I can explain the function of a transistor in switching circuits. Switching circuits involve using a change in the voltage across a component to switch on and off a transistor. When switched on this transistor then allows current to pass through to another device such as a motor, buzzer, relay, heater etc. Variation of Voltage with resistance in Series Circuits +12V R1 R2 V1 V2 In the series circuit shown V 1 + V 2 = 12V as voltages add up to the supply voltage If the resistance of R1 is increased the voltage V1 must also increase. If V1 has increased, then V2 must decrease if the total is to remain at 12V. 0V Electricity and Energy Problems Book Page 18 Question 46 When explaining switching circuits you will need to use your knowledge of thermistors or LDRs, transistors and voltages in series circuits. 27 P a g e

29 Example Switching Circuit 1 The following circuit will turn on a heater when the temperature reduces. The variable resistor adjusts the temperature at which the heater switches on. +5 0V 230 V R Relay Coil Relay Switch Heater The current flowing through the transistor switches on the relay and the heater. Thermistor 0V When the temperature reduces the resistance of the thermistor increases. As the resistance of the thermistor increases the voltage across the thermistor increases. When the voltage across the thermistor reaches 2.0V the mosfet transistor switches on. 28 P a g e

30 Example Switching Circuit 2 The following circuit switches on a buzzer when the light level increases. When the light level increases the resistance of the LDR decreases. As the resistance of the LDR decreases the voltage across the LDR decreases and the voltage across the variable resistor increases. When the voltage across the variable resistor reaches 0.7V the transistor switches on. 5 0 The current flowing through the npn transistor switches on the buzzer. The variable resistor adjusts the light level at which the buzzer switches on. Electricity and Energy Problems Book Page 25 Question 64 Pages 26 to 29 Question 67 to P a g e

31 4.7 I can use the relationships R T = R 1 + R 2 + and = R T R 1 R 2 to solve problems involving the total resistance of resistors in series and parallel circuits. 1 To solve problems in circuits it is usually necessary to find the total resistance in the circuit. Resistors in series When resistors are placed in series in a circuit the relationship R T = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + can be used to find the total resistence R T. This relationship can be extended to find the total resistance for any number of resistors in series. Example Find the total resistance in the series circuit shown. 1 Ω 2 Ω Solution R T = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + R 4 R T = Ω 8 Ω R T = 16Ω Check: In a series circuit the total resistance must be greater than the largest resistance. Resistors in parallel 1 When resistors are placed in parallel in a circuit the relationship = R T R 1 R 2 can be used to find the total resistance R T. This relationship can be extended to find the total resistance for any number of resistors in parallel. Example Find the total resistance in the parallel circuit shown. Solution 1 R T = 1 R R R 3 1 = 1 R T R T = 0.4 R T = R T = 2.5Ω 10 Ω 20 Ω 4.0 Ω Check: In a parallel circuit the total resistance must be less than the smallest resistance. 30 P a g e

32 Resistors in Parallel Shortcut When ALL the resistors in a parallel circuit have the same resistance, the total resistance is given by dividing the resistance of one resistor by the number of resistors. Example Find the total resistance of the circuit shown. Solution R T = 10 3 = 3.3Ω 10 Ω 10 Ω 10 Ω Electricity and Energy Problems Book Pages 12 and 13 Questions 36 to 39 Page 14 Question I can solve problems involving resistors in a combination of series and parallel. In more complicated resistor problems, you will be required to use the relationships for both series circuits and parallel circuits. Example Find the total resistance in the circuit shown. Solution Top branch R = = 8Ω Bottom branch R = = 8Ω Using the parallel resistor shortcut R T = 8 2 = 4Ω 5 Ω 4 Ω 3 Ω 4 Ω 31 P a g e

33 Example Find the total resistance of the circuit shown Solution Left side resistors 1 R = R = 6.7Ω 10 Ω 40 Ω Right side resistors R = 40 2 = 20Ω 20 Ω 40 Ω R T = = 26.7Ω Electricity and Energy Problems Book Page 14 Question P a g e

34 Key Area: Electrical Power Previous Knowledge Current Voltage Resistance Energy types; heat, light, sound, etc. Success Criteria 5.1 I can define electrical power in terms of electrical energy and time. 5.2 I can solve problems involving energy power and time using the relationship P = E t. 5.3 I can solve problems involving power, potential difference (voltage), current and resistance in electrical circuits. 5.4 I can state the effect of changing potential difference and resistance on the current in an power developed across components in a circuit. 5.5 I can select an appropriate fuse rating given the power rating of an electrical appliance. 33 P a g e

