# CHAPTER 2 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

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1 CHAPTER 2 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA This chapter in the book includes: Objectives Study Guide 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Basic Operations 2.3 Boolean Expressions and Truth Tables 2.4 Basic Theorems 2.5 Commutative, Associative, and Distributive Laws 2.6 Simplification Theorems 2.7 Multiplying Out and Factoring 2.8 DeMorgan s Laws Problems Laws and Theorems of Boolean Algebra

2 The electronic circuit which forms the inverse of X is referred to as an inverter X' = 1 if X = 0 X' = 0 if X = 1 Section 2.2, p. 35

3 AND Gate Note that C = 1 if and only if A and B are both 1. Section 2.2, p. 36

4 OR Gate Note that C = 1 if and only if A or B (or both) are 1. Section 2.2, p. 36

5 Switches If switch X is open, then we will define the value of X to be 0; if switch X is closed, then we will define the value of X to be 1. Section 2.2, p. 36

6 T = AB Section 2.2, p. 36

7 T = A+B Section 2.2, p. 37

8 F = AB + C F = [A(C + D)] + BE Figure 2-1: Circuits for Expressions (2-1) and (2-2)

9 Figure 2-2(b) shows a truth table which specifies the output of the circuit in Figure 2-2(a) for all possible combinations of values of the inputs A and B. Figure 2-2: 2-Input Circuit

10 Since the expression (A + C)(B + C) has the same value as AB + C for all eight combinations of values of the variables A, B, and C, we conclude that: AB + C = (A + C)(B + C) (2-3) Table 2-1: Truth Table for 3 variables

11 Basic Theorems The following basic laws and theorems of boolean algebra involve only a single variable: Operations with 0 and 1: Idempotent laws Section 2.4 (p. 39)

12 Involution law Laws of complementarity Each of these theorems is easily proved by showing that it is valid for both of the possible values of X. For example. To prove X + X = 1, we observe that if

13 If two switches are both labeled with the variable A, this means that both switches are open when A = 0 and both are closed when A = 1, thus the following circuits are equivalent: Section 2.4, p. 39

14 Section 2.4, p. 40

15

16

17 A in parallel with A can be replaced with a closed circuit because one or the other of the two switches is always closed.

18 Similarly, switch A in series with A can be replaced with an open circuit because one or the other of the two switches is always open.

19 Commutative and Associative Laws Many of the laws of ordinary algebra, such as commutative and associative laws, also apply to Boolean algebra. The commutative laws for AND and OR, which follow directly from the definitions of the AND and OR operations, are This means that the order in which the variables are written will not affect the result of applying the AND and OR operations. The associate laws also apply to AND and OR: Section 2.5 (p )

20 Table 2-2: Proof of Associative Law for AND

21 Two 2-input AND gates can be replaced with a single 3-input AND gate (a). Similarly, two 2-input OR gates can be replaced with a single 3-input OR gate (b). Figure 2-3: Associative Law for AND and OR

22 Distributive Law Using a truth table, it is easy to show that the distributive law is valid: In addition to the ordinary distributive law, a second distributive law is valid for Boolean algebra, but not for ordinary algebra: Proof of the second distributive law follows: Section 2.5 (p. 42)

23 Simplification Theorems The following theorems are useful in simplifying Boolean expressions: Section 2.6 (p )

24 Illustration of Theorem (2-14D): XY + Y = X + Y Section 2.6, p. 43

25 F = A(A + B) By Theorem (2-14), (X + Y ) = XY, the expression F simplifies to AB. Figure 2-4: Equivalent Gate Circuits

26 Example 1 Simplify Z = A BC + A This expression has the same form as (2-13) if we let X = A and Y = BC. Therefore, the expression simplifies to Z = X + XY = X = A. Example 2 Simplify (p )

27 Example 3 Note that in this example we let Y = (AB + C) rather than (AB + C) in order to match the form of (2-14D). Simplify (p )

28 Sum-Of-Products An expression is said to be in sum-of-products (SOP) form when all products are the products of single variables. This form is the end result when an expression is fully multiplied out. For example: Section 2.7 (p. 44)

29 Product-Of-Sums An expression is in product-of-sums (POS) form when all sums are the sums of single variables. It is usually easy to recognize a product-of-sums expression since it consists of a product of sum terms. For example: Section 2.7 (p. 45)

30 EXAMPLE 1: Factor A + B'CD. This is of the form X + YZ where X = A, Y = B', and Z = CD, so A + B'CD = (X + Y)(X + Z) = (A + B')(A + CD) A + CD can be factored again using the second distributive law, so A + B'CD = (A + B')(A + C)(A + D) EXAMPLE 2: Factor AB' + C'D AB + C D = (AB + C )(AB + D) = (A + C )(B + C )(A + D)(B + D) EXAMPLE 3: Factor C'D + C'E' + G'H C D + C E + G H = C (D + E ) + G H = (C + G H)(D + E + G H) = (C + G )(C + H)(D + E + G )(D + E + H) Factor (p )

31 (2-15): AB + CD E + AC E (2-17): A + B + C + D E Figure 2-5: Circuits for Equations (2-15) and (2-17)

32 (2-18): (A +B )(C + D + E)(A + C + E ) (2-20): AB C(D + E) Figure 2-6: Circuits for Equations (2-18) and (2-20)

33 DeMorgan s Laws DeMorgan s laws are easily generalized to n variables: For example, for n = 3, Section 2.8 (p. 47)

34 Note that in the final expressions, the complement operation is applied only to single variables.

35 Duality Given an expression, the dual is formed by replacing AND with OR, OR with AND, 0 with 1, and 1 with 0. Variables and complements are left unchanged. The dual of AND is OR and the dual of OR is AND: The dual of an expression may be found by complementing the entire expression and then complementing each individual variables. For example: Section 2.8 (p. 48)

36 LAWS AND THEOREMS (a) p. 55 Operations with 0 and 1: 1. X + 0 = X 1D. X 1 = X 2. X + 1 = 1 2D. X 0 = 0 Idempotent laws: 3. X + X = X 3D. X X = X Involution law: 4. (X')' = X Laws of complementarity: 5. X + X' = 1 5D. X X' = 0

37 LAWS AND THEOREMS (b) p. 55 Commutative laws: 6. X + Y = Y + X 6D. XY = YX Associative laws: 7. (X + Y) + Z = X + (Y + Z) 7D. (XY)Z = X(YZ) = XYZ = X + Y + Z Distributive laws: 8. X(Y + Z) = XY + XZ 8D. X + YZ = (X + Y)(X + Z) Simplification theorems: 9. XY + XY' = X 9D. (X + Y)(X + Y') = X 10. X + XY = X 10D. X(X + Y) = X 11. (X + Y')Y = XY 11D. XY' + Y = X + Y

38 LAWS AND THEOREMS (c) p. 55 DeMorgan's laws: 12. (X + Y + Z +...)' = X'Y'Z'... 12D. (XYZ...)' = X' + Y' + Z' +... Duality: 13. (X + Y + Z +...) D = XYZ... 13D. (XYZ...) D = X + Y + Z +... Theorem for multiplying out and factoring: 14. (X + Y)(X' + Z) = XZ + X'Y 14D. XY + X'Z = (X + Z)(X' + Y) Consensus theorem: 15. XY + YZ + X'Z = XY + X'Z 15D. (X + Y)(Y + Z)(X' + Z) = (X + Y)(X' + Z)

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