35 5.1 I can define electrical power in terms of electrical energy and time. Electrical power is defined as the electrical energy transferred per second. This can also be written as the relationship Energy in Joules (J) Power in Watts (W) P = E t Time in Seconds (s) 5.2 I can solve problems involving energy power and time using the relationship P = E t. Example A 60W light bulb is run for 2.0hours. Calculate the energy converted by the bulb in this time. Solution E =? P = 60W t = 2.0hours = = 7200s P = E t 60 = E 7200 E = E = 430,000J (432000J rounded to two significant figures) Electricity and Energy Problems Book Pages 30 and 31 Questions 73 to P a g e

36 5.3 I can solve problems involving power, potential difference (voltage), current and resistance in electrical circuits. In electrical circuits power can be calculated from any two of the following; current, voltage and resistance. There are three forms of the power equation P = IV Power in Watts (W) Current in Amperes (A) Voltage in Volts (V) Use this relationship when dealing with the quantities power, current and voltage. Power in Watts (W) P = V2 R Voltage in Volts (V) Resistance in Ohms (Ω) Use this relationship when dealing with the quantities power, voltage and resistance. Power in Watts (W) P = I 2 R Current in Amperes (A) Resistance in Ohms (Ω) Use this relationship when dealing with the quantities power, current and resistance. Example A 1500W iron runs using a mains voltage of 230V a. Find the current in the heating element of the iron. b. Find the resistance of the heating element of the iron. Solution a. P = 1500W V = 230V I =? Choose the relationship containing P, V and I. P = IV 1500 = I 230 I = I = 6.52A (6.522A) rounded to three significant figures. 35 P a g e

37 b. P = 1500W V = 230V R =? Choose the relationship containing P, V and R. P = V2 R 1500 = 2302 R R = R = 35.3Ω OR Choose the relationship V = IR 230 = R I = I = 35.3Ω Electricity and Energy Problems Book Pages 31 to 34 Questions 81 to I can state the effect of changing potential difference (voltage) and resistance on the current in an power developed across components in a circuit. Potential Difference, Current and Power Ohm s Law can be rearranged to give I = V R For a fixed value of resistance, increasing in the voltage will increase the current. Using the power relationship P = V2 R P = V2 R For a fixed value of resistance, increasing in the voltage will increase the power. Resistance, Current and Power From Ohm s Law I = V R For a fixed value of voltage, increasing in the resistance will decrease the current. Using the power relationship P = V2 R P = V2 R For a fixed value of voltage, increasing in the resistance will decrease the power. 36 P a g e

38 5.5 I can select an appropriate fuse rating given the power rating of an electrical appliance. Fuses protect the electrical wiring of an appliance from overheating when there is a fault. Faults in appliances can lead to short circuits. This causes a large current to flow through the fuse. The thin wire in the fuse will melt at its current rating e.g. 3A or 13A. Once melted the appliance is disconnected from the mains supply. The power rating of an appliance will be given on its rating plate. The power rating can be used to find the correct size of fuse for the appliance using the 720W rule. Use a 3A fuse for appliances rated up to 720W Use a 13A fuse for appliances rated over 720W Example Complete the table showing which size of fuse should be fitted to the appliances V 50Hz to 60Hz 1000W Model No. 354 Appliance 1500W Iron 50W Television 2000W Kettle Fuse size Solution Use the 720W rule Appliance Fuse size 1500W Iron 13A 50W Television 3A 2000W Kettle 13A Electricity and Energy Problems Book Page 32 Questions 101 to P a g e

39 Key Area: Specific Heat Capacity Previous Knowledge Units of temperature and heat energy. Success Criteria 6.1 I know that different materials require different quantities of heat to raise the temperature of a unit mass by one degree Celsius and can use this to define specific heat capacity. 6.2 I know that the temperature of a substance is a measure of the mean kinetic energy of its particles. 6.3 I can explain the connection between temperature and heat energy. 6.4 I can use the relationship E = cmδt to solve problems involving mass, heat energy, temperature change and specific heat capacity. 6.5 I can use the principle of conservation of energy to determine heat transfer. 38 P a g e

40 6.1 I know that different materials require different quantities of heat to raise the temperature of a unit mass by one degree Celsius and can use this to define specific heat capacity. To raise the temperatures of different materials of the same mass by 1 C, different quantities of heat are required. 386J 1kg 128J 1kg 480J 1kg Copper 386J is required to raise the temperature of 1kg of copper by a temperature of 1 C Lead 128J is required to raise the temperature of 1kg of lead by a temperature of 1 C Iron 480J is required to raise the temperature of 1kg of iron by a temperature of 1 C The energy required to heat 1kg of a substance by 1 C is called the specific heat capacity. The specific heat capacities of other materials are given in the data sheet at the end of these notes. 6.2 I know that the temperature of a substance is a measure of the mean kinetic energy of its particles. The particles (atoms or molecules) in all materials are in constant motion. As there is a range of speeds of the particles in any material so there is a range in the kinetic energy of the particles. The temperature of a substance is a measure of the mean kinetic energy of its particles. Solid 6.3 I can explain the connection between temperature and heat energy. Temperature is a measure of the mean kinetic energy of the particles in a substance. Heat energy is the total energy of the motion of all the particles in a substance. The total heat energy depends on the temperature, the mass and the specific heat capacity of the substance. e.g. Compare a cup of hot tea at 90 C and a swimming pool at 20 C. The mass of the tea is much smaller than the mass of the water in the swimming pool. So although the temperature of the tea is greater than the swimming pool the total energy in the swimming pool will be greater. Electricity and Energy Problems Book Page 54 Question P a g e

41 6.4 I can use the relationship E = mcδt to solve problems involving mass, heat energy, temperature change and specific heat capacity. Specific heat capacity (Jkg 1 C 1 ) Energy in Joules (J) E = cmδt Change in the temperature in degree Celsius ( C) Mass in kilograms (kg) Example Find the minimum energy required to heat a kettle containing 0.90kg of water at 20 C to boiling point at 100 C. Solution E =? m = 0.90kg c = 4180Jkg 1 C 1 from the data sheet ΔT = = 80 C E = cmδt E = E = J Electricity and Energy Problems Book Page 55 Questions 180 to P a g e

42 6.5 I can use the principle of conservation of energy to determine heat transfer. When a substance is heated, the energy supplied can be in a different form e.g. In an electrical heater, the energy supplied is electrical energy which it transformed into heat energy. The principle of conservation of energy can be used to solve problems involving energy being transformed from one type to heat. Example A 50W heater heats a 1.0kg block of copper for 2.0minutes. a. Find the temperature rise of the block. b. The actual temperature rise will be less than calculated in part a. Explain why. c. How could the arrangement be improved so that the temperature rise was closer to that obtained in part a. 12V Thermometer Power Supply Heater Solution a. P = 50W m = 1.0kg t = 2.0minutes = = 120s c = 386Jkg 1 C 1 from the data sheet Copper Block 300 Stop clock Calculate the energy supplied E = Pt E = E = 6000J E = cmδc 6000 = ΔT ΔT = ΔT = 16 C (15.54 C) b. As the block is heating, some energy will be lost to the environment. Less energy will remain in the block producing a smaller a temperature rise. c. Insulate the block. Electricity and Energy Problems Book Page 56 and 57 Questions 185 to P a g e

43 Key Area: Gas Laws and the Kinetic Model Previous Knowledge Units of force. How to calculate areas Success Criteria 7.1 I can describe how the kinetic model accounts for the pressure of a gas. 7.2 I can define pressure as p = F A 7.3 I can solve problems involving pressure, force and area. 7.4 I know the relationship between Kelvin and Degree Celsius temperature scales and the absolute zero of temperature. 7.5 I can convert between Degrees Celsius and Kelvin 7.6 I can explain pressure-volume in terms of the kinetic model and describe an experiment to verify this law. 7.7 I can explain pressure-temperature Law in terms of the kinetic model and describe an experiment to verify this law. 7.8 I can explain pressure-volume in terms of the kinetic model and describe an experiment to verify this law. 7.9 I can use the relationships = p 2 V 1 T to solve 1 T = V 2 p 1 V 1 = p 2 V 2 2 T 1 problems involving pressure, volume and temperature of a fixed mass of gas I can use the relationship p 1 V 1 = p 2V 2 to solve problems involving pressure, T 1 T 2 volume and temperature of a fixed mass of gas. p 1 V 1 42 P a g e

44 7.1 I can describe how the kinetic model accounts for the pressure of a gas. Particles of a gas are constantly moving at high speed in all directions. When placed in a container the particles will strike each other and the walls of the container. This will produce a force on the walls. The total force exerted on the walls divided by the area of the wall is called pressure. When the particles are moving faster they exert a greater force on the walls and so produce a higher pressure. When there are a greater number of particles striking the walls, there is a greater force produced giving a greater pressure. 7.2 I can define pressure as p = F A Pressure is force per unit area. p = F A Force in Newtons (N) Pressure in Pascals (Pa) Area in square metres (m 2 ) 7.3 I can solve problems involving pressure, force and area. Example A 10kg box of dimensions 5m by 2m by 1m is placed on the ground. a. Find the pressure exerted by the box on the ground. 10kg 5.0m 2.0m 1.0m b. Which side of the box should be placed on the ground to give the maximum pressure. 43 P a g e

45 Solution a. m = 10kg A = = 5.0m 2 g = 9.8Nkg 1 The force acting downwards is the weight w = mg w = = 98N w = 98N p = F A p = p = 20Pa (19.6Pa to 2 significant figures) b. As P = F the largest pressure will be obtained from the side with the smallest area. A Smallest area= = 2.0m 2 Electricity and Energy Problems Book Pages 43 and 44 Questions 133 to P a g e

46 7.4 I know the relationship between Kelvin and Degree Celsius temperature scales and the absolute zero of temperature. The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales have the same degree interval e.g. a change in temperature of 1 C is the same as a change in temperature of 1 K. The Kelvin scale starts at -273 C, which is the lowest possible temperature. Celsius Temperature Scale Kelvin Temperature Scale 100 C 373 K 0 C 273 K -273 C 0 K At 0 K (-273 C) particles in the material will have slowed to a point where their motion cannot be reduced any further. This is the lowest possible temperature and is called absolute zero. 7.5 I can convert between Degrees Celsius and Kelvin Converting between Degrees Celsius and Kelvin To convert from Kelvin to Degrees Celsius subtract 273 To convert from Degrees Celsius to Kelvin add 273. Example Convert a. 20 C to Kelvin b. 191K to Degrees Celsius Solution a = 293K b = 82 C Electricity and Energy Problems Book Pages 46 and 47 Questions 149 to P a g e

47 Volume Scale Pump 7.6 I can explain pressure-volume in terms of the kinetic model and describe an experiment to verify this law. Pressure-Volume (Boyle s Law) The equipment shown is used to verify Boyle s Law. The mass of the air is kept constant and temperature of the air is allowed cool to room temperature. The pressurised air is within a glass cylinder. The pump is used to change the pressure of oil in a reservoir which flows through to the glass cylinder pressurising the air. The scale on the side of the glass cylinder is used to measure the volume of the air. The graph obtained will show the curve shown in the graphs below. Pressurised Air Pressure Gauge Oil Reservoir For a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature, as the volume of a gas is increased the pressure decreases. Pressure (Pa) Volume (m 3 ) High volume, low volume Low volume, high pressure As the volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature is increased the frequency which the particles strike the wall of the container increases. This increased strike frequency increases the force on the walls. As p = F this increases A the pressure. 46 P a g e

48 7.7 I can explain pressure-temperature Law in terms of the kinetic model and describe an experiment to verify this law. Pressure-Temperature (Gay-Lussac's Law) The equipment shown is used to confirm Gay- Lussac s Law. The mass of the air is kept constant and the volume fixed. The hot water is allowed to cool. The temperature and pressure readings are taken at regular intervals. The graph obtained from pressure against temperature will give the straight line shown below. Pressure Gauge Thermometer Air Hot Water For a fixed mass of gas at constant volume as the temperature of the gas is increased the pressure increases. Pressure (Pa) Temperature ( C) Low temperature, low pressure High temperature, high pressure As the temperature of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume is increased the speed at which the particles strike the wall of the container increases. This increased strike speed increases the force on the walls. As p = F this increases the pressure. A 47 P a g e

49 Volume Scale 7.8 I can explain pressure-volume in terms of the kinetic model and describe an experiment to verify this law. Volume-Temperature (Charles Law) The equipment shown is used to confirm Charles Law. The mass of the air is kept constant. The mercury bead can move up or down the tube to keep the pressure of the air constant. The hot water is allowed to cool. The temperature and volume readings are taken at regular intervals. The graph obtained from volume against temperature will give the straight line shown below. Thermometer Hot Water Mercury bead Air in a narrow tube For a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure as the temperature of the gas is increased the volume increases. Volume (m 3 ) Temperature ( C) Low temperature, low pressure High temperature, high volume As the temperature of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure is increased the speed at which the particles strike the wall of the container increases. This increased strike speed increases the force on the walls and, as the pressure is constant, pushes the wall outwards increasing the volume. Electricity and Energy Problems Book Pages 52 and 53 Questions 167 to P a g e

50 7. 9 I can use the relationships p 1 V 1 = p 2 V p 1 2, = p 2 and V 1 = V 2 to solve T 1 T 2 T 1 T 2 problems involving pressure, volume and temperature of a fixed mass of gas. p 1 V 1 = p 2 V 2, This relationship is used when there is A fixed mass of gas A constant temperature p 1 T 1 = p 2 T 2 V 1 T 1 = V 2 T 2 This relationship is used when there is A fixed mass of gas A constant volume This relationship is used when there is A fixed mass of gas A constant pressure Note When using these relationships, temperatures must be in Kelvin. 49 P a g e

51 Example using p 1 V 1 = p 2 V 2 A bicycle pump compresses m 3 of air at a constant temperature. Initially the air is at an atmospheric pressure of Pa. This is compressed to a volume of m 3. Find the pressure to which the air is compressed. Solution p 1 = Pa p 2 =? V 1 = m 3 V 2 = m 3 p 1 V 1 = p 1 V = p p 2 = p 2 = Pa Electricity and Energy Problems Book Pages 44 and 46 Questions 141 to 148. Example using p 1 T 1 = p 2 T 2 A sealed flask filled with a gas at a room temperature of 20 C and an atmospheric pressure of Pa is heated to 80 C. Find the pressure in the flask when heated. Solution When using the gas law relationships temperatures must be converted to Kelvin. p 1 = Pa p 2 =? T 1 = 20 C = 293K T 2 = 80 C = 353K p 1 T 1 = p 2 T = p p 2 = p 2 = Pa Electricity and Energy Problems Book Pages 50 and 51 Questions 160 to P a g e

52 Example using V 1 T 1 = V 2 T 2 A balloon has a volume of m 3 at a temperature of 18 C and at an atmospheric pressure of Pa. Find the volume of the balloon when it is placed in a freezer at 22 C. Solution V 1 = m 3 V 2 =? T 1 = 18 C = 291K T 2 = 22 C = 251K V 1 T 1 = V 2 T = V V 2 = V 2 = m 3 Electricity and Energy Problems Book Pages 48 and 49 Questions 154 to P a g e

53 p 1 V 1 = p 2V 2 T I can use the relationship to solve problems involving pressure, volume and temperature of a fixed mass of gas. T 2 p The three gas laws can be combined into a single relationship 1 V 1 = p 2V 2. This T 1 T 2 relationship is only used when pressure, volume and temperature have all changed. Example using p 1 V 1 T 1 = p 2V 2 T 2 A weather balloon is launched at ground level and rises to a height of 18km. During this time both the pressure and the temperature of the gas in the balloon decreases. Use the information shown below to find the volume of the balloon at a height of 18km At Ground Level p 1 = Pa V 1 = 7.0m 3 T 1 = 15 C At 18km p 2 = Pa T 2 = 20 C Solution Convert the temperatures to Kelvin. T 1 = 15 C = 288K T 2 = 20 C = 253K p 1 V 1 T 1 = p 2V 2 T = V V 2 = V 2 = 82m 3 Electricity and Energy Problems Book Page 54 Question P a g e

54 Quantities, Units and Multiplication Factors Quantity Quantity Symbol Unit Unit Abbreviation Area A Metre Squared m 2 Charge Q Coulomb C Current I Ampere A Energy E Joule J Force F Newton N Gravitational field Newton per g strength kilogram Nkg 1 Height h metre m mass m kilogram kg Pressure p Pascal Pa Resistance R Ohm Ω Specific heat capacity c Joule per kilogram per degree Celsius Jkg 1 C 1 Speed v metre per second ms 1 Temperature T Degree Celsius C Time t Second s Voltage (potential difference) V Volt V Volume V Metre cubed m 3 Prefix Name Prefix Symbol Multiplication Factor Pico p Nano n 10 9 Micro μ 10 6 Milli m 10 3 Kilo k 10 3 Mega M 10 6 Giga G 10 9 Tera T You WILL NOT be given the tables on this page in any tests or the final exam. 53 P a g e

55 Relationships Sheet You will be given this sheet in all tests and the final exam. 54 P a g e

56 You will be given this sheet in all tests and in the final exam. 55 P a g e

